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assures us that, in St. Paul's epistles, there are some things hard to be understood, which they who are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, to their own destruction. (2 Pet. iii. 16.) We are directed to stand fast, and hold the traditions which we have been taught, whether by word or by epistle. 2 Thess. ii. 15. 4. That there are seven sacraments instituted by Jesus Christ ; viz. baptism, confirmation, eucharist, penance, extreme unction, orders, and matrimeny ; and that they confer grace.—To prove that confirmation, or imposition of hands, is a sacrament, the Roman catholics argue from Acts viii. 17: They did lay their hands upon them, and they received the holy Ghost. This imposition of hands, together with the prayers here specified, was no doubt the sacrament of confirmation; for here is an outward sign and spiritual grace: therefore confirmation is a sacrament.t —Penance is a sacrament, in

pope is superior to other
2. That the Roman Catholic
church is the mother and mis-
tress of all churches, and can-
not possibly err in matters of
faith : for the church has the
Spirit of God to lead it into
all truth. The gates of hell
shall not prevail against it.
(Matt. xi. 18.) Christ, who is
the way, the truth, and the life,
has promised to the pastors
and teachers of the church
to be with them always, even
to the end of the world.” (Matt.
xxviii. 10.) It is from the
testimony and authority of the
church that we receive the
scriptures, and believe them
to be the word of God; and
as she can assuredly tell us
what particular book is the
word of God, she can with
the same confidence inform
us what is the true sense of
scripture in controvertedpoints
of faith.
3. That the scriptures are
not sufficient without tradition,
and that apostolical traditions
are of equal authority with
the scriptures. For St. Peter

* The catholics do not profess to believe that the pope is infallible sepa. rate from the church. According to them, infallibility resides in the representatives of the universal catholic church; i. e. the body of bishops, uniting and agreeing with their head, the bishop of Roine.

f The church of Rome maintains that confirmation is that which makes us perfect christians. The bishop administers this sacrament to baptized persons only, by the imposition of hands and prayer. He likewise uses the ceremony, which is not considered universally to be essential, of anointing the confirmed person in the forehead with consecrated oil and balm in the manner of a cross, and pronounces these words: “I sign thee with the sign of the cross, and confirm thee with the chrism of salvation, in the natue of the Father, Son, and holy Ghost.”

which the sins we commit after baptism are forgiven." It includes in it contrition and painful sorrow of heart, confession to the priest, and satisfaction to God for our sins, and likewise the absolution pronounced by the priest,t as minister of the sacrament. Christ instituted this sacrament when he breathed upon his apostles after his resurrection, and said unto them, Receive ye the holy Ghost: whose sins ye remit, are remitted; whose sins ye retain, are retained. (John xx. 23.) The power of the priesthood to remit sins is here bestowed upon the apostles and their successors: therefore penance is truly and properly a sacrament.—To prove that extreme wnction, or anointing the sick with oil, is truly a sacrament, the Roman Catholics argue

from James i. 14, 15, quoting the text as it is in the vulgar translation: Is any sick among gou? Let him call for the priests of the church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord; and the prayer of faith shall heal the sick, and the Lord shall raise him ap ; and if he has committed sins, they shall be forgiven him.—That holy orders is a sacrament, appears from 1 Tim. iv. 14: Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the laying on the hands of the presbytery. —That marriage is a sacrament is evident from Eph. v. 32: This is a great mystery. Matrimony is here a sign of a holy thing, representing the conjunction of Christ and his church : therefore it is a sacrament.[

* The catholics say that Christ alone, through the infinite dignity of his

person, is able to offer up to God a sufficient satisfaction for our sins. But, having satisfied superabundantly, he could apply this satisfaction to us, either by granting an entire remission, or changing an eternal punishment into a temporal one. t The absolution given by the priest after confession is in this manner : “Our Lord Jesus Christ, who has left power in his church to absolve all sinners who truly repent and believe in him, of his great mercy forgive thee thine offences; and by his authority committed to me, I absolve thee from all tly sins, in the name of the Father, Son, and holy Ghost, Amen.” “Christ (say this denomination) having left this power to the pastors of his church, the sentence is looked upon as rendered by him who has established them judges. . It is his invisible High Priest who interiorly absolves the penitent, while the priest exteriorly exercises the function.” f Notwithstanding this they enjoin the celibacy of the clergy, and pretend that it was enjoined on them, as the condition of their ordination, even from the apostolic age. The church of Rome do not allow their clergy to marry, bc.cause they do not think it proper that those who, by their office and function, ought to be wholly devoted to God, should be diverted from those duties by the distractions of a married life, 1 Cor. xiii. 32, 33.

5. That in the mass there

which is contained under the form of bread, is my true body. Christ transfigured his body marvellously on the Mount: (Mark ix.) therefore he is able to exhibit his body under the forms of bread and wine.* It is a matter of discipline, not of doctrine, in the Roman Catholic church, to receive the eucharist in one kind; that is in bread only.t 6. That there is a purgatory; and that souls kept prisoners there do receive help by the suffrages of the faithful.; For it is said in 1 Cor. iii. 15, If any man's work shall be burned he shall suffer loss ; but he himself shall be saved, yet so as by jire ; which, say they, may be understood of the flames of purgatory. 7. That the saints reigning with Christ are to be honoured and invoked, and that they do offer prayers unto God for us; to the church, and that the use of them is very beneficial to christian people ;f according to Matt. xvi. 19: I will give unto thee the keys of the Kingdom of heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. By an indulgence, the catholics say, they apply the merit of Christ's life and death to their souls, and through his, those of the holy saints and martyrs. The church of Rome receives the Apostle's creed, the Nicene, and Athanasian creeds. They receive and profess all other things delivered, defined, and declared by the canons, and general councils, and particularly by the council of Trent.S The following ceremonies, and many others too tedious to enumerate, are practised by the church of Rome in . their religious worship :-(1.)

