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minister plenipotentiary of the French republic arrived at Rome, and having energetically explained the causes of complaint againt the Roman government, was in part successful in his endeavours to have them removed. The Austrian general was dismissed, and the pope acknowledged the Cisalpine Republic. The immediate cause of the subversion of the papal government, was an insurrection which took place at Rome on December 28. 1797. At that time the insurgents ran to take refuge in the French ambassador's palace, where they were pursued, and numbers sac liced by the papal soldiery. General Duplot, who distinguished himself by his efforts to appease their rage, fell himself a victim to their insatiate fury. After the death of Duplot general Berthier entered Rome, 1798, with a body of republican troops, and assumed the reins of government. The sacred college was denied the resource of a capitulation, and obliged to surrender at discretion. The new government obliterated every vestige of the ancient. Even the presence of the cardinals at Rome is deemed incompatible with the new order of things; they are all involv.

* Memoirs of the Life of Pius the sixth, vol. ii. pp. 226–239.

f Ibid, pp. 367-271.

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ed in the same indiscriminate proscription; and having, the greatest part of them, suffered insult, imprisonment, and spoliation, they hastened to seek an asylum at a distance from Rome. The pope was also obliged to leave Rome, aud removed first to Sienna, and afterwards to a Carthusan monastery, two miles from Florence : he died in this retirement, August 19, 1799.” Immediately after the arrival of the French in Rome, the greater part of these establishments which were linked with the Roman church vanished from sight, and almost all those which constituted a part of the pope's temporal government. The propaganda, the holy office, and all the monuments of intolerance, are utterly abolished; as likewise every thing not essentially connected with the catholic church. As to the purely ecclesiastical functions of the pope, they were committed to a prelate, who, under the title of vicegerent, governed the diocese of Rome, properly so called.

He has continued to

officiate pontifically, and with all the former pomp. He began his career by abolishing a great number of festivals; and although his jurisdiction is confined within the limits of his own bishopric, he has extended the abolition to every other diocese in the Roman republic.t A conclave was held for the election of a new pope at Venice, and after the election was terminated the whole city was illuminated. The new pope is cardinal Gregoris Barnaby Chiaramonte, who has taken the name of Pius the seventh. He is an Italian; is said to be one of the most obscure of the sacred college, and a man of a mild and humane disposition. It is conjectured, that as it is not the intention of either party that the future pope should assume the temporal power, combined kings may have permitted an. obscure individual to be elected, as least likely to give them any opposition. The pope is now returned to Rome, and has officiated in the vatican, July 22. 1800.

—o-----TURKEY IN EUROPE;

Containing the Danubian Provinces and Greece.

THE established religion in this empire is the Mahometan, of the sect of the Sun

nites. The sect of the Shaites is, however, tolerated. All other religions are likewise included in this system of tole-, ration on paying a certain capitation.” Among the christians residing in Turkey, those of the greek religion are the most numerous; and they enjoy certain privileges, and can be advanced to posts of trust and profit; as, to the princely dignity of Moldavia and Wallachia, to the place of body physicians, and interpreters of the imperial court. The greeks are, in religious matters, subject to the patriarch of Constantinople, who is considered as the chief of the greek church and nation, and whose authority and jurisdiction is extensive. Other branches of the greek church, are the Armenians, Coptes, Nestorians, Maronites, &c. The Turkish clergy are numerous. Any person may be a priest who chuses to take the habit, and perform the functions of his order, and may lay down the office when he pleases.t This body is composed of all the learned in that empire; and they are likewise the only

* Memoirs of the Life of Pius the sixth, vol. ii. pp. 335–354, ? European Magazine, for April, 1800,

teachers of the law, who must be consulted in all important cases. In their capacity of lawyers, or interpreters of the korán, which, in most cases, is the code of laws, the clergy are called ylana, or the instructed in the law. The grand sultan himself, as caliph, or successor to the prophet mahomet, is their head; but their actual chief is the mufti, an officer of great authority and political influence, who is styled the maker of laws, giver of judgments, and prelate of orthodoxy. The sultan has the power of deposing the mufti, but he cannot take his property from him, which is considered as sacred. The successors, or descendants of mahomet, who are called emirs, or sherifs, enjoy the same privilege. Those persons, or priests, who are employed in the rites of the public worship, are called imans ; and the mahometan temples are called mosques. There are among the turks eight religious orders. Their monks are called dervises, and lead, in general, a very austere life. The mosques are very richly endowed, and the estates which they have acquired are become sacred, and cannot be taken by the most arbitrary despots. . island) and those of the north quarter are subject to the bishop of Holum. The island is divided into one hundred and eighty-nine parishes." oftcADES, HEBRIDES, AND SHETILAN D. The religion of these islands is pretestant, according to the discipline of the church of Scotland. . . SCA N DIN A WIAN IS LAN DS. These islands, being peopled either from Sweden, Denmark, or Norway, profess the Lutheran religion. co RSICA, Azor ES, MAJORCA, MINORCA, A N DIVICA. The inhabitants of all these islands profess the Roman Catholic religion. * * SAR DIN IA. The Roman Catholic is the established religion. But government has greatly limited the power of the pope, and of the inquisition in this kingdom. A stop has likewise been put to the persecution of the protestants in the vallies of Lucern, Peyrouse, and St. Martin, formerly so famous by the name of Vaudois, on account of their sufferings and firm adherence to their religious tenets. Their number amounts to about two thou

* Every raga (that is, every subject who is not of the Mahometan religion) is allowed only the cruel alternative of death or tribute, and even this is arbitrary in the breast of the conqueror. A marked contempt towards those of a different religion is a conspicuous trait of the Turkish nation; it is apparent in their public and private character; it appears in the solemnity of their legal acts, in the ceremonies of the court, and in the coarse rusticity of #" manners. See Eatan's Survey of the Turkish Empire, published in 1799,

t The mahometans suppose that any mussulman who is perfectly master of the koran, knows | his duty towards God and man, He may then sccupy every civil, military, and ecclesiastical department. See Savary's letters on Egypt, vol. ii. p. 98,

. The founders of all the mahometan temples never fail to endow them, and to establish necessary and perpetual revenues for the support not only of the mosques, but of the ministers who perform service in them. Among the ministers there is commonly a preacher, who bears the name of scheykh ; he is obliged to preach every Friday, always after the solemn service at noon, that every one may be unrestrained, and at liberty to follow the dictates of his zeal. Few of the ministers deliver their discourse from memory : they generally preach upon the dogmas, the ceremonies of worship, and morality ; they seldom touch upon points of controversy. The most zealous and bold Scheykhs explain in their ser

mons the duties of ministers, of magistrates, of national leaders, and even of the sultan. They declaim against vice, