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secular clergy to marry once; but never twice, unless they renounce their function, and become laymen.”--(15.) They condemn all fourth marriages. The invocation of saints, and transubstantiation, are alike received by the Greek and Latin churches. They observe a number of holidays, and keep four, fasts in the year more solemn than the rest; of which the fast in lent, before easter, is the chief. The service of the Greek church is too long and complicated to be particularly described in this work: the greatest part consists in psalms and hymns.—Five orders of priesthood belong to the Greek church; viz. bishops, priests, deacons, sub-deacons, and readers; which last includes singers, &c. The episcopal order is distinguished by the titles of metropolitan, archbishops, and bishops. The head of the Greek church, the patriarch of Constantinople is elected by twelve bishops, who reside nearest that famous capital; but the right of confirming this election belongs only to the Turkish emperor. The power of this prelate is very extensive. He not only calls councils by his own au
thority to decide controver
sies and direct the affairs of the church, but, with the
has the same division of the clergy into regular and secular, the same spiritual jurisdiction of bishops and their officials, the same distinction of ranks and offices with the church of Rome. There is a branch of the Greek church that, though joined in communion of doctrine and worship with the
* Their regular, or monastic clergy, are never allowed to marry.
patriarch of Constantinople, refuse to receive his legatees, or to obey his edicts. This division is governed by its own laws and institutions, under the jurisdiction of spiritual rulers, who are independent on all foreign authority. The Greek church comprehends in its bosom a considerable part of Greece, the Grecian isles, Wallachia, Moldavia, Egypt, Abyssinia, Nubia, Lydia, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Silicia, and Palestine; Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem ; the whole of the Russian empire in Europe; great part of Syberia in Asia; Astracan, Casan, and Georgia.
* Dallaway's History of Constantinople, p of the Greek Church. King's History of the Father Simon's Religion of the Eastern Nations, pp. 5–8. p. 412. Broughton's Historical Library, vol. i. |. 145–147.
It is asserted by Dallaway, in his account of Constantinople, ancient and modern, which was published in 1797, that all orders of the Greek clergy inferior to bishops are permitted to marry. Celibacy and the assumption of monastic habits, are indispensably requisite in those who are candidates for the mitre.
The riches of some of the Greek churches and monasteries, in jewels, particularly pearls, in plate, and in the habits of the clergy, are very great, and reckoned not much inferior to those in Roman Catholic countries.” . :
See Part the Second.
ruption of human nature. Hence he concluded that mankind were under no sort of obligation to correct their manners, to improve their minds, or to endeavour after a regular obedience to the divine laws: that the whole of religion consisted not in acting, but in suffering; and that all the precepts of Jesus Christ are reducible to this single one—that we bear with cheerfulness and patience the events that happen to us through the divine will, and
. 378,379. Ricaut's State Breek Church, pp.11–134. The venot's.
viii. p. 127,
make it our constant and only study to maintain a permanent This denomination also affirmed, that Christ had not satisfied the divine justice, nor made an expiation for the sins of men by his death and sufferings; but had only signified to us, by his mediation, that there was nothing in us that could offend the Deity. They maintained that this was Christ's manner of justifying his servants, and presenting them blameless before the tribunal of God.” They also taught that God does not punish men for their sins, but by their sins.# HELSAITES, a denomination which arose in the second century. They denied some parts of the old and new testament; did not own Paul to be an apostle; and thought it an indifferent thing, if, in persecution, they denied the faith in words. They received a certain book, which they said came down from heaven, and contained their doctrinc.: HENRICIANS, a denomination in the twelfth century, founded by Henry, a monk. He rejected the baptism of infants, censured with severity
tranquillity of mind. the Deity from an uncreated and eternal mass of corrupt matter.” HERRENHUTTERS. See Moravians. HETEROUSIANS, a name given to one of the Arian divisions. See Arians. HIERACITES, a denomination in the third century; so called from their leader Hierax, a philosopher and magician of Egypt. Hierax maintained that the principal object of Christ's office and ministry, was the promulgation of a new law more severe and perfect than that of Moses. Hence he concluded that the use of flesh, wine, wedlock, and of other things agreeable to the outward senses, which had been permitted under the Mosaic dispensation, was absolutely prohibited and abrogated by Christ. He excluded from the kingdom of heaven children who died before they had arrived to the use of reason; and that upon the supposition that God was bound to administer the rewards of futurity to those only who had fairly finished their victorious conflict with the body and its lusts : he maintained also that Melchisedec was the
the licentious manners of the
clergy, and treated the festi
vals and ceremonies of the
* This opinion was peculiar to the Hattemists, and distinguished
t Mosheim, vol. iv. pp. 553, 554, § Mosheim, vol. ii. p. 448.
