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insinuator, or recruiter. The whole strength of the sect depends on this part; for it is that which furnishes members r the different degrees. The insinuators, or recruiters of this society, are sent by their superiors to different towns and provinces, and to distant countries. They are directed carefully to conceal their being Illuminees, and to make the knowledge of human nature their particular study. One of the professors of Illuminism gives the following instruction relating to this kind of science: “The novice must be attentive to trifles; for in frivolous occurrences a man is indolent, and makes no effort to act a part; so that his real character is then acting alone.” This assiduous and long continued study of men, enables the professor of such knowledge to act with men, and by his knowledge of their character, to influence their conduct. For such reasons this study is continued during the whole progress through the order.” The object of the Illuminees is said to be, to enlist in every country such as have frequently declared themselves discontented with the usual

institutions; to acquire the direction of education, of church management, of the professional chair, and of the pulpit; to bring their opinions into fashion by every art, and to spread them among young people by the help of young writers; to get under their influence reading and debating societies, reviewers, booksellers, and post-masters; journalists, or editors of newspapers, and their periodical publications; and to insinuate some of their fraternity into all offices of instruction, honour, profit, and influence, in literary, civil, and religious institutions. It is reported that it is one of their favourite maxims, that “the end sanctifies the means.” Hence nothing can restrain them from pushing their plans by the vilest methods. An historical account of the rise and progress of the Illuminees, the characters of the principal leaders of the society, their success, their divisions, sub-divisions, and code of laws, may be seen in detail in Barruel's history of Jacobinism, and Robison's proofs of a conspiracy against all the religions and governments in Europe.

* Barrnel–Robison,


Tii e Prussians are in general Lutherans; but as a great number of the colonists are Calvinists, they have also their churches, not only in the cities and towns, but in some villages they have a particular church appropriated to their use; and in other places they perform divine service in the Lutheran churches. The Roman Catholics have a few churches in this kingdom. Here are also some Mennonites, and a few congregations of Socinians. In the year 1773, Frederic the third, late king of Prussia, signified to the pope his design to give protection in his dominions to the Jesuits, at the time when they were driven out of the Roman Catholic kingdoms and states of Europe, which has caused many of that order to take up their residence in Prussia. Frederic

William, his successor, by an edict, published in 1788, or. dained that the Reformed, Lutheran, and Roman Catholic religions, be preserved genuine and protected.” The toleration of the other denominations remains unimpaired, provided they do not endeavour to make proselytes, and shake the faith of other communions. This edict severely prohibits proselyte making in all confessions, without distinction; but gives every one leave to renounce his old and adopt a new confession, provided he publicly announces his change of religion. Every teacher, whether Calvinist, Lutheran, or Roman Catholic, is required to teach doctrines agreeable to the confession to which he belongs.t

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* Payne's Epitome of History.

t Erskine's Sketches, pp. 91–96. #

ry Guthrie, p. 528,

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THE established religion of the Hungarians is the Roman Catholic, though the major part of the inhabitants are protestants and greeks, who now enjoy the full exercise of their religious liberties. Since the reign of Joseph the second, the protestants in this country have free license to establish schools and churches ; Leopold, his successor, enlarged and secured those privileges, and the present emperor Francis is favorably disposed towards the same cause. At the head of the Roman Catholic Church are two archbishops, and nine bishops, nominated by the king, and confirmed by the pope. In the year 1787, there

was said to be many thousand greeks, two hundred and twenty-three thousand jews, and about fifty thousand Egyptians and Gypsies in this country. There are also a number of Mennonites, or baptists, which are chiefly settled in the neighbourhood of Presburg ; but the jews are dispersed in most of the considerable towns, though under the burden of paying double taxes. In Upper IIungary the Lutherans are very numerous. At Wallachia their fastings almost take up half the year, and are so extremely severe, that they dare not eat any meat, eggs, or milk; but they scarce have any idea of other religious duties.|


THE Roman Catholic is the established church in Transylvania; yet Lutherans,

Calvinists, Arians, Socinians, Greeks, Mahometans, and other denominations, enjoy

* Erskine, p. 221. " Rimmins's History of the Moravians, p. 25. # Payne's Epitome. § Zimmermann and Payne's Epitome, | Born's Travels through Hungary,

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THE established religion in this country is the Roman Catholic, and to this persuasion the nobles and great body of the people are strongly attached. The number of protestants, however, Lutheran and Calvinists, in the republic, particularly in the trading towns, near the Baltic, is very considerable. In former times the rights and numbers of the protestants were so great, that they claimed equal authority with the Roman Catholics; and about 1573 both parties were called diffidents : this term also comprehended the greek church. After the catholics acquired the ascendency, the protestants suffered very great oppressions, which were of long continuance.t However, after they had made several unsuccessful attempts to recover their privileges, it was resolved between the republic and partitioning pow

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* Lindsey's Historical View of Unitarians, p. 154. + Payne's Epitome of History, vol. i. p. 138, : Morse's Geography, vol. ii. p. 266 ,

The Lutheran Church is governed by a presbytery, or consistory of the antistites of the church, and the ministers. The Calvinists have one senior general, and three seniors, to whom the government of their church is entrusted.

There are in Poland congregations of Greeks, Arians, and socinians. The principles of Socinianism made a very early and considerable progress in this country. A translation of the bible in the

Polish language was published in 1572; and two years after, under the direction of the same persons, the catechism, or confession of the Unitarians, was published at Cracow. The abilities and writings of Socinus contributed to the extensive propagation of his opinions ; but though the Socinians in Poland have been very numerous, they have at different times been greatly persecuted."

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trinal points they are far from being universally Calvinistic. Zuinglius was the apostle of protestantism in Switzerland.; The inhabitants of the canton of Glaris live together in a general equality and most perfect harmony; even those of the different persuasions of catholics and protestants, who sometimes perform divine service in the same church, one after the other; and all the offices of state are indifferently administered by both parties, though the protestants are more in number, and superior both in industry and commerce.[]

* See Zimmermann, and Morse's Geography.

* This was written previously to the changes effected in Switzerland by the French. It is said that those convulsions have tended to increase infidelity in that country. However many of its inhabitants have associated for the revival of religion, and a number of serious christians at Basil and Zurich are zealously disposed to favour the mission among the heathen,

; More's Travels, vol. i. p. 336, § Guthrie, p. 560. | Adams's Defence of the American Constitutions, vol. i. p. ;

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