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Baboo Sreenauth Bremah. Read a letter from Mr. | Supreme Government in the legislative department to F. J. Halliday, officiating secretary to the Government that effect. of Bengal, in reply to the application for a copy of the draft resumption Law.
Resolved, an application to be made with reference to the suggestion contained in the above letter to the
To the Editor of the Bengal Hurkaru.
the climate, and I am directed to submit to your Honour
Sir, I am directed by the committee for promoting in Council, correct copies of the circular, which the the importation of American Ice, to forward to you the committee issued, and the answers which they have accompanying resolutions, which will, of themselve, received. The letter of the committee distinctly stated explain the object proposed, and the circumstances in the object which they had in view, and that the opinwhich it has originated. Should you deem it right to ions were to be submitted to the Government. Of aid the views of the committee, may I solicit the favour the twenty-two answers which they received, twenty-one of your transmitting to me your opinion in writing for treat a permanent supply of ice in Calcutta, as of great the purpose of its being submitted to the Government. importance to the public health.
I have the honour to remain, Sir, your obedient servant, LONGUEVILLE CLARKE, Chairman of the committee. Esplanade Row, July 1837.
Rosolved. It appearing that Mr. Tudor ences great difficulty in procuring vessels to carry cargoes of ice, and for which he is obliged to pay double freight, the importation might be greatly promoted, if the Government would offer an encouragement to ship-owners by a remission of port duties, a plan which has been successfully adopted by the authorities at Havannah.
TO THE HONOURABLE THE PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL
HONOURABLE SIR,-I have been directed by the committee for encouraging the importation of American ice into Calcutta, to solicit most respectfully the aid of the Government, in promoting the undertaking.
The committee to meet again this day fortnight.
It was about a year ago, that the committee from carefully watching the receipts and expenditure of the speculation, began to entertain fears, that the sale of ice in Calcutta might not remunerate Mr. l'udor, its spirited experi-importer; they believed that the undertaking might be injured, and not benefitted, by raising the price, as that would diminish the sale, and if the sale were not rapid, loss would be inevitable, from the perishable nature of the article. The committee were aware, that the Government of Havannah had for the last eighteen years, secured, a permanent supply of ice for that settlement, by giving Mr. Tudor a monopoly for its importation, and remitting all port and pilotage duties on vessels
Resolved. That the true ground for soliciting the Government to offer this bounty to vessels landing ice,
is the opinion of the medical profession of its vast importanding a cargo of ice; and they were also aware, that ance to the public health, especially in cases of fever this plan originated at the suggestions of the medical profession. It was under these circumstances the comso incidental to this climate. mittee proposed to adopt a similar course, but forbore Resolved.-Some medical gentlemen of the first making any application until they found Mr. Tudor eneminence, having offered to favour the committee with tertaining doubts of his own success. Mr. Tudor has their opinions in writing on the great importance of a never been apprized of the fears, or intentions of the permanent supply of ice to the public health, that a committee, but these fears have been realized, by the circular be addressed to all the members of the profes-following paragraph in a letter from that gentleman, dated sion at the presidency, soliciting their opinions on the the 15th of February: "The profits at best are very subject, for the purpose of being submitted to the Gov-small-expenditures, of every kind, very heavy. After a ernment in aid of the intended application by the com-shipment of twelve cargoes, aud the consumption of four
years of time, the debtor side of the ice account to India exceeds the credit side, and it is still a business of hope and expectations."
The grounds on which the committee urge this request are, that the importation of ice is of the greatest importance to the public health, and that the success of the undertaking is endangered, unless assistance be afforded.
Hurkaru, June 7.].
The committee are well aware of the unremitting attention bestowed by Government to the great object of public health, and of the vast sums expended for this purpose. They therefore believe, that if they can clear ly establish that the importation of ice is of immense Consequence to the health of this great capital, that the assistance which they seek will meet with favourable
The committee have obtained the opinions of all the principal medical practitioners in Calcutta, regarding
Under these circumstances the committee respectfully submit to your Honour in Council, that the opinions of so many eminent medical men, decidedly establish, how important it is to the public health of the capital to secure a permanent supply of ice. The experience of the committee, and the statement of Mr. Tudor, shew that after four years' trial, and expenditure has not been covered by the receipts, and they are fully convinced, that increasing the price would not afford a remedy. It is under the latter circumstances, and on the former ground, the committee venture to appeal to the Government for aid.
