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unless suited to promote his own private interest. This selflove is in its whole nature, and every degree of it, enmity against God : it is not subject to the law of God, and is the only affection that can oppose it. It is the foundation of all spiritual blindness, and therefore the source of all the open idolatry in the heathen world, and false religion under the light of the gospel: all this is agreeable to that self-love which opposes God's true character. Under the influence of this principle, men depart from truth; it being itself the greatest practical lie in nature, as it sets up that which is comparatively nothing above Universal Existence. Self-love is the source of all profaneness and impiety in the world, and of all pride and ambition among men, which is nothing but selfishness acted out in this particular way. This is the foundation of all covetousness and sensuality, as it blinds people's eyes, contracts their hearts, and sinks them down, so that they look upon earthly enjoyments as the greatest good. This is the
source of all falsehood, injustice, and oppression, as it excites mankind by undue methods to invade the property of others. Self-love produces all the violent passions; envy, wrath, clamour, and evil speaking: and every thing contrary to the divine law, is briefly comprehended in this fruitful source of all iniquity, selflove. 3. That there are no promises of regenerating grace made to the doings of the unregenerate. For as far as men act from self-love, they act from a bad end : for those who have no true love to God, really do no duty when they attend on the externals of religion. And as the unregenerate act from a selfish principle, they do nothing which is commanded : their impenitent doings are wholly opposed to repentance and conversion ; therefore not implied in the command to repent, &c.; so far from this, they are altogether disobedient to the command.” Hence it appears that there are no promises of salvation to the doings of the unregenerate.
* The author of the Moral Disquisitions, while comparing Hopkinsian Calvinists with real Calvinists, has this inference. “It is evident that topkinsian sentiments are only the genuine, flourishing, and truitful branches of the Calvinistic tree: for the Hopkinsians plead that there is no duty in the actions of sinners, because they are totally depraved. As total depravity, therefore, is the great pillar in the Calvinistic theory, there is no more difference between Calvinists and Hopkinsians, than there is between a tree and its branches, or between first principles and consequences. . The broad foundation which supports our aniple superstructure was long since deeply and firmly laid in the first principles of Calvinism. To support our theory we need no first principles, except those which Calvinists have adopted and improved against Pelagians and Arminians,” See Spring's Moral Disquisitions, p. 40.
4. That the impotency of sinners, with respect to believing in Christ, is not natural, but moral : for it is a plain dictate of common sense that natural impossibility excludes all blame. But an unwilling mind is universally considered as a crime, and not as an excuse, and is the very thing wherein our wickedness consists. That the impotence of the sinner is owing to a disaffection of heart, is evident from the promises of the gospel. When any object of good is
that there can be no impo-
proposed and promised to us piness.” For if the law is good, upon asking, it clearly evinces death is due to those who
*ions, however, would wish to be considered as Calvinists, only because they suppose that the leading principles of that denomination are taught in scripture, and were believed by the first christians: and they suppose that, when the doctrines of grace were attacked by Pelagius, in the fifth century, the celebrated Augustine, bishop of o strenuously asserted the depravity of human nature since the fall of the first man, the necessity of a spiritual interposition of divine grace, to enable us to do any good action; and consequently, that none could obtain salvation, excepting those whom God has thought fit to elect, and upon whom he bestows his grace. The whole of the earliest reformers maintained these opinions of Augustine. They assumed under Luther a more regular and systematic form than they had formerly exhibited : but, as the Lutherans afterwards abandoned them, they are now known by the name of Calvinistic doctrines. See Encyclopaedia, vol. xv. p. 469. . t
* As a particle of water is small, in comparison of a generous stream, so the main of humility feels small before the great family of his fellowcreatures. He values his soul ; but when he compares it to the great soul of mankind, he almost forgets and loses sight of it: for the governing principle of his heart is to estimate things according to their worth. When, therefore, he indulges a humble comparison with his Maker, he feels lost in the infinite fulness and brightness of divine love, as a ray of light is lost in the sun, and a particle of water in the ocean. It inspires him with the nost grateful feelings of heart, that he has opportunity to be in the hand of God as clay in the hand of the potter; and as he considers himself in this humble light, he submits the nature and size of his future vessel entirely to God. As his pride is lost in the dust, he looks up with pleasure towards the throne of God, and rejoices with all his heart in the rectitude of the divine administration.
have broken it. The judge of all the earth cannot but do right. It would bring everlasting reproach upon his government to spare us, considered merely as in ourselves. When this is felt in our hearts, and not till then, we shall be prepared to look to the free grace of God, through the redemption which is in Christ, and to exercise faith in his blood, who is set forth to be a propitiation to declare God's righteousness, that he might be just, and yet be the justifier of him who believeth in Jesus. 6. That the infinitely wise and holy God has exerted his omnipotent power, in such a manner as he purposed should be followed with the existence and entrance of moral evil in the system. For it must be admitted on all hands, that 'God has a perfect knowledge, foresight, and view of all possible existences and events. If that system and scene of operation, in which moral evil should never have existence, was actually preferred in the divine mind, certainly the Deity is infinitely disappointed in the issue of his own operations. Nothing can be more dishonourable to God than to imagine that the system which is actually formed by the divine hand, and which was made for his pleasure and glory, is yet not the fruit of
wise contrivance and design.
