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minister, let him do it as of the ability that God giveth; which is as much as if he had said, They who cannot thus speak, and thus minister, ought not to do it. Now what, this ability is, is manifest by the former words; to wit, the gift received, and the grace whereof they are stewards, as by the immediate context doth appear. It cannot be understood of natural ability, because man in this condition is said not to know the things of God, and so cannot minister them to others. The words that immediately follow shew this also; viz. that God in all things may be glorified. But surely God is not glorified, but dishonoured, when natural men meddle in spiritual things which they do not understand.—And they believe that as they who have received this holy and unspotted gift, have received it freely, so are they freely to give it, without hire, far less to use it as a trade to get money by: yet if God call any from their employment, or trade, by which they acquire their livelihood, it may be lawful for such, according to the liberty which they feel given them in the Lord, to receive such temporals (to wit, what may be needful for them for meat and clothing) as are given

* them freely and cordially by

those to whom they have communicated their spirituals.

And as they dare not encou

rage any ministry but that which they believe to spring from the influence of the holy Spirit, so neither dare they attempt to restrain this influence to the male sex alone, or to persons of any condition in life; but whether male or female, whether bond or free, as they are all one in Christ, they equally allow such of them as they believe to be endued with a right qualification for the ministry, -to exercise their gifts for the general edification of the church; and this liberty they esteem a peculiar mark of the gospel dispensation as foretold by the prophet Joel, and noticed by the apostle Peter. (Barclay.) 11. On baptism and the supper.—They believe that as there is one Lord and one faith, so there is one baptism; which is not the putting away the filth of the flesh, but the answer of agood conscience before God, by the resurrection of Jesus Christ. And this baptism is a pure and spiritual thing; to wit, the baptism of the Spirit and fire, by which we are buried with him, that being washed and purged from our sins, we may walk in newness of life; of which the baptism of John was a figure, which was commanded for a time,

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and mot to continue for ever. That this one baptism, which is the baptism of Christ, is not a washing with water, appears from the testimony of John, the proper and peculiar administrator of water-baptism: I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance; but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: he shall baptize you with the holy Ghost, and with fire. (Matt. iii. 11.) Here John mentions two manners of baptizing, and two different baptisms; the one with water, and the other with the Spirit; the one whereof he was the minister, the other whereof Christ was the minister ; and such as were baptised with the first, were not therefore baptized with the second. I indeed baptize you—but he shall baptize you. Though in the present time they were baptized with the baptism of water, they were not as yet, but were to be baptized with the baptism of Christ. From which they argue thus: “If those who were baptized with the baptism of water, were not therefore baptized with the baptism of Christ, then the baptism of water is not the baptism of Christ.” And again: “If he that truly and really administered the baptism of water, did notwithstanding declare that he nei

ther could nor did baptize with the baptism of Christ, then the baptism of water is not the baptism of Christ: but the first is true, therefore also the last.” And indeed to understand it otherwise would, they say, make John's words void of good sense; for if their baptisms had been all one, why should he have said that those whom he had already baptized should yet be baptized with another baptism Hence it follows that the baptism which Christ commanded, (Matt. xxviii. 19.) must relate to his own baptism, and not to that of John : to say it must be understood of water is but to beg the question, the text being wholly silent thereon.— With respect to the other rite, termed the Lord's supper, they believe that the communion of the body and blood of Christ is spiritual, which is the participation of his flesh and blood, by which the inward man is daily nourished in the hearts of those in whom Christ dwells; and this is most agreeable to the doctrine of Christ concerning this matter. For as without outward food the natural body hath not life, so also saith Christ: Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, ye have no life in you. And as the outward body, eating outward food, lives thereby, so Christ saith, he that eateth him shall live by him. So that it is by the inward man's partaking of this inward and spiritual body that man is united to God. He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, (saith Christ) dwelleth in me, and I in him. This cannot be understood of outward eating of outward bread: and as by this the soul must have fellowship with God, so also, so far as all the saints are partakers of this one body and one blood, they have a joint communion. This is true and spiritual supper of the Lord, which men come to partake of by hearing the voice of Christ, and

opening the door of their

hearts, according to the plain words of scripture : Behold, I stand at the door and knock; $f any man hear my voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and sup with him, and he with me. (Rev. iii. 20.) Of which the breaking of bread by Christ with his disciples was a figure, which even they who had received the substance used in the church for a time for the sake of the weak; even as abstaining from things strangled, and from blood, the washing one another's feet, and the anointing the sick with oil ; all which are commanded with no less authority and solem

* Barclay's Summary.