The chief obstacles which Mr. Tudor has to encoun
ter, are the objections of ship-owners to carry cargoes of ice, and the very high freight which they charge. It appears to the committee that these difficulties might be in a great measure removed, by the adoption of the plan pursued at Havannah, and if the port and pilotage charges were remitted to eight vessels every year, pro. vided they landed not less that one hundred tons of ice, ship-owners would be desirous of taking the cargoes
'But while the committee, in the best exercise of that Government can seldom have a more favourable such judgment and experience as they possess, ven- opportunity of conferring a most incalculable benefit ture to offer this suggestion, they trust that it may not opon the inhabitaats of all ranks and conditions of this deprive the undertaking of the benefit of any other plan, town and neighbourhood, than by holding out every which may seem to your Honour in Council more expe- inducement for the importation, and the reduction for the price of ice.
I have the honour to remain, with great respect,
The substitutes to which physicians and surgeons have for ages been in the habit of resorting, for the relief of many of the formidable diseases of this country, are not to be compared in efficiency to the pure water ice; besides which, they were always very limited in their use or application, in consequence of the expen
SIR,-In reply to your letter of this day's date, call-sive nature of the materials of which cold or cooling mixing for my opinion as to the importance of a permanent tures were formed. supply of ice to the public, I beg to state, that I cousider it would be a very great blessing indeed, if the use of the commodity, could be placed within reach of the poorer classess of the community.
I do not speak of this article as a luxury merely, but as a most important and essential remedial agent in a vast variety of diseases, both medical and surgical.
To LONGUEVILLE CLARKE, Esq., &c.
By relieving the vessels importing ice to this town, of the various duties to which they were now liable, Government will confer a lasting boon upon all classes of the community of this place.
A press of business obliges me to be succinct in my It is not the higher ranks of Europeans and rich natives reply. As an article of luxury, I need not expatiate alone who use ice; on the contrary, 1 have been upon the use of ice. It lies more within my province to credibly informed, that the greater number of purchas declare, that the article is a therapeutic agent of im-ers of the first cargo of ice, were dirgees who crowded mense value in the treatment of a variety of ailments that to the ice house every afternoon, to provide themselves urgently demand the aid of the surgeon, no less than of with a small portion, ere they commenced their seven the physician. This is especially the case on occasions miles' walk home. where the preparation of artificial cold mixtures, would be operose, incur delay-be inaccessible to many on account of the expense, &c. and after all, the substance not be suited for direct application as well internally as to Calcutta, 2d August, 1837. various parts of the external surface of the body, as ice.
To L. CLARKE, Esq. Chairman I. C. SIR,-In compliance with the request contained in your circular, 1 have to state that cold is undoubtedly a most powerful remedial agent in many cases of medical, surgical, and obstitrical diseases, and ice, affords an easy expeditious, safe, very convenient and effectual means of applying it. In my opinion, in this point of view, ice is as valuable, as it is, as a comfort and luxury, in this torrid climate, and even in these respects it promotes health and makes life worthy having.
Purposely omitting all but affections of immineat
head, and burning heat, the application of ice lessens vas-
I have the honour to be, dear Sir, yours faithfully,
I have the honour to be, Sir, your most obedt. servt.
To L. CLARKE, Esq. Chairman I. C.
I am, Sir, your most obdt. servt.
S. NICOLSON, Surg. Genl. Hosp.
FREDERICK CORBYN, Garrison Surgeon.
Chowringhee, 1st August, 1837,
SIR,-In reply to your circular of the 20th ultimo, which incessant occupation has hitherto prevented me from attending to, I have no hesitation in stating it as my opinion, that a permanent supply of ice in such a climate as this, would not only be one of the greatest luxuries, but one of the greatest benefits, which could be conferred on a large portion of the population of Calcutta. Where disease in every form is so fearfully rapid in its progress, and so frequently attended with great determination of blood to the head, &c. the advantages of having at all times at command, a remedy of the greatest efficacy in subduing high vascular excitement, need only be mentioned to be duly appreciated. I might enter much into detail on such a subject, but the expression of an opinion, being all you require, I shall conclude by hoping your committee may succeed in persuading Government to hold out every induce of so much importance to us all. ment in their power, to the accomplishment of an object,
To L. CLARKE, Esq., Chairman, Ice Committee. SIR,-With reference to your letter of the 20th ulti
use of ice in a medical point of view to the community of the cholera patient, has also been relieved by it, of of Calcutta, I beg, in reply, to state, that I consider it of which I have been witness to many instances. essential benefit in many cases of disease incidental to In the long train of diseases to which the delicate this climate, especially in fevers and inflammatory female is liable in this country, I can bear ample tesaffections, and likewise to a large class of invalids, timony to the value of ice in these complaints. whose digestive organs are in an impaired and debilitated state, arising from effects of climate and other causes, an affection, which, amongst the community, prevails to I am, Sir, your most obedient servant, H. S. MERCER, Marine Surgeon. Calcutta, 14th August, 1837.
no small extent.
