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demn the custom of speaking to a single person in the plural number, as having also arisen from motives of adulation.— (2.) They affirm that it is not lawful for christians to kneel, or prostrate themselves to any man, or to bow the body, or to uncover the head to them ; because kneeling, bowing, and uncovering the head, is the only outward signification of our adoration towards God; and therefore it is not lawful to give it unto man,—(3.) They affirm that it is not lawful for christians to use superfluities in apparel, as are of no use, save for ornament and vanity.—(4.) That it is not lawful to use games, sports, or plays among christians, under the notion of recrea, tion, which do not agree with christian gravity and sobriety; forsporting, gaming, mocking, jesting, vain talking, &c., are not christian liberty nor harm

less mirth. They allege that the chief end of religion is to redeem men from the spirit and vain conversation of the world, and to lead them into inward communion with God; therefore every thing ought to be rejected that wastes our precious time, and diverts the mind from the witness of God in the heart, and from the living sense of his fear, and that evangelical spirit which is the ornament of a christian. With regard to religious liberty, they hold that the rights of conscience are sacred and unalienable, subject only to the control of the Deity, who has not given authority to any man, or body of men, to compel another to his or their religion. (Barclay.) 3. On their church government, or discipline.—To effect the salutary purposes of discipline, they have established monthly, quarterly, and yearly meetings. A monthly meeting is usually composed of several particular congregations, situated within a convenient distance from each other. Its business is, to provide for the subsistence of the poor, (for the friends maintain their own poor) and for the education of their offspring ; to judge of the sincerity and fitness of persous appearing to be convinced of their religious principles, and desiring to be admitted into membership ; to deal with disorderly members, and if irreclaimable, to disown them. Monthly meetings also grant to such of their members as remove into other monthly meetings, certificates of their membership and conduct; without which they cannot gain membership in such meetings. Each monthly meeting is required to appoint certain persons under the name of overseers, who when any case of complaint, or disorderly conduct, comes to their knowledge, are to see that private admonition, agreeable to the gospel rule, Matt xviii. 15–17, be given, previous to its being laid before the monthly meeting. All marriages among them are proposed to these meetings for their concurrence, which is granted, if, upon enquiry, the parties appear clear of other engagements respecting marriage, and if they also have the consent of their parents or guardians; without which concurrence no marriages are al observance of those already Inade. Appeals from the judgment of quarterly meetings are here finally determined. There are seven yearly meetings: viz. at London, to which come representatives from Ireland; New England, New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey; Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia: and they in general maintain a friendly correspondence by epistles with each other.— There are also monthly, quarterly, and yearly meetings of women Friends, held at the same times and places with the men's meetings in separate apartments, on which devolve those parts of the christian discipline wherein their own sex are more peculiarly concerned. Those who believe themselves required to speak in meetings for worship, are notimmediatelyacknowledged as ministers by their monthly meetings; but time is taken for judgment, that the meeting may be satisfied of their call and qualification; and in order that those who are in the situation of ministers may have the tender sympathy and counsel of those of either sex, who, by their experience in the work of religion are qualified for that service, the monthly meetings are advised to select such under the de

lowed: for this society has

always scrupled to acknowledge the exclusive authority of the priests to marry. Their marriages are solemnised in a public meeting for worship; and the monthly meeting keeps

a record of them; as also of

the births and burials of its

members. This society does

not allow its members to sue

each other at law; it there

fore enjoins all to end their differences by speedy and impartial arbitration, agreeably to the rules laid down; and if any refuse to act according to these rules, they are disowned. Several monthly meetings compose a quarterly meeting, to which they send representatives, who produce at the quarterly meetings, written answers from the monthly meetings, to certain queries respecting the conduct of their members, and the meetings care over them. The accounts thus received, are digested into one, which is sent also in the form of answers to queries, by representatives to the yearly meeting. Appeals from the judgment of monthly meetings are brought to the quarterly meetings, whose business also it is to assist in any difficult case, or where remissness appears in the care of the monthly meetings over the individuals who compose them. The yearly meeting has a general superintendance of the

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nomination of elders. These, and ministers approved by their monthly meetings, have assemblies peculiar to themselves, called meetings of ministers and elders, in which they have an opportunity of exciting each other to a discharge of their respective duties, and of extending advice. to those who may appear to be weak, without any needless exposure. Such meetings are generally held in the compass of each monthly, quarterly, and yearly meeting ; and are conducted by rules prescribed by the yearly meeting, and have no authority to make any alteration or addition. The members of them unite with their brethren in the meetings for discipline, and are equally accountable to the latter for their conduct. No. minister is allowed to travel abroad without a certificate from the monthly meeting they belong to, expressive of its approbation. This society has also meetings for sufferings, which are composed of members chosen by the several quarterly meetings. They were originally instituted and thus named in times of persecution; and are continued to superintend the general concerns of the society, during the interval of the yearly meetings.” (Summary.)

* History of Religion, vol, iv.

[In apology for the length of the foregoing article, in which the reader is referred to the authorities'cited at the foot of the page,” it is proper to say, it was inserted at the request of an intelligent Friend,

AIANITAF, a denomination which sprang from the Eutychians. They derive their name from Gaian, a bishop of Alexandria, in the sixth century, who denied that Jesus Christ, after the hypostatical union, was subject to any of the infirmities of huIman nature. GAZARES, a denomination which appeared about the year 1197, at Gazare, a town of Dalmatia. They held almost the same opinions with the Albigenses; but their distinguishing tenet was, that no human power had a right to sentence men to death for any crime whatever. - | GEORGIANS. See IbeIsla 1) S. GNOSIMACHI, a name which distinguished those in the seventh century who were professed enemies to the Gnosis, i. e. the studied knowledge

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preme Being which had been lost in the world. This party was not conspicuous for its numbers or reputation before the time of Adrian.” It derives its origin from the oriental philosophy. The doctrine of a soul distinct from the body, which had pre-existed in an angelic state, and was for some offence committed in that state, degraded and confined to the body as a punishment, had been the great doctrine of the eastern sages from time immemorial. Not being able to conceive how evil in so great an extent could be subservient to good, they supposed that good and evil have different origins. So mixed a system as this is, they therefore thought to be unworthy of infinite wisdom and goodness. They looked upon matter as the source of all evil, and argued in this manner: There are many evils in this world, and men seem impelled by a natural instinct to the practice of those things which reason condemns ; but that eternal mind from which all spirits derive their existence, must be inaccessible to all kinds of evil, and also of a most perfect and beneficent nature. Therefore the origin of those evils with which the

universe abounds, must be sought some where else than in the Deity. It cannot reside in him who is all perfection : therefore it must be without him. Now there is nothing without or beyond the Deity but matter : therefore matteris the centre and source of all evil, and of all vice. Having taken for granted these principles, they proceeded further, and affirmed that matter was eternal, and derived its present form not from the will of the supreme God, but from the creating power of some inferior intelligence, to whom the world and its inhabitants owed their existence. As a proof of their assertion, they alleged, that it was incredible that the supreme Deity, perfectly good and infinitely removed from

all evil, should either create

or modify matter which is essentially malignant and corrupt; or bestow upon it, in any degree, the riches of his wisdom and liberality. In their system it was generally supposed, that allintelligences had only one source, viz. the Divine Mind. And to help out the doctrine concerning the origin of evil, it was imagined, that though the Divine Being himself was es

* Under the general appellation of Gnostics, are comprehended all those who, in the first ages of christianity, blended the oriental philosophy with

the doctrines of the gospel.

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