the

nity than the former; yet, seeing they are but the shadows of better things, they are unnecessary to such as have obtained the substance. 12. On the resurrection.— They believe the resurrection, according to the scripture, not only from sin, but also from death and the grave. They most steadfastly believe, that as our Lord Jesus Christ was raised from the dead by the power of the Father, and was . the first fruits of the resurrection, so every man in his own order shall arise; they that have done well to the resurrection of eternal life, but they that have done evil to everlasting condemnation. And as the celestial bodies do far excel the terrestrial, so they expect our spiritual bodies in the resurrection shall far excel what our bodies now are.t. Having treated of the foregoing principles of religion as professed by the Friends, we now proceed to notice some tenets which more immediately relate to their conduct among men. I. On oaths and war.—With respect to the former of these, they abide literally by these words of our Saviour: Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old time, thou shalt not forswear thyself, &c. But I say unto you, swear not at all ; neither by heaven, &c., but t Penn, Sewell. - s *

tet your communication be yea, yea, nay, may ; for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil. (Matt. v. 33, 34.) As also the words of the apostle James : But above all things, my brethren, swear not; neither by heaven, neither by the earth, neither by any other oath ; but let your yea be yea, and your may nay, lest ye fall into condemnation. Did any one purpose seriously, and in the most rigid manner, to forbid anything, could he use a more full and general prohibition, and that without any exception ? For Christ first proposeth it to us negatively:

Swear not at all; neither by heaven, nor by the earth, nor by Jerusalem, nor by thy head,

&c. And afterwards James :

Swear not by heaven, nor by the earth, nor by any other oath.

He also presseth it affirmative

ly: But let your communication

be yea, yea, nay, nay; for what

soever is more than these cometh

of evil. And saith James, Lest

we fall into condemnation.

Which words do make a full

prohibition, and free from all

exception: and they think it

is not lawful to make void a

general prohibition, unless

some exception be as clearly

and evidently expressed as the

prohibition. And as a colla

teral evidence of the truth of what is here advanced, they

observe that these fore-men

tioned words were understood by the ancient fathers of the first three hundred years after Christ to be a prohibition of all sorts of oaths.--From the same sacred collection of the most excellent precepts of moral and religious duty, from the example of our Lord himself, and from the corresponding convictions of his Spirit in their hearts, they are confirmed in the belief, that wars and fightings are in their origin and effects utterly repugnant to the Spirit and doctrine of Christ, who by excellency is called the Prince of Peace. For thus he saith: Ye have heard that it hath been said, an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth : but I say unto you, love your enemies; bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them that despitefully use you and persecute you. These words, with respect to revenge, as the former in the case of swearing, do forbid some things which in time past were lawful to the jews, considering their condition and dispensation, and command unto such as will be the disciples of Christ, a more perfect charity, patience and suffering, than was required by the law of Moses. They think it is as easy to reconcile the greatest contradictions, as these laws of our Lord Jesus Christ with the wicked practices of wars.--To prove that war is not lawful to Christians, they likewise argue thus:— (1.) Christ commands that we should love our enemies: but war, on the contrary, teaches us to hate and destroy them.—(2.) The apostle James testifies that wars and strifes come from the lusts which war in the members of carnal men: but christians, that is, those that are truly saints; have crucified the flesh with its affections and lusts; therefore they cannot indulge them in waging war.—(3.) The apostle Paul admonisheth christians that they defend not themselves, neither avenge, by rendering evil for evil; but give place unto wrath, because vengeance is the Lord's. Be not overcome of evil; but overcome evil with good. If thine enemy hunger feed him, if he thirst give him drink. But war throughout teacheth, and enjoineth quite the contrary of this. –(4.) The prophets Isaiah and Micah have expressly prophesied, that in the mountain of the house of the Lord, Christ shall judge the nations ; and then they shall beat their swords into ploughshares, &c.; and there shall be

none to hurt nor kill in the holy mountain of the Lord : but outward war is appointed for killing and destroying. And the ancient fathers of the first three hundred years after Christ did affirm these prophecies to be fulfilled in the christians of their time, who were most averse to war ; concerning which Justin Martyr, Tertullian and others, may be seen.” (Barclay.) 2. On deportment.—-(1.) They affirm that it is not lawful for christians either to give or receive such flattering titles of honour, as your Holiness, your Majesty, your Excellency, &c.; because these titles are no part of that obedience which is due to magistrates or superiors; neither doth the giving them add to, or the not giving them diminish from that subjection we owe to them, which consists in obeying their just and lawful commands, and not in giving flattering titles. But they do not object to give to men those titles that are descriptive of their station or office; such as king, prince, duke, earl, bishop, &c. Neither do they think it right to use what are commonly called compliments; such as, your humble servant,

* Fox, in his book of Martyrs, mentions several who objected to tithes and war; and those early reformers, the Waldenses, who first appear ed in the twelfth century, prohibited and condemned in their society all wars and suits of law, self-defence against unjust violence, and oaths of all kinds. See Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History, vol. iii. p. 123. f

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