is offered unto God a true and propitiatory sacrifice for the

quick and dead; and that in.

the sacrament of the eucharist, under the forms of bread and wine, is really and substantially present the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ; and that there is a conversion made of the whole substance of the bread into his body, and of the wine into his blood, which is called transubstantiation. In Mal. i. 10, 11, God rejects the jewish sacrifice; but declares his acceptance of that sacrifice, or pure offering, which shall be made to him in every place among the gentiles, which, this deliomination suppose, refers to the sacrifice of the mass. Christ, in the institution of this sacrament, said to his apostles, This is my body; (Matt. xxvi. 26.) i. e. that

* The catholics suppose that the change is made when the words of con

secration ordained by Christ are pronounced by the priest. Then, after having adored, the priest elevates the host and the chalice, to be seen and adored by the people, and to represent the elevation of Christ on the cross. “Christ's words (say the catholics) deter them from referring those exterior appearances to the substance of bread, and teach thein that his body is really present: hence they pay it their adorations,” . The priest, in saying miass, makes a solemn offering to God in behalf of himself and the people; and the catholics suppose that Jesus Christ, who is present on the altar, offers up himself to his eiernal Father. t All the priests, though of the most exalted degree, in private commu- *

Dion, receive, as others do, in one kind.

f The Roman Catholics suppose that souls are released from o by the prayers and alms which are offered for them, wo by the holy sacrifice of the mass. They call purgatory a middle state of souls, where. those enter who depart this life in God’s grace, yet not without some less stains, or guilt of punishment, which retard then from eutering heaven,

and their relics are to be had
in veneration.* For we have
instances in scripture of ho-
nours and veneration paid to
the angels by the servants of
God. (Josh. v. 14, 15.) God
has promised to his saints
power over all nations: (Rev.
ii. 26, 27.) therefore all na-
tions ought to honour the
saints, as having received from
God this kingly power over
them. In Rev. v. 8, the elders
are said to have golden vials
full of odours, which are the
prayers of the saints. See also
Rev. viii. 4. Zech. i. 12.
S. That the images of Christ,
of the blessed Virgin, the mo-
ther of God, and of other
saints, ought to be retained
in churches ; and honour and
veneration ought to be given
unto them. For the images
of cherubims were allowed in
the temple: therefore images
should be placed in churches,
and had in veneration.
9. That the power of in-
dulgences was left by Christ

* The catholics say they do not give divine, but only relative honour, to

the highest angel or saint,

f The council of Trent ordaius that all the honour which is given to images should be referred to the originals which are represented by them.

f The catholics say they do not mean by indulgences leave to commit sin,

mor pardon for sins to come ; but only releasing, by the power of the keys committed to the church, the debt of temporal punishment which may remain due upon account of our sins, after the sins themselves, as to the guilt and eternal punishment, have been already remitted by repentance and confession, An indulgence is granted by none but the higher powers of the church ; as, the . and the supreme head, the pope.

§ A convocation of Roman Catholic cardinals, archbishops, bishops, and divines, who assembled at Trent, by virtue of a bull from the pope, A. D. 1516. This was the last general council called in opposition to the doctrines of Luther and Calvin,

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They make use of the sign of the cross in all their sacraments, to give us to understand that they have their whole force and efficacy from the cross.-(2.) Sprinkling boly water by the priest, on solemn days, is used likewise by every one going in or coming out of church.-(3.) The ceremony of blessing bells is, by the catholics, called christening them; because the name of some saint is ascribed to

them, by virtue of whose in

vocation they are presented, in order that they may obtain his favour and protection.— (4.) They have a custom of bowing at the name of Jesus. —(5.) They keep a number of lamps and wax candles continually burning before the shrines and images of the saints.-(6.) They make use of incense, and have lighted candles upon the altar at the celebration of mass.-(7.) The practice of washing the poors' feet is solemnized on holy Thursday by all the princes of the Romish religion in Europe.

'(The church of Rome ob

serves a variety of holy days.) as the festivals of Christ and his apostles, the festivals of 2 the saints, &c. The church of Rome grants a jubilee; i. e. a general indulgence, every twenty-fifth year, and oftener upon emergent occasions.” For an account of the extent and present state of the Roman Catholic religion, see Part the Second. PARMENIANITES. See Donatists. PASAGINIANS, a denomination which arose in the twelfth century, known also by the name of The Circumcised. Their distinguishing tenets were as follow :-(1.) That the observation of the law of Moses, in every thing, except the offering of sacrifices, was obligatory upon christians. In consequence of which they circumcised their followers, abstained from those meats, the use of which was prohibited under the Mosaic economy, and celebrated the jewish sabbath.-(2.) That Christ was no more than the

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jirst and purest creature of God.

* A jubilee i. a solemn indulgence,

with certain privileges not granted on

other occasions, and extends to the whole church.

Pope Pius's Creed, Bossuet's, FXposition of the Catholic Creed, pp. 62–107. Challoner's True Principles of a Catholic, p. 8, Gother's Papist Misrepresented and Represented, p. 22. Grounds of the Catholic Doctrine, {. 10–34. Explication of the Sacrifice of the Mass, pp. 22–35. Roman 'atholic Principles, p. 5. Brent's Council of Trent, p. 806. Bingham's Works, vol. i. p. 153. Walche's History of the Popes, p. 24. Robertson's History of Charles the Fifth,


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