Numerous other proofs most convincing and satisfactory, of the efficacy of ice, could be adduced by me ; but which I consider, unnecessary after what I have already stated in its favor. In one word, I regard the importation of American ice as one of the greatest blessings bestowed upon the people of this metropolis, both in a medicinal point of view, as well as an article of comfort and luxury.
God bless the ice.
To L. CLARKE, ESQ., Chairman, Ice Committee.
I have the honor to be, Sir, your most obedient servant,
I have the honour to be, Sir, your obedt. servt.
In all cases of febrile excitement, more especially those attended with fixed determination of blood to the head, i look upon the command of a supply of ice, as one of the most valuable and safest of our remedies; it enables us more effectually, than any other application we possess, to reduce, and keep down, the immoderate circulation, and encreased nervous irritability which is commonly destructive of life, in cases of fever; to effect which, without it, all our endeavours are in vain, and which it is our most anxious abject to effect. As a topical agent, in many ordinary affections, its efficacy is undoubted, and when within our reach, one of which we are always glad to avail ourselves; but it is in fevers, and the acute attacks, common to this climate, that its advantages are most apparent, and Government could in no manner shew its care and regard to the well-being, and protection of its servants and subjects at large, so well, as by affording its most liberal assistance, in promoting the importation of a constant supply of an article, of such active powers, and great value, in the treatment of these diseases, characteristic of, and incidental to, the country.
How invaluable therefore must such a remedy prove in a country like this, (sent to us in its beautifully-congealed form,) with a high temperature of the atmosphere, where inflammatory diseases are so abundant, and assume so formidable an array of alarming symptoms. In the ardent fevers which hourly present themselves in this city, with great determination to the head and other cavities of the body; intense thirst, a burning and dry state of the skin; great restlessness and general Esplanade Row, 24th July, 1837. uneasiness, with a pulse upwards of 120, the application of iced water is at once a sure means of subduing these SIR,-In answer to your circular of July 20th, wishsymptoms, and affording to the patient the most speedy, ing my opinion in writing, as to the importance and use grateful, and soothing relief, next to blood-letting, and of ice in a madical or surgical point of view, I beg to purgatives. I consider cold effusion to be the next most state for the imformation of the Ice Committee, and the powerful agent in the cure of fever, and, therefore, a Government, that I consider its use to be truly valuable, prodigious acquisition to medical practice in this country. and of very great importance, not only in fevers, but in In the diseases of infants, the value of ice is incalcula. various other disorders, both surgical, and medical, ble, especially in dentition, where there is such enor- and that there are some cases, in which a substitute for mous determination to the head, and which so frequent-ice cannot be obtained. I have within the last few days I have frequently ly and rapidly terminate in convulsions and death, had two such cases under my care. there is no means which relieves heat, and distention, used ice in this country, and have had many years by emptying the large vessels of the brain so effectual experience of its utility both in public and private ly and so safely, as the application oficed-water to the practice in England. head, and I can declare, that many parents in this city, owe the existence of their offspring to the judicious use of the invaluable remedy. In that state of debility following acute disease, the patient has been kept alive again, and again, by dipping toasted bread in iced water, when nothing else would remain on the stomach. In the irritable stomach also, which is so frequent and distressing a symptom of acute disease, I have seldom failed to allay it, by giving from time to time, a tea-spoon-full be derived from ice, as applied to medical purposes, I,
I have the honour to be, Sir, your most obedt. servt.
SIR,-In reply to your note relative to the benefits to
A. R. JACKSON, M. D., Offg A. H. C. H. C. Dispensary, 11th August, 1837.
ation, that ice in fevers and cases of hemorrhage, is for words to express my sense of its value and imporof the greatest utility.
I have the honour to be, Sir, your most obdt. servt,
Eye Infry, 14th Aug. 1837.
Club-House, July 19, 1837.
