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tended in the first instance for the relief of the poor in whatever part of the town they might happen to reside. 2. That it would be proper to adopt the 2 alternative proposed in the resolution in all cases where the sub-committees considered it desirable. It will ordinarily be found that the inhabitants whose huts are proposed to be tiled, will willingly execute the improvement on being furnished with tiles, and in general we think the gradual appropriation by the sub-committees of the funds at our disposal to such cases, and those of great proverty, or in other words, a continuance of the plan hitherto followed by the sub-committees would renler, under all the circumstances, be the best course to adopt."

In these sentiments the General Committee concurs, and it is accordingly resolved to proceed as heretofore till the sum remaining in hand shall be entirely distributed on the plan originally laid down. Subjoined is a statement of what has been done and of the present amount of the funds.

J. GREGORY Voss, M. D.

Cal., Jan. 26, 1838. Secu. District Charitable Society.

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Subscriptions advertized

to 17th March 1837.. 13,654 10 Deduct receipt No. 106, twice inserted.....

50 0


of of of


0 0

11,736 14 07,16304,567 14 0 50 0 0

1,500 0 0 515 0 0

526 0
4,150 0 0 666 0 0 3,266 11 9

1,338 5 3 101 00 1,217 4 ol

3 38,445



1st Division.

2nd Division,.....
3rd Division,.. . . .
4th Division,...........

5th Division,.....

6th Division,....


0 0 1691



Government donation....
The Right Honorable Lord Auckland,
G. C. B. &c. &c....
Kirk Collections.....
St James' Church..
Old Church......

St. Stephen's Church, Dum-Dum

St. Peter's Church....

Select Vestry, lapsed pensions from John
Barretto's charity....
Howrah church,...
Principal Roman catholic church...
From John Barretto's charity through
Dr. St. Leger......


... ..

Dyce O. Sombre, Esq. through ditto
Colonel J. Caulfield..
Lieut, R. G. MacGregor...
Kesrchand Roybhun.
Seetaram Jewanram....
Poo unchund Moolchaund.
Haujaremul Hemutram....
W. P Grant, Esq....
Narain Persaud Bullubdoss..
Colonel D. McLeod
J. L. Russell, Esq..
R. J. Bagshaw, Esq.
T. Barlow, Esq..
Baboo Gudadhur Mitter..
H. Colquhoun, Esq..
Archd. Śconce, Esq...
Baboo Hurrochunder Bose....
Baboo Nundgopaul Bhuttachargee.
Baboo Rajchunder Sen....
Ramrutton Gupto...
Baboo Narain Dutt..
Baboo Nilmoney Gupto....
Baboo Ramcomar Bose...
Baboo Gunganarain..
Baboo Budden Mitter....
Baboo Koonjoobeharry Mitter.
Baboo Ruggooram Gossain.
J. S. Smith, Esq...
R. Scott Thomson, Esq.
Samuel Smith, Esq...
C. Brownlow, Esq...
Mr. T. E. Thompson.......
Messrs F. Burkinyoung and Co.....
Mr. W. Grant...
Mr. T. Ostell,.....
Mr. T. Black......
Mr. Lowrie.....
Mr. H. F. Schneider...
Mr. Jas. Jacob
Mr. L. Cooper...
Mr. W. Price
Mr. R. W. Allan...
Mr. J. Holmes......
Mr. R. Campbell.
Messrs. Hamilton and Co.
Mr. T. Allardice
Messrs. Pitta, Lattey and Co.
Messrs. Pittar and Co....
Baboo Gopaul Mullick.....
Mr. W. W. Robinson.....
A. D. Parker, Esq
Cash through R. S. Thomson, Esq..




.... ....

R. J. Colvin, Esq..
C. Dearie, Esq.....

H. Moore, through MacIntyre & Co..


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Definition of Derajat.

