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that we had experienced in Russia and Germany. They were soldiers of the most brave and warlike stamp. But at the same time they were, as we have already said, disgusted at seeing themselves sacrificed for six years not only to a fatal enterprise, but to the incapacity and rivalry of their leaders. With a vast confidence in themselves, they had none in their generals, excepting, however, Reille and Clausel, and they only expected to be beaten. This want of confidence in those who commanded them had succeeded in destroying among them the spirit of discipline which had been already violently shaken by destitution. Accustomed to being never fed, and to living only on what they could tear from a population who hated them and by whom they were hated in turn, they looked upon themselves as masters of everything that was within their grasp.

II.

LES COSAQUES.

Plus beau et plus grand que le Russe, le Cosaque est aussi plus agile et plus actif. On l'accuse d'être cruel, mais il ne l'est que dans la chaleur du combat : s'il semble ne respirer que le pillage lorsqu'il fait la guerre hors de son pays, dans ses foyers, paisible et hospitalier, il accueille l'étranger avec bonté. Parmi les nombreuses tribus de Cosaques, on distingue celles du Don et de la Mer Noire. Les premiers sont plus civilisés ; les seconds, d'un extérieur plus grossier, cachent un cæur non moins compatissant. A l'exception des officiers, ils n'ont point de paye, et sont cependant obligés de se pourvoir d'armes, de chevaux, de vêtemens. Leur arme principale est une pique longue de quinze à dix-huit pieds. Un mauvais sabre, un ou deux pistolets, une carabine dont ils font rarement usage, et un fouet au lieu d'éperon, forment leur équipement.

Handsomer and taller than the Russian, the Cossack is also more lively and active. He is accused of being cruel, but he is so only in the heat of conflict: if he seems to breathe plunder only, when be wages war out of his own country, yet peaceful and hospitable at his own fireside he receives the stranger with kindness. Among the numerous tribes of Cossacks, a distinction is made between those of the Don and those of the Black Sea. The former are the more civilised; the latter, of a coarser exterior, hide within them a heart equally compassionate. With the exception of the officers, they receive no pay, and yet are obliged to provide themselves with arms, horses, and clothes. Their chief weapon is a spear from fifteen to eighteen feet long. A wretched sabre, one or two pistols, a carbine, which they seldom use, and a whip instead of spur, complete their equipment.

GRAMMATICAL QUESTIONS.

1. Give the plural of the following nouns :-Sceau, clou, canal, cheveu, mil.

Sceaux, clous, canaux, cheveux, yeux.

(See Preliminary Army Examination Made Easy,' p. 17; French Grammar Made Easy,' p. 8.)

Sup.

Indic. pres.

nous recevrons
Vous recevrez

Sub. pres.

2. Give the degrees of comparison of the following adjectives and adverbs :—Sage, bon, mauvais, bien. Pos.

Comp.
sage
plus sage

le plus sage
bon
meilleur

le meilleur
mauvais
pire

le pire
bien
mieux

le mieux (See Preliminary Army Examination Made Easy,' pp. 20, 40; • French Grammar Made Easy,' pp. 9, 10.)

3. Write out the following parts of the verb recevoir, to receive :Ind. pres., imperf., pret. def., fut., cond., sub. pres., imperf.

Imperfect.
Pret. def.

Future.
je reçois
je recevais
je reçus

je recevrai tu reçois tu recevais tu reçus

tu recevras il reçoit il recevait il reçut

il recevra nous recevons nous recevions

nous reçûmes vous recevez vous receviez

vous reçûtes ils reçoivent ils recevaient

ils reçurent ils recevront
Conditional.

Imperfect
je recevrais
que je reçoive

que je reçusse
tu recevrais
que tu reçoives

que tu reçusses
il recevrait
qu'il reçoive

qu'il reçut
nous recevrions
que nous recevions

que nous reçussions
vous recevriez
que vous receviez

que vous reçussiez
ils recevraient
qu'ils reçoivent

qu'ils reçussent (See · Preliminary Army Examination Made Easy,' p. 27 ; French Grammar Made Easy,' pp. 12, 13.)

