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ceed from a principle of love

to him and his laws.—(5.) They maintain that the sacraments have in themselves an instrumental and efficient power, by virtue of which they work in the soul, independently of its previous preparation or propensities, a disposition to receive the divine grace.—(6.) The Jesuits recommend a devout ignorance to such as submit to their direction, and think a christion sufficiently instructed when he has learned to yield a blind and unlimited obedience to the orders of the


The following maxims are said to be extracted from the

moral writings of this order:— (1.) That persons truly wicked, and void of the love of God, may expect to obtain eternal life in heaven, provided they be impressed with a fear of the divine anger, and avoid all heinous and enormous crimes through the dread of future punishment. —(2.) That those persons may transgress with safety who have a probable reason for transgressing, i. e. any plausible argument or authority in favour of the sin they are inclined to commit.—(3.) That actions intrinsically evil, and directly contrary to the divine law, may be innocently performed by those who have so much power over their own minds as to join, even ideally, a good end to this wicked action.—(4.) That philosophical sin” is of a very light

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erson who is either abso

* By philosophical sin the Jesuits mean an action contrary to the dictates

of nature and right reason, which is done by a

lutely ignorant of God, or does not think of him during the time this action

is coministed,

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and that such transgressions may be often as involuntary as the actions of a madman. —(6.) That the person who takes an oath, or enters into a contract, may, to elude the force of the one and obligation of the other, add to the form of the words that express them, certain mental additions and tacit reservations. This entire society is composed of four sorts of members; viz. novices, scholars, spiritual and temporal coadjutors, and professed members. Beside the three ordinary vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, which are common to all the monastic tribes, the professed members are obliged to take a fourth, by which they solemnly bind themselves to go without deliberation or delay, wherever the pope shall think fit to send them: they are governed by a general, who has four assistants. The inferiors of this order are required to consider their chief as infall.ble, entirely to renounce their own will in all things, and abandon themselves blindly to his conduct.* ILLUMINATI, i. e. the

Enlightened, a denomination which appeared in Spain about the year 1575. They were charged with maintaining that mental prayer and contemplation had so intimately united them to God, that they were arrived to such a state of perfection, as to stand in no need of good works, or the sacraments of the church, and that they might commit the grossest crimes without sin. After the suppression of the Illuminati in Spain, there appeared a denomination in France which took the same name. They maintained that one Anthony Buckuet had a system of belief and practice revealed to him which exceeded every thing christianity had yet been acquainted with: that by this method persons might in a short time arrive at the same degrees of perfection and glory to which the saints and the blessed Virgin have attained; and this improvement might be carried on till our actions became divine, and our minds wholly given up to the influence of the Almighty. They said further, that none of the doctors of the church knew any thing

* It is so upon the Jesuits that they should use nothing, nor fre

quent any t

ing long enough to be attached to it; that their beds should

not stand a week together in one part of their cells; that even their books of prayer should be frequently changed, lest the mind become occupied by other affections than those with which they wish it to be filled.

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354,355. History of Don Ignatius.

tical Review, vol. lv., p. 309.

of religion; that Paul and Peter were well meaning men, but knew nothing of devotion; that the whole church lay in darkness and unbelief; that every one was at liberty to follow the suggestions of his conscience; that God regarded nothing but himself; and that within ten years their doctrine would be received all over the world : then there would be no more occasion for priests, monks, and other such religious distinctions.” INDEPENDENTS, a denomination of protestants in England and Holland. They derive their name from their maintaining that every particular congregation of christions has an entire and complete power of jurisdiction over its members, to be exercised by the elders of each church within itself, without being subject to the authority of bishops, synods, presbyteries, or any ecclesiastical assembly composed of the deputies from different churches. This denomination appeared in England in the year 1616. John Robinson, a Norfolk divine, was considered as their founder. He possessed sincere piety, and no inconsiderable share of learning. Perceiving defects in the denomination of the Brownists, to which he belonged, he em

ployed his zeal and diligence in correcting them, and in new modelling the society, in such a manner as to render it less odious to its adversaries. The doctrine of the Independents was similar to the Brownists; but they did not, like Brown, pour forth invectives against the churches which were governed by rules entirely different from theirs, nor pronounce them on that account unworthy the christian name. On the contrary, though they considered their own form of ecclesiastical government as of divine institution, and as originally introduced by the authority of the apostles, nay, by the apostles themselves; yet they acknowledged that true religion might flourish in those communities which were under the jurisdiction of bishops, or the government of synods and presbyteries. They were also much more attentive than the Brownists in keeping a regular ministry in their communities; for while the latter allowed promiscuously all ranks and orders of men to teach in public, the Independents had, and still have ministers, chosen respectively by the congregations where they are fixed : nor is any person among them permitted to speak in public, before he have submitted to a

* Broughton, vol. i. pp. 523, 524.