1st. The country on the right bank of the Indus, below the salt range, till that river is joined by the waters of the Punjab, is known by the name of Derajat. It is so designated from the two principal towns in the tract, Dera Ghazee Khan, and Dera Ismæl Khan. Derajat being the Arabic plural of the word Dera. The lower part of the tract, bears the local name of Sinde, and the upper that of Damun (or border) from its bordering on the mountains of Sooleeman. The country itself is flat and in many places fertile, particularly in the vicinity of the two Deras; but to the westward of the river, even at a distance of a few miles, there are no wells, and the soil is entirely dependant on rain, and water from the hills, without which, there is no crop. On the opposite bund of the river in Leia, the Indus overflows to the east, and the land which is exceedingly rich, yields heavy crops, and is known by the name of "Cuchec." From Leia the great ferry of Daheeree conducts the merchant beyond the Indus into Deerajat, and as the mountains are cross ed by caravan route that lead to Cabool and Candahar, and as it is here that the greatest of the Indian Caravans assemble before passing to the west, the Derajat is invested with a high degree of cominercial importance.





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Co.'s Rs. 47940

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Secy. Dist. Char. Socy.

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nature of the traffic will be best explained by observing
that the custom-house books shew, that 5,140 camels
laden with merchandize passed up this year, exclusive
of those carrying the tents and baggage of the people,
these are rated at the enormous number of 24,000
camels, the Nasseers having 17,000, the Meeankbly
4,000, and the Kharoutee 3,000. The tract which they
pass, leads by broken rugged roads, or rather water-
courses of the Goomul, through the wild and moun-
tainous country of the Wuzeerees, but the Lohanees
have arms and numbers to protect their property, and
that of strangers. They all reach Cabool and Can-
dahar by the middle of June, in sufficient time to dis-
patch their investments to Bokhara and Herat, and in
the end of October as winter approaches, they descend
with the same arrangements into the plain of the Indus,
bringing horses, dyes, fruits, and productions of Cabool,
in return for the goods of India and Britain. The
channel of trade is ancient, for in the year A. D. 1505,
we find the Emperor Baber campaigning in the Derajat,
and stating that he had fallen in with Lohanee merchants,
and plundered them of "a great quantity of white cloth,
aromatic drugs, sugar (both candied and in powder) and
horses," which are the very articles of trade in these
days, though 332 years have since elapsed. It is due to
the Emperor to state that if he then plundered, in his
own difficulties, he afterwards cloathed the Lohanee
merchants in dre-ses of honor, when firmly established
on the throne of Cabool.

Other Caravan routes from India.

Caravan of the Lohanees, Camels, &c.,- Its Route. 2d. From Calcutta, by Lucknow, Delhi, Hansee and Bhawulpore: from Bombay, by Pallee, Becaneer, Bhawulpore, Multán: from Umrutsir by Jung and 3d. Having given the routes of the Lohanee caraLeia, and from Dhera Ghazee Khan itself on the south, van, I ought now to note the whole of the other roads by Bhawulpore; all these routes join at the small town leading from India to Cabool, but it would be impossible of Drabund, about 30 miles west of Dera Ismael Khan. to do justice to the subject by any verbal description. At this point, commences the well known road by the There are three great roads leading from India, the first Goomul river to the pass of Goolairee, which is always by Lahore and Attock, the next from the Darajat (altraversed by the Lohanee Afghans, some of them ready described) and the last by the Bolan pass, from enter the mountains higher up west of Tak, and also by Shikarpoor to Candahar, intermediate to these lines lie an inferior pass named "Cheeree," lower down; but all various routes, some of which have been used even by eventually join, about 45 miles from Drabund. These large bodies of armed men, and, though, therefore, very people are pastoral and migratory, and many of them important, need not detain us here, as they are not at preproceed annually into India to purchase merchandize, sent used by the merchants. I may only observe of that and all assemble here in the end of April, their families leading from Dera Ghazee Khan across the Sukhee Surhaving wintered on the banks of the Indus, to pass into wur pass, by Boree, to Candahar, that it has been used Khorasan for the summer. They effect this in fixed in modern times by the kings of Cabool, to supply the order by three divisions or "Kirees," which, I believe, luxury of mangoes, and that I met persons who had seen simply mean migrations, and these bear the names of the fruit arrive by it at Candahar from the Indus, in 8 Nasseer Kharoutee, and Meeankhly, which is that of or 9 days. The climate of Goree is described in very the branches of the tribes conducting them. The first favorable terms, both by Mr. Elphinstone, and all the is the most numerous, and with it, go from 50 to 60,000 natives I have interrogated; and by this route Baber head of sheep, but it is with the last, that indoo mer-passed up to Ghuzni with his force after the campaign of His horse suffered from the

