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confounded with the jews, abandoned entirely the Mosaic rites, and chose a bishop, named Mark, a foreigner by nation, and an alien from the commonwealth of Israel. Those who were strongly attached to the Mosaic rites separated from their brethren, and founded at Pera, a country of Palestine, and in the neighbouring parts, particular assemblies, in which the law of Moses maintained its primi
- EITHIANS, a party which separated from the Quakers, in Pennsylvania, in the year 1691. They were headed by the famous George Keith, from whom they derived their name. Those who persisted in their separation after their leader deserted them, practised baptism, and received the Lord's supper.-This party were also called Quaker Baptists, because they retained the language, dress, and manners, of the Quakers.t KNIPPERDOLINGS, a denomination in the sixteenth century; so called from Bertrand Knipperdoling, who taught that the righteous before the day of judgment shall
tive dignity, authority, and lustre.
The body of Judaizing Christians, which set Christ and Moses upon an equal foot in point of authority, were afterwards divided into two sects, extremely different both in their rites and opinions, and distinguished by the names of Nazarenes and Ebionites." See Ebionites and Nazarenes.
have a monarchy on earth, and the wicked be destroyed: that men are not justified by their faith in Christ Jesus: that there is no original sin: that infants ought not to be baptized, and that immersion is the only mode of baptism: that every one has authority to preach and administer the sacraments: that men are not obliged to pay respect to magistrates: that all things ought to be in common : and that it is lawful to marry many wives.; KTISTOLATRAE, a branch of the Monophysites, which maintained that the body of Christ, before his resurrection, was corruptible.}
* Mosheim, vol. i. p. 171. t Edwards's History of the American Baptists, pp. 55–60. # Chevrea's History of the World, vol. iii. p. 437. - $ Mosheim, vol. i. pp. 471, 472.
ABBADISTS, a denomination which arose in the seventeenth century; so called from their founder, John Labbadie, a native of France, a man of no mean genius, and remarkable for a natural and masculine eloquence. He maintained, among other things, that God might, and did on certain occasions deceive men—that the holy scripture was not sufficient to lead men to salvation, without certain particularilluminations and revelations from the holy Ghost—that in reading the scripture, we ought to give less attention to the literal sense of the words, than to the inward suggestions of the Spirit; and that the efficacy of the word depended upon him that preached it—that the faithful ought to have all things in common—that there is no subordination or distinction in the true church of Christ—that Christ was to reign a thousand years upon earth—that the contemplative life is a state of grace and union with God, and the very height of perfection—that the christian, whose mind is contented and calm, sees all things in God, enjoys the Deity, and is perfectly indifferent about every thing that passes in the world—that the christian arrives at that happy state by
the exercise of a perfect selfdenial, by mortifying the flesh and all sensual affections, and by mental prayer.” LAMPETIANS, a denomination in the seventeenth century, the followers of Lampetius, a Syrian monk. He pretended that, as man is born free, a christian, in order to please God, ought to do nothing by necessity ; and that it is therefore unlawful to make vows, even those of obedience.—To this system he added the doctrines of the Arians, Carpocratians, and other denominations.t. See Arians and Carpocratians. LATITUDINARIANS, a name which distinguished those in the seventeenth century who attempted to bring Episcopalians, Presbyterians, and Independents, into one communion, by compromising the difference between them. The chief leaders of this denomination were Hales and Chillingworth, men of distinguished wisdom and piety. The respectable names of More, Cudworth, Gale, Tillotson, and Whitchcot, add a high degree of lustre to this eminent list.—They were zealously attached to the forms of ecclesiastical government and worship which were established in the church of England; but they did not look
* Mosheim, vol, v, p, 63.
f Broughton, vol. ii. p. 31.
upon episcopacy as absolutely and indispensably necessary to
the constitution of the chris
tian church: hence they maintained that those who followed other forms of government and worship, were not on that account to be excluded from the communion, or to forfeit the title of brethren. They reduced the fundamental doctrines of christianity to a few points. By this way of proceeding, they shewed that neither the Episcopalians, who, generally speaking, were Arminians, nor the Presbyterians and Independents, who as generally adopted the doctrines of Calvin, had any reason to oppose each other with such animosity and bitterness, since the subjects of their debates were matters of an indifferent nature, with respect to salvation; and might be variously explained and understood without any prejudice to their eternal interests.”