# Athenian Oracle, vol. ii. p. 128,
| Broughton, vol. i. p. 484, .
holy Ghost. His disciples taught, that the Word, or Son of God, was contained in the Father, as a little vessel in a great one; whence they had the name of Metangismonites, from the greek word porayyakovo;, which signifies contained in a vessel. Hierax also denied the doctrine of the resurrection of the body.t HOFFMANISTS, who espoused the sentiments of Daniel Hoffman, professor in the university of Helmstadt, who in the year 1598 taught that the light of reason, even as it appears in the writings of Plato and Aristotle, is adverse to religion; and that the more the human understanding is cultivated by philosophical study, the more perfectly is the enemy supplied with weapons of defence.: HOMOIAUSIANS, a name given to a branch of the Arians. See Arians. HOPKINSIANS, so called from the Rev. Samuel Hopkins, D. D., pastor of the first congregational church at Newport; who in his sermons and tracts has made several additions to the sentiments first advanced by the celebrated Jonathan Edwards, late president of New Jersey college.S
* Mosheim, vol. i. p. 100.
p # Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. ii. p. 506. . . $This denomination suppose that this eminent divine not only illustrated
and confirmed the main
octrines of Calvinism, but brought the whole
system to a greater degree of consistency and perfection than any who had #. before him ; and they profess only to pursue the same design, of still
further perfecting the same system.
The following is a summary of the distinguishing tenets of this denomination, together with a few of the reasons of which they make use to support their sentiments:— 1. That all true virtue, or real holiness, consists in dis-, interested benevolence. The object of benevolence is universal being, including God and all intelligent creatures. It wishes and seeks the good of every individual, so far as is consistent with the greatest good of the whole, which is comprised in the glory of God, and the perfection and happiness of his kingdom.
The law of God is the stan
dard of all moral rectitude, or holiness.” This is reduced into love to God, and our neighbour as ourselves: and universal good-will comprehends all the love to God, our neighbour, and ourselves, required in the divine law ; and therefore must be the whole of holy obedience. Let any serious person think what are the particular branches of true piety; when he has viewed each one by itself, he will find that disinterested, friendly affection, is its distinguishing characteristic. For instance: all the holiness in pious fear
which distinguishes it from the fear of the wicked, consists in love. Again: holy. gratitude is nothing but goodwill to God and our neighbour, in which we ourselves are included ; and correspondent affection, excited by a view of the good-will and kindness of God. Universal good-will also implies the whole of the duty we owe to our neighbour: for justice, truth, and faithfulness, are comprised in universal benevolence; so are temperance and chastity. For an undue indulgence of our appetites and passions is contrary to benevolence, as tending to hurt ourselves or others; and so opposite to the general good and the divine command, in which all the crime of such indulgence consists. In short, all virtue is nothing but benevolence acted out in its proper nature and perfection; or love to God and our neighbour, made perfect in all its genuine exercises and expressions. 2. That all sin consists in selfishness. By this is meant an interested, selfish affection, by which a person sets himself up as supreme, and the only object of regard; and nothing is good or lovely in his view,
* The law requires us to love God with all our hearts, because he is the Lord, because he is just such a Being as he is, On this account, primarily and antecedently to all other considerations, he is infinitel. amiable; and therefore on this account, primarily and antecedently to all other considerations, he ought to appear infinitely amiable in our eyes.”