MY DEAR SIR,-With reference to our conversation last night about the ice, I am prepared by professional experience to afford my unhesitating testimony, to the powerful agency, which it possesses, when judiciously employed, in alleviating disease, and contributing to wards a cure.
I beg you to excuse my troubling you with such details, but our conversation on the subject was inturrupted, and I wish to instance to you how specifically the faculty may furnish grounds for their general recommendation of the efficacy of ice in the cure of disease.
cases, in which the use of this admirable adjuvant, tends to produce decidedly beneficial effects; but there is one class of disorders, which I cannot help particularizing (at the risk of writing somewhat more technically than I intended) as cases where I have witnessed wonderful- I am of opinion that ice is most valuable in certain ly beneficial results, from its discreet use; I allude to cases of mania, in fever where the brain is affected in infantile fever during dentition, in which there is always hemorrhage, and, especially, in cases of uterine hemorrdetermination to the head, sometimes so sudden and to hage (flooding) in strangulated hernia, &c., and as an such an extent, as to prove fatal in an incredibly short article of diet it may have a beneficial tonic effect,-and time, if not promptly arrested, nature endeavours to coun-I consider this grateful addition to other articles of luxury teract this result by increased secretion from the bow. by no means injurious to the constitution. els, i. e. by spontaneous purging; and the ordinary treatment is to follow up nature's plan by keeping up a free. action of the bowels by medicine, many is the little sufferer, however, whom I have seen sink under this indispensable evacuation, who might have been saved if we had possessed the means, which the ice now affords us, of determining powerfully, and at once, from the brain by its application in substance to the head.
F. H. BRETT.
I will only add, that the specific cases which I have adduced might have suggested another claim on the patronage and support of the ladies, at least such as are mothers, or hope to become so, and in these two classes, I presume, may be included a pretty considerable majority of our fair country women at the presidency. 1 again beg your excuse for the length of my note and
L. CLARKE, ESQ.
To L. CLARKE, Esq., Secy, Ice Committee, &c. &c. &c. SIR,-I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt
Its beneficial effects in such cases, is almost immediate, by unloading the vessels of the brain and thereby enabling you with safety to moderate, or arrest the alvine flux, which is draining away the strength of the of your letter, dated the 20th instant, in which you inbabe. It will sometimes stop a convulsion fit, as if by form me that the Ice Committee are desirous of learning magic; and when one reflects that the cranium of the my opinion, as to the utility of ice in the case of disease. infant is in its upper part almost as thin and diaphorous as an egg shell, where the several bones are in actual opposition, and that there are several spaces where the membranes covering the brain, and the scalp are only separated by the interposition of a thin membrane, one ceases to be surprised at its immediate effects.
Yours very faithfully,
I can only state my opinion comparatively, by saying hat in all the acute disease, to which European adults and children are liable, I esteem it as a remedy, only second to the lancet, and I believe that a permanent supply of so invaluable and powerful an agent, would orove a source of benefit to public health, and a means of saving life, not inferior to any single article of pharmacy, which can be named, in the hands of an Indian practitioner.
I remain, my dear Sir, very truly yours,
Calcutta, August 1837.
MY DEAR SIR,-I must beg your forgiveness for my remissness to answer your first letter. In reply to your inquiry of the estimate which my professional experi ence of its use has induced me to form of ice, as a
Secy. to the Ice Committee.}
Calcutta, 22d July, 1837.
In reply, I have to state that, in my opinion, the use of ice as a remedial agent, is very important, whether with reference to its immediate application in diseases of congestion, inflammation, and hemorrhage, or to those still more extensive though not so direct benefits, arising from the tonic effects of cold fluids, taken in moderation into the stomach.
I have the honour to be, Sir, your most obedt. servt. J. T. PEARSON, Assistant Surgeon. Calcutta, 14th Aug., 1837.
Chairman, Ice Committee, &c. &c. &c.
The advantages we have lately enjoyed in Calcutta, by obtaining ice at all seasons of the year, must be obvious to every medical practitioner. For my own part, I regard this article as important in the highest degree as a remedial agent, none have had so much reason to rejoice in the benefits afforded by the use of ice, as the sick whether we consider it, as a comfort beyond all price to the sufferer, or as a powerful aid in promoting the cure of disease.