LIBERTINES, a denomination which arose in Flanders about the year 1525. The heads of this party were one Copin, and one Quintin, of Picardy. The doctrines they taught are comprised in the following propositions:—(1.) That the Deity was the sole operating cause in the mind of man, and the immediate
author of all human actions. —(2.) That consequently the distinctions of good and evil that had been established with respect to those actions, were false and groundless; and that men could not, properly speaking, commit sin.-(3.) That religion consisted in the union of the spirit, or rational soul, with the supreme Being.— (4.) That all those who had attained to this happy union by sublime contemplation and elevation of mind, were then allowed to indulge, without exception or restraint, their appetites and passions, as all their actions were then perfectly innocent.—(5.) That after the death of the body, they were to be united to the Deity. This denomination permitted their followers to call themselves either Catholics or Lutherans.t LOLLARDS. See Wickliffites. - LUCIANISTS, so called from Lucianus, a disciple of Marcion. See Marcionites and Cerdonians. LUCIFERIANS, a denomination in the fourth century; so called from Lucifer, bishop of Cagliari. They are said to have maintained that the soul was transfused from the parents to the children.f
* Mosheim, vol. iv. p. 535. Burnet's History of his own Times, p. 186. t Broughton, vol. ii. p. 543. Mosheim, vol. iv. pp. 122, 123 # Mosheim, vol. i. p. 314.
ŁUTHERANS, those who follow the opinions of Martin Luther, an Augustine friar, who was born at Isleben, in the country of Mansfield, in the circle of Upper Saxony, in the year 1483. He possessed an invincible magnanimity, and an uncommon vigour and acuteness of genius. This denomination took its rise from the distaste taken at the indulgences which were granted in 1517, by Pope Leo the tenth, to those who contributed towards finishing St. Peter's church at Rome. Those famous indulgences administered remission of all sins, past, present, and to come, however enormous their nature, to those who were rich enough to purchase them. At this Luther raised his warning voice; and in ninety-five propositions, maintained publicly at Wittenberg, on September 30. 1517, exposed the doctrine of indulgences, which led him to attack the authority of the pope. This was the commencement of that memorable revolution in the church which is styled the reformation. The capital articles which Luther maintained are as follow ; to which are added a few of the arguments which
are made use of in their defence. 1. That the holy scriptures are the only source whence we are to draw our religious sentiments, whether they relate to faith or practice. For the apostle declares that the scriptures are able to make us wise unto salvation ; and are profitable for doctrine, for reproof, jor correction, and for instruction in righteousness. (2 Tim. iii. 15–17.) To which may be added a cloud of divine witnesses to the same effect.* Reason also confirms the sufficiency of the scriptures: for if the written word be allowed to be a rule in one case, how can it be denied to be a rule in another For the rule is but one in all, and is perfect in its nature. 2. That justification is the effect of faith, exclusive of good works; and that faith ought to produce good works purely in obedience to God, and not in order to our justification:t for the doctrine of the gospel attributes all things to God, and nothing to man. Paul, in his epistle to the Galatians, strenuously oppos
‘ed those who ascribed our
justification partly to works. He asserts that if righteousmess come by the law, then Christ is dead in vain. (Gal. ii. 21.) Therefore it is evident we are not justified by the law, or by our works; but to him who believeth, sin is pardoned and righteousness imputed. 3. That no man is able to make satisfaction for his sins. For our Lord expressly tells his disciples, When ye have done all ye are unprofitable sercants. (Lukexvii. 10.) Christ's sacrifice is alone sufficient to satisfy for sin, and nothing need be added to the infinite value of his merit and sufferings. In consequence of these leading articles, Luther rejected tradition, purgatory, penance, auricular confession, masses, invocation of saints, monastic vows, and other doctrines of the church of Rome. The Lutherans differ from the Calvinists in the following points:–(1.) The Lutherans have bishops and superintendants for the government of the church. But the ecclesiastical government which Calvin introduced was called Presbyterian, and does not admit of the institution of bishops, or of any subordination among the clergy. –(2.) They differ in their notions of
* Prov. i. 9, Isai. viii, 20. Lukei,4, John v. 39. xx, 31. 1 Cor. iv. 6.
t Luther constantly opposed this doctrine to the Rounish tenet, that man by works of his own, prayer, fasting, and corporal afflictions, might merit and claim pardon : he used to call the doctrine of justification by faith alone the article of a standing or falling church.
the sacrament of the Lord's supper. The Lutherans reject transubstantiation; but affirm that the body and blood of Christ are materially present in the sacrament, though in an incomprehensible manner; and that they are really ex
hibited both to the worthy
and unworthy receiver. This union of the body and blood of Christ with the bread after consecration, is by the Lutherans called consubstantiation. The Calvinists hold, on the contrary, that the man Christ is only present in this ordinance by the external signs of bread and wine.—(3.) They differ in their doctrine of the eternal decrees of God respecting man's salvation.* The Lutherans maintain that the divine decrees, respecting the salvation and misery of men, are founded upon a previous knowledge of their sentiments and characters. The Calvinists, on the contrary, consider the divine decrees as free and unconditional. See Calvinists. For an account of the particulars in which Luther differed from Zuinglius, see Zuinglians. The Lutheransare generally divided into the moderate and
* Luther himself strongly maintained the doctrines of grace, original sin,
Hence they have been called the doctrines of the
Reformation. But, as the Lutherans afterwards abandoned them, they are now generally known by the name of Calvinistic doctrines,