want of grain, but as a caravan route, this seems not about one lac of rupees in value. The dye is inferior inferior to the Golairee pass, and only to have been to that procured in Bhawul Khan's country, but it is deserted of late years; and at the present hour is used cheaper and has a ready sale ia Cabool and Bokhara, by couriers Cossids to bring speedy information to and besides being nearer at hand. The cotton of Dera from India. From Dera Ismael Khan, north to Pesha- Ghazee Khan is superior, being soft in staple, 25,000 wur, there is no direct traffic. The roads are bad, the maunds are procurable, it is at present exported. Sugar people are predatory. From Dera Ghazee Khan, south is cultivated, but in small quantities, and only of late by Dajel and Her and, there are roads leading over low years.-The place is rich in grain, the wheat and barley hills to Bag Dadur, and the Bolan pass, which have are superior, but the rice is red and indifferent. The been used by large Caravans within these 25 years. price of grain in June 1837, was as follows, the currency Dera Ghazee Khan, indeed, and shikarpoor, as I stated being that of Shooja Ool Moolk, and much the same when writing on that mart, are always spoken of by as the Company's rupee, and the maund as that of the people, as two gates of Khorassan. Shikarpoor already described.

Dera Ghazee Khan described.

Rice per maund of 40 seers, 80 rupees

to a seer...........

Rice, 2nd sort, 1 maund...
Wheat, 1 maund....

Gram 70 seers......