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proper examination of his capacity and talents, and been approved of by the heads of the congregation. [Their grounds of separaration from the established church were, however, different from those of the other puritans. Many of them objected chiefly to its rites, ceremonies, vestments, or forms, or to the persons who were to govern it, while yet they were disposed to arm the magistrate in support of the truth, and regretted and complained that they could not on these accounts conform to it. But Robinson and his companions not only rejected the appointments of the church on these heads, but denied its authority to enact them ; contending that a single congregation of christians was a church, and was independent of all legislation, save that of Christ; standing in need of no such provision or establishment as the state can bestow, and incapable of soliciting or receiving it. Hence they sought not to reform the church, but inculcated upon christians the duty of forsaking it. They admitted there were many godly men in its communion, and that it was reformed from the grossest errors of the man of sin; but that it wanted what was essential to a true church of Jesus Christ.]

In support of their scheme of congregational churches this denomination observe, that the word oxxxnaria, which we translate church, is always used in scripture to signify

either a single congregation, or

the place where a single congregation meets. Thus that unlawful assembly at Ephesus, brought together against Paul by the craftsmen, is called a church. (Acts xix. 29—41.) The word, however, is generally applied to a more sacred use; but still it signifies either the holy assembling, or the place in which it assembles. The whole body of the disciples at Corinth is called the church, and spoken of as coming together into one place. (I Cor. xiv. 23.) The whole nation of Israel is indeed called a church ; but it was no more than a single congregation, for it had but one place of public worship; viz. first the tabernacle, and afterwards the temple. The catholic church of Christ, his holy nation and kingdom, is likewise a single congregation, having one place of worship; viz. heaven, where all the members assemble by faith, and hold communion, and in which they will in fact be one glorious assembly. We find it called the general assembly and church of the first-born, whose names are written in heaven.

The Independents allege, that the church of Corinth had an entire judicature within itself. For Paul thus addressed them: Do not ye judge them which are within 2 (1 Cor. v. 12.) So they were not dependent upon the apostle to come to him for a sentence, nor upon the elders of other churches assembled together.” See Congregationalists.


See Pre-existents.

INVISIBLES, a name of distinction given to the disciples of Osiander, Flacius, Illyricus, Swenkfeld, &c., because they denied the perpetual visibility of the church.t

JOACHIMITES, a denomination which appeared about the commencement of the thirteenth century; so called from Joachim, abbot of Sora, in Calabria. He foretold the destruction of the church of Rome, and the promulgation of a new and more perfect gospel, in the age of the holy Ghost, by a set of poor and austere ministers, whom God was to raise up and employ for that purpose. For he divided the world into three ages, relative to the three dispensations of religion which were to succeed each

other. The two imperfect ages; viz. the age of the old testament, which was that of the Father; and the age of the new, which was under the administration of the Son, were, according to his predictions, now past; and the third age, even that of the holy Ghost, was at hand.] ISBRANIKI, a denomination which appeared in Russia about the year 1666, and assumed this name, which signifies the multitude of the elect. But they were called by their adversaries Rolskolsnika, or the seditious faction. They professed a rigorous zeal for the letter of the holy scriptures. They maintained that there is no subordination of rank among the faithful, and that a christian may kill himself for the love of Christ.5 JUDAIZING CHRISTIANS. The first rise of this denomination is placed under the reign of Adrian. For when this emperor, had at length razed Jerusalem, entirely destroyed its very foundations, and enacted laws of the severest kind against the whole body of the jewish people, the greatest part of the christians who lived in Pales. tine, to prevent their being

* Moshein, vol. iv, p. 526. Neal's History of the Puritans, vol. iii. p. 142,

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