4. Write in the first column the pres. part., in the second the 3rd pers. sing. pret. def., and in the third 3rd pers. sing. ind. fut. of the following verbs :—Se promener, manger, oser, dormir, fuir, servir, pouvoir, voir, battre, connaître. se promenant il se promena

il se promenera
mangeant
il mangea

il mangera
osant
il osa

il osera
dormant
il dormit

il dormira
fuyant
il fuit

il fuira
servant
il servit

servira
pouvant
voyant
il vit

il verra
battant
il battit

il battra
connaissant
il connut

il connaitra (See Preliminary Army Examination Made Easy,' pp. 30, 42; · French Grammar Made Easy,' pp. 13, 14.)

5. Write down the French for the following expressions :-Give it to him; be off; we must leave at six o'clock ; did he see you? I want my book; it was cold this morning; here are three hundred francs; the letter that he has written.

Donnez le lui; allez vous en : il nous faut partir à six heures ; vous a-t-il vu ? Il me faut mon livre; il faisait froid ce matin ; voici trois cents francs; la lettre qu'il a écrite.

il put

il pourra

ARITHMETIC, including Vulgar and Decimal Fractions, Proportion, and Simple Interest. Wednesday, 15th February, 1882. 2 P.M.-5 P.M.

[Including Dictation.] N.B.- You are particularly recommended to answer the questions in the order

in which they are set; not omitting any one unless you are unable

to do it.
Do not lose time by copying out the questions, but refer to each question

by its number.

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5. Add together .000495, 16.96, 5:043, and 60.001607.

Ans. 82.005102.

6. Subtract 708.960403 from 816.021.

Ans. 107.060597.

7. Multiply 168.05 by 1.0069.

Ans. 169.209545.

8. Divide •39908027 by 248.03. 24803) 39.908027

·001609 Ans.

9. Reduce •8046 of 9 ozs. 13 dwts. to grains and the decimal of a grain.

Ans. 3726.9072 grs.

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9. r.
3 3

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10. Find the value of 3 acres 3 roods 25 perches if half an acre is sold for £258 38. 4d. Half an acre =

80 perches.
p.
25 = 625 perches.

£
80 : 625 :: 2587 : .

£

£
1549
125

1 193625
X 625 X

= 201666
6

SA 96
Ans. £2016 188. 6}d.

16
11. Reduce 69,043,761 square inches to acres, roods, &c.

p. 89. yds. ft.

in. Ans. îi ©

0 1 34 4 81 12. Find the simple interest on £2650 for 4 years at £4 88. per cent. per annum.

53

11

9 22 1 5247
Ans. 2650 x

g
Х Х

524 10 = £524 148.
100 10

.

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16. Divide 27, by 3,9347.

3
161 237 3
Ans.

79
Х

805

5 17. Add together 1.0536 of 3 lbs. 11 ozs. and 2.307 of 15 drs., and give the answer in drams and the decimal of a dram.

Ans. 1029-2034. 18. Subtract 2.00751 quarts from 0865 of a bushel, and give the answer in pints and the decimal of a pint.

bus. pints.
·0865 = 5.536
quarts.
2.00751 = 4:01502

1.52098 pints. Ans.

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20. Multiply 12.607 by 3.08, and their product by 1.0006.

Ans. 38.852857736.

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22. Divide 2.65 by 11.4567 to four places of decimals.

2.65 : 11.4567

= .2318, &c.

9000

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99
263 9000

Х
99 103111
11

263000 1134221

=

23. If 5) ozs. of silver cost £1 98. 91d., how much can be bought for £1 178. 1 d.?

£1 98. 9fd. : £1 178. 14d. :: 54 : «. 1430 farthings : 1781 farthings.

ozs. Ozs.

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24. A person contracts to do a piece of work in 30 days, and employs 15 men upon it. At the end of 12 days one-fourth only of the work is finished. How many additional hands must be engaged in order to perform the contract ?

The question is: If 15 men do 4 of the work in 12 days, how many men will do of the work in 18 days ?

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Hence 15 additional men will be required Ans.

25. At what rate per cent. simple interest will £1045 amount to £1264 98. in 6 years ?

£1264 98. 1045 = £219 98. interest to be obtained. Suppose a rate of 1

per

cent. Interest on £1045 for 6 years at 1 per cent. = £62 148. Hence, Ans. £219 98. - £62 148. = 3} per cent.

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