7. That the introduction of sin is, upon the whole, for the general good. For the wisdom and power of the Deity are displayed in carrying on designs of the greatest good : and the existence of moral evil has, undoubtedly, occasioned a more full, perfect, and glorious discovery of the infinite perfections of the divine nature, than could otherwise have been made to the view of creatures. If the extensive manifestations of the pure and holy nature of God, and his infinite aversion to sin, and all his inherent perfections, in their genuine fruits and effects, is either itself the greatest good, or necessarily contains it ; it must necessarily follow, that the introduction of sin is for the greatest good.
8. That repentance is before faith in Christ.—By this
is not intended that repent
ance is before a speculative belief of the being and perfections of God, and of the person and character of Christ; but only, that true repentance is previous to a saving faith in Christ, in which the believer is united to Christ, and entitled to the benefits of his mediation and atonement. That repentance is before faith in this sense, appears from several considerations,
than an actitself.-(3.) Therefore Adam's act, in eating the forbidden fruit, was not the cause, but only the occasion of his posterity's being sinners. God was pleased to make a constitution, that if Adam remained holy through his state of trial, his posterity should in consequence be holy also; but if he sinned, his posterity should in consequence be sinners likewise. Adam sinned, and now God brings his posterity into the world sinners. By Adam's sin we are become sinners, not for it; his sin being only the occasion, not the cause of our committing sins. 10. That though believers are justified through Christ's righteousness, yet' his righteousness is not transferred to them. For (1.) personal righteousness can no more be transferred from one person to another, than personal sin. —(2.) If Christ's personal righteousness were transferred to believers, they would be as perfectly holy as Christ; and so stand in no need of forgiveness.-(3.) But believers are not conscious of havingChrist's personal righteousness ; but feel and bewail much ind welling sin and corruption.—(4.) The scripture represents believers as receiving only the benefits of Christ's righteousness in justification, or their being pardoned and accepted
for Christ's righteousness'sake: and this is the proper scripture notion of imputation, Jonathan's righteousness was imputed to Mephibosheth, when David shewed kindness to him for his father Jonathan's sake. The Hopkinsians warmly advocate the doctrine of the divine decrees, that of particular election, total depravity, the special influences of the Spirit of God in regeneration, justification by faith alone, the final perseverance of the saints, and the consistency between entire freedom and absolute dependence; and therefore claim it as their just due, since the world will make distinctions, to be called Hopkinsian Calvinists.” HUSSITES, a denomination in Bohemia; so called from John Huss, one of their principal teachers, who about the year 1414 embraced and defended the opinions of Wickliff.4 See Wickliffites. HUTCHINSONIANS, so called from the late John Hutchinson, esq., who was born
in 1674. This laborious writer was a layman of Yorkshire; and being of a studious turn, assisted by a proper education, he made many valuable discoveries in the philosophy of nature, which he afterwards applied to theological disquisitions, and had the pleasure to find an exact conformity between those two great constituents of human knowledge. The number of those who embrace his opinions is considerable; but they have never formed themselves into any distinct church or society. It appears to be a leading
sentiment of this denomination, that all our ideas of divinity are formed from the ideas in nature—that nature is a standard-picture, and scripture an application of the several parts of that picture, to draw out to, as the great" things of God, in order to reform our mental conceptions. To prove this point they allege, that the scriptures declare the invisible things of God from the formation of the world, are clearly seen ; being
* Hopkins on Holiness, pp. 7—202. Edwards on the Will, pp. 234– 289. Béllamy's True Religion Delineated, p. 16. Edwards on the Nature of True Virtue, Bellamy's Dialogues between Theron and Paulinus, p.185. West's Essays on Moral Agency, pp. 170–181. Spring's Nature of Duty, p. 23, Moral Disquisitions, p. 40. Manuscript by Dr. Emmons. f Brandt's History of the Reformation, vol. ii. p. 18.
: This is the point which Mr. Henry Lee endeavours to prove in his Sophron, or Nature's Characteristics of the Truth. In a course of meditations on the scenes of Nature, he shews their analogy to what he supposes are scriptural truths. See also Jones's Lectures on the Figurative Language