L. CLARKE, ESQ.
It is unnecessary to detail the particular instances wherein ice is valuable in medical treatment, but I have no hesitation in saying, that in fever, in various forms of inflammation, in many cases of external injuries, and in the practice of midwifery, there are numerous instances, in which the life of the patient may depend upon the internal administration, or the external application of this substance. In cases of impaired digestive powers also, I believe it to be highly useful, as a stomachic tonic. Indeed, so much do I value it, that apart from every consideration of individual comfort, I consider it to be the duty of every medical practitioner, to use all his endeavours to ensure a never-failing supply of ice in this city.
Medical College, Calcutta, 8th August, 1837. SIR,-In reply to your circular of the 6th instant, I have much pleasure in expressing my conviction, that the successful importation of ice, and its constant preservation in Calcutta, place within the reach of the humblest member of the community, a remedy of the highest efficacy in the treatment of many varieties of tropical disease. Considering ice solely as a medical substance, I would deem all the subscriptions we have made and all the support you now seek to encourage the importation, as well and cheaply bestowed.
W. B. O'SHAUGHNESSY. L. CLARKE, Esq.; Chairman, Ice Committee.
much more than as a means of cure either in fever or any other disease.
Calcutta, 28th August, 1837. SIR,-I beg to apologize for having so long delayed answering your circular of the 20th July, and your note of the 13th instant, on the subject of ice, and its importance to the public health. This arose in the first instance, from my considering myself unconnected with, and unknown to, the inhabitants of Calcutta, and that my opinion consequently, could not be regarded by them as of the slightest importance, and since the ceipt of your last note, I have been much occupied.
I am, Sir, your obedient servant,
WM. BELL, Surgeon, H. M. 26th Regt. To L. CLARKE, Esq., &c. &c. Esplanade Row.
I have now the pleasure to communicate through you, for the information of the committee, that I regard ice as subordinate to no other agent, in the prevention or treatment of disease, and as a remedy in controlling fever, in its various applications, the power of which is second only, if, under some circumstances, it be not even superior, to that of the lancet; a remedy which can never supersede the lancet, nor dispense with it, but which, when added to it, forms by the combination a treatment so powerful and efficacious, that it will reuder death from the acutest cerebral inflammation, as rare, as recovery is at present. Employed as a remedy (known by the name of the ice cold dash) there is no degree of burning heat which the animal economy is capable of producing, no intensity of vascular action,
II. H. GOODEVE, M. D.
Professor of Anatomy and Medicine, Medical College. and no violence of pain, that can resist its continued application. The cold evaporating lotions, which were Calcutta, July 20, 1837. in former days applied to the head, proved useful in mild cases, but to hope to control the more formidable cases of the fever of Bengal, by their aid alone, is to expect to coerce a giant by twisting around his arms a spiders thread, the impression which the one makes upon the brain, compared with the effect produced by this remedy, may be said to be, what the application of six leeches to the temples, is to the abstraction of thirty ounces of blood.
Calcutta, 24th July, 1837.
SIR, I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the date of the 20th instant, requesting my opinion on the subject of the importance of ice to the public health, and more especially in cases of fever so incidental to this climate.
With the earnest hope that Government may be indueed to listen favourably to the appeal of the committee, and thereby secure to the iuhabitants of this city so powerful and so blessed a remedy in the hour of sickness. have the honour to be, Sir, your faithful and obdt. servt. WILLIAM GRAHAM, M. D.
There are few in this country who will not concur in the opinion, that the importation of ice is a valuable auxiliary to the comfort of an Indian life. But if we completely lay aside the notion of its forming a part of the luxuries of the East, we shall find numerous reasons to hail its introduction as highly subservient to the preservation of health.
I will not take up your time by referring to any theoritical opinions on the subject, but will merely ad duce a few instances in which my personal experience, can bear testimony to its salutary effects. I have found it essentially useful in cases of dyspepsia, which is a very prevailing disease in this climate, and a slight re-acquaintance with its tonic powers will sufficiently elucidate the cause.
There can be no doubt, that ice is an article which I have likewise proved its beneficial effects, in cases contributes largely to the enjoyment and the health of of retention of the placenta, when all other remedies those, who can afford to purchase it, and, were it cheap have failed, though administered to the utmost extent, enough, and procurable at all times, it might be turned and in the following cases of hæmorrhegia eutonica, I to various uses in medical practice. But at the same, have used it with great success, viz, Naricum or bleedtime I must express my opinion, that the committee ng at the nose, hæmosstysis or spitting of blood, utevina have not taken up the true ground for soliciting the or uterine hemorrhage, in certain cases of fever too, its bounty of Government on this occasion, the real im-powerful aid has frequently been proved especially