4th. In a neighbourhood so advantageously situated, the merchant exports the native productions of the soil with profit, and the manufacturer converts them, and the imports from other countries into cloth which accompanies these and the foreign goods that pass through it in transit. Dera Ghazee Khan itself is a manufacturing town, but it is surpassed by Multan and Bhawulpoor, which are in its neighbourhood; on these two marts I shall be silent, as their commerce has engaged the atten. tion of Lieutenant Leech, whose reports will convey every and the fullest information of Dera Ghazee Khan. I need only speak at one time, its trade with the west and even with east, was brisk,and though it does not now exhibit its former prosperity, from the great influx of Under Cabool, Dera Ghazee Khan yielded a yearly British goods, its native manufactures are yet healthy revenue of about 12 lacs of rupees, it now produces 81 and thriving. It is celebrated for its goolbuddens and The country which gives this includes the distret of or 9 lacs, and that only within these two or three years. duriaees, or striped and plain silken cloths, which being Sungur on the north, and Hunand Dajel on the south, sought for, and admired, are yet annually exported to also Bachee across the Indus. It is farmed to the same Lahore and to Sinde, and considered to surpass those of every other country. To the east it sends its silks, deriv-person who is now Governor of Multan, and it is iming the raw material from Bokhara, and the west. To the proving daily. The number of villages around Dera west it sends its cotton, and the greatest of its exported all peopled by Mahomedans, and in the town of Dera Ghazee Khan is exceedingly numerous; they are nearly manufactures, is coarse white cloth, which is sent to Khoras Ghazee Khan the two tribes are about equal, there san, and yet stands its ground with English cloth, as far as demand goes, though far its inferior in quality. The being in it 125 Hindoo temples and 110 mosques, great demand for British calicoes has decreased by one of this leviable in Dera Ghazee, ou all sales of cloth are, I and small, every description inclusive.-The duties year; on this account last year; the sales effected amounted to 50,000 rupees, and for this, it is under 24,000. Chintzes of different descriptions, with soosee, bafta, and some coarse loongees, complete the list. There are no woollen manufactures. The value of all these may amount to about one and a half, or two lacs, of rupees, and the greater part is exported. A coarse kind of cutlery, swords, scissors, knives (such as are used by sailors) is made at Dera Ghazee Khan and countries around it, by good roads except those to the exported. The bazar consists of about 1,600 shops; west, where it is necessary to qualify that term: a list of 530 of which are engaged in weaving and selling cloth, the marts or places of note may not be useless, and I may 1 annex a list of them. The Town has a prosperous prefix to it that goods of every description, quitting appearance, which is a together attributed to the protec- Dera Ghazee Khan, pay an ad valorem duty of 24 pertion of Monsieur Ventura, who was lately in charge of cent. to Asnec, Hunund, Cutch Gaudava, Mithen, this district. It may have a population of 25,000 people. Shikarpoor. Bhawulpoor, Khyrpoor, Ullah Yar, HyderaIt is said to have been built by a Belooch about 300 bad, Multan, Lahore, and Umrutsir, all merchandize years since, and its name long fluctuated between whether cloth or groceries, is taxed in this manner. But "Ghazee Khan," and " Hajee Khan." It was com- since the most important route in this line is that of the pletely subject to the crown of Cabool, and fell into the great caravans to Cabool, I shall particularize the hands of the Sheiks, about 25 years ago. They farmed duties there leviable. At the outset, the first charge is as it to Bhawul Khan, who had no interest in protecting it, above. and his officers were guilty of gross extortion, but since it was resumed in 1832, it has greatly recovered itself.

pues per rupee, which paid at the Custom-house (Chu-
led the old tax mohsool (qudeemee) and paid by citizens,
bootra) immediately after the transaction. This is cal-
-foreigners pay
Cammunication and Transits to and from Cabool, &c.
6th. Dera Ghazee Khan communicates with all the

Productions, Prices, Revenues of Dera Ghazee khan.

5th. The country around Dera Ghazee Khan is very rich; the town is plesantly situated in a flat country about four miles from the Indus and surrounded by gardens and lofty trees, among which the date predomi nates. It is said indeed that there are 80,000 date trees around Dera. By far the most valuable production of the place is Indigo, 2,000 maunds of which were this year exported to the west. I am informed that this is the full resource of the district. The best soit now sells for 65 rupees per maund, the next for 50, and the most

Dal, or Mohree, 2 maunds.
Moong, or Mash, 50 seers..
Ghee, per maund....
Oil, per ditto....


Salt per ruja, or piece of 1 maund 25 3
Native salt, 2 maunds.....
Goor or molasses...
Sugar candy per maund...

Ad valorem.....

At Sungur, per maund
At Kot Tuga, per camel....
At Draband..do...


3 Rupees. 2 to 1


At Tuk Sewaree Khan ditto..
At Sooleemad Khuel..ditto..
At Ghuznee, per camel......
shi" or ear tax per camel......
At the gate of Cabool "Goo-

31 26

2 per cent.
13 annas.
2 rupees.

2 ditto.
2 ditto.

1 ditto.

8 ditto.

2 ditto.

Landed at the caravanseries of Cabool, one in forty is taken in pieces of cloth; Indigo, and groceries are compounded for, at 20 rupees per camel load. This is the whole duty of the road. In effecting sales, a brokerage

caravansaria hire and porterage. Cabool the duties are as follows on Ad valorem................ At Drabun per muu of every kind (ifto any but a Shikapooree, the charge is 10 rupees)........

6 rupees.

At Dera Ghazee Khan per man if advanced from this.... 10 annas. At Bhawul Khan's frontier per camed......

and grain than is required, and it is therefore shipped for Dera Ghazee Khan, which contributes still further to keep down the price of provistons at the town. The salt of Kala Bagh a also used all along this line of the river, and brought down by boats, but a few cargoes of it supply the population. The pilgrim boats likewise take in a little cargo, for which I find there is a regulated charge, but as this is unknown to Government, it may be considered a kind of smuggling. So organized however 3 rupees. is it, that a weight of 8 maunds may be sent down to the At Bhawulpoor (though the u-ual following rates-Dira Ghozee Khan to Mittheu 2 ruroute here is via Multan)...... 3 to 5 per cent. pees, to Shikapoor or Roree 5 rupees, to Schun 7 ruNothing therefore is more complicated in appearance pees, to Hyderabad 9 rupees, and to Gora Baree 12 ruthan these duties; and one is surprized at the novel pees, all this is indicative that there is a channel of trade mode of weighing cloth and levying duties accordingly. by the Indus. The only instance however of upword The Hindoo merchant of Shikarpooree, it will be seen, communication, of a late date, is in a Shikarpooree merhas a great advantage over the Mahomedan, which arises chant freighting a vessel with molasses or goor from Dera from its being advisable to give encouragement to a great Ghazee, to Dera Ismael Khan, about four years ago, dealer. The duties in conveying goo is to Khorassan and bringing salt in return. The cold season was selec are heavier than in returning, probably from the greater tel, and the voyage performed in 15 days, the distance value of the articles: the expenses of an investiment to, being about 160 miles; the down ward voyage occupied and from Dera Ghazee Khan, to Cabool, and Candahar, four days. The speculation was profitable, and the sime are rated at 35 per cent. the profit in excess is calculated merchant has since forwarded goor to Shikarpoor. At the at 25 per cent, an! this is generally realized, From opposite season it may be as well to state, that the voyDera Ghazee Khan, to Drabund, 90 coss, the hire of a age from Mitthen to Dera Ismael Khan, was male in camal is 3 rupees; from that to Cabool, it depends upon 19 days, during May and June. The road distance, the supply, varying from 20 to 30 rupees per head. is about 250 miles, perhaps a quarter more by the river, and as the swell is n ar its height, the result in a commercial point of view, is encouraging. In navigating the Indus above Mitthen it will not be omitted in the calculations of the merchant, that both men, and boats may be hired for one half the sum paid in Sinde, The contrary of this is stated in my printed work, and I am glad of an opportunity to correct the error after finding



Weavers of white cloth
Weavers of silk..

Cleaners of cotton ...
Sellers of cotton
Dealers in grain

Boot and shoe makers
Ditto Hindoos..

Of Dera Ismael Khan, its Trade, Revenue, &c.
7th. Dera Ismael Khan, is in these parts next in
importance to Dera Ghazee, but is is only a third of its
size, and labours under disa Ivantages from its position.
About 12 years ago, the town was washel into the
Indus, and on a new site about three miles from the river,
the inhabitants have again fixed themselves. Till lately
the place was held by a Mahomedan Chief, who lai it out by actual experience.
out the new town with order and regularity, having
wide streets and a good bezar, but the Sheiks posses-el
themselves of Dera Ismael, a year ago, and are
likely to work out his plans of improvement, as yet the
houses are built of sunburned brick, and the town has an
deserted look, but it is said to be a place of much stir
and bustle in the winter, when the Athgans return from
Khorassan to its neighbourhood. There is a large cara-
vansarai in it, where they transact their business and
dispose of much of their goods, for Dera Ismael is their
bazar town. It contains 518 shops, but there are no
native manufactures here, as in the Lower Dera. The
wool of the Lohanee sheep is not sold here, but in Cabool, Cap makers
where an agent, if dispatched, might procure the article
in abundance, and, at the same time, the means of
transporting it. The transit of coarse white cloth from
the Punjab through Dera Ismael to Drabund is great,
amounting to no less than 3,000 camel loads a year
Each package contains about 600 yards of cloth, the guz
and English yard being the same, so that we have an
export of 1,800,000 yards of this fabric. It is manufac-
tured at Meeugana, Jung, &c. also at Rohan, and
Dealers in ivory, glass, &c. mumyaur.
might be made in Britain. Most of these goods are cros-
Black smiths
sed at the ferry opposite Dera Ismael, and pay much
heavier duties than lower down; 2 rupees being ex
Cooper smiths..
acted on every maund of weight, while 7 to 10 annas
is the demand at Kaheeree, which readily accounts
for the caravans crossing at that ferry. The revenue of
Dera Ismael Khan amounts to 44 lacs of rupees per an-
num, of this 2 lacs and 8,000 are derived from the taxes
and town duties from Kaheeree south, to Eesa Khyl
Painters ......
north, and the rest from the lands subject to Dera Ismael
Khan. Grain and the necessaries of life are more expen-Dealer in salt and mate
Dealer in tobacco and bang
sive than in the Lower Dera, the supplies are also re-
ceived by the river from Murwut which is a grain country.
Water Communications-Boat-hire.

Dealers in vegetables..

Dealers in fruits
Dealers in milk.
Grocers passaree


On returning from
quitting the city.
14 per cent.

8th. The Derajat, as I have stated lies along the Indus, and the advantages of the river are so obvious a even not to have escaped the people. The productives soil of Sungur, 50 miles to the north, under the hills


Sellers of cloth..

Sellers of silk..






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Camp at Attock, 5th August, 1837,

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Nos. of Shops.

Pipe sellers....
Paper sellers


Shops shut up and consequently unknown

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Total..1,597 Dera Ghazee Khan, June 13, 1837.



We have been informed, that a petition, very nu- Bengallee as well as in Persian, the only difference being merously signed, the signatures being native, has been that he will be about three times as long in taking down recently, within the last day or two sent in to Govern- the evidence in Bengallee, as it would have taken him ment. The prayer of which is that measures be taken to do it in Persian, with the additional advantage of for the institution of schools to be devoted exclusively there being fewer persons capable of understanding what to the study of Sanscrit, as a foundation for the for- he may have written. In either case the poorer classes, mation of one general language, consolidating or super- as it appears to us, gain nothing by the change. The ceding the various dialects of Bengallee which now ob- proceedings are lengthened by it; the Mahommedan potain. This petition, which has been handed over by pulation alarmed and displeased at it; and the labours Government to the Education Committee, is worthy, of the officials about trebled by it, and rendered less we understand, of serious attention, from the great num- efficient withal. Under the present system, by which of its signatures, amounting, we are told, (for we have the exertions of the Civilian are taxed, beyond the not seen it) to thousands, and must be taken therefore power of performance in very many offices, all that he to be the expression of opinion prevalent with respect could do is to exercise an active supervision over his to the great evil now to be deplored, i. e. the want in subordinates-for the most part of course natives-as it Bengal of one fixed and generally understood language, is, it would appear, that with all the brevity and simpli having one known character and common to all classes city of the Persian it is generally admitted, that he canof the inhabitants of this vast and fertile district. The not check the propensities of his Umlah, &c. to deceive answer of the Government to this petition will be of him, and the suitors. How, we will ask, will this much interest. Here is a clear admission that in the supervision in the superior be carried on, when he shall opinion of many, there is an absolute and crying demaud come to have the proceedings of his Court, written in for a national language; we presume, however, that the Bengallee or Oordoo? by which his labours of inobjects of the petitioners will not be carried into effect; spection will be increased nearly threefold; and his and for many reasons. The new language founded attention will be called to instruments, and the minutes on the Sansert, or rather regulated by it, and consisting of the transactions of the day, written in a character inas we presume it would of a consolidation of the Ben- finitely more complicated than the Persian, and in which gallec dialects, improved by a larger infusion of Sanscrit in nineteen cases out of twenty, we will venture to say, than is now traceable in the Bengallee, would be to the and we speak on the information of persons well knowmany an unknown tongue, and would be open to all ing the fact, the Civilian himself, is less well read than the objections now raised against the Persian on this in Persian. The correspondent of the urkaru, X. Y. Z. score and to more besides. The Persian is not an un- to whose letter the latter of these observations in some known tongue; it is on the contrary as familiar as sort apply, has one singular enough argument, upon Hindoostanee, to a very large portion of the educated which he grounds his advocacy of the abolition of the Hindoos, and to all or almost all the Mahommedan Persian, i. e. that any deficiency, or omis-ions or missubjects of Empire. To all that portion, in short, of the takes in a Persian document may be concealed from the innabitants of the country likely from their position, rank facility of changing one letter or phrase into another. and property to constitute the principal suitors in the Now if the credit of the functionary is to depend upon Courts of Justice, or likely to be called on to fill situa- the falsifying of documents, at his pleasure or necessity, tions as officials in these Courts, The only class not to answer the exigencies of a particular case, and that likely to know Persian are the lower classes of traders, this system of substitution and forgery is the general rule and the ryots, by far the most numerous, of course, but of conduct of officials; it appears to us a matter of ininasmuch as the new language proposed by the petiti-difference in what language the proceedings of the oners would be a sealed book to them, to the same Courts are carried on; because roguery of this sort can extent that Persian now is, we do not see what they be practised in any written character, whether written would gain by the change. And to the Mahommedan in- in a sort of short-hand like the Persian, or in good habitants, the substitution of the new language for Per- honest vernacular, such as English or Bengallee. sian would be a positive evil, as great, as the present And as the Bengallee character is less generally known measure of Government, the substitution of the verna-than the Persian, we presume detection would be more cular in Bengal for Persian. To the poorer class of the difficult. This argument, however, if such it must be population of Bengal, we fear that the present state of called, is surely an argument from a particular cireducation considered, the language of the Courts of Jus- cumstance, to a general conclusion. Persian documents tice must for a long time to come, remain an unknown may have been falsified in some few instances; tongue, be it Persian, or be it an improved modification but the general rule we must presume is that they of the Bengallee on the Sanscrit model. We are told, are not falsified; and to make any thing of this moreover, that the people themselves if polled, would be argument it ought to be shewn, that public funcfound perfectly indifferent to the change. And that to tionaries generally, are in the habit of concealing the majority, the Roobicarry, &c. of a Court of Justice, gross negligence, by the alteration of the proceedis about as intelligible in Persian as it would be in ings of their Courts, after they have been regisBengallee. The knowledge of the written language in tered and signed; and that the practice will be the majority of the poor classes being confined to the put a stop to only by the substitution of the vernacular limited, familiar ani colloquial phraseology, appertain for Persian, which vernacular cannot by the same ing to the dealings and transactions of their particular falsifying process be made to exhibit the same result, calling and comprehending necessarily but a small i. e. the falsification of a document. This is, if we unsection of the words, expressions, and idiom constituting derstand the correspondent of the Hurkaru, the amount the language itself. That the result therefore of their of his argument in favour of the vernaculars; and we evidence should be taken down in Persian in a Court of need not say, that to us it appears in the light of Justice, or written out in Bengallee or Oordoo must be, nonsence. We do not at all question, that under the we suppose, a matter of indifference to them; they must the present system, the ends of justice have frequently under any circumstances confide in the fidelity of the been frustrated by designing officials; but that the usscribe, without having any control over his version of of the Persian is to be held the cause, we cannot adtheir deposition; and if the scribe be disposed to falsi- | mit-corruption must be laid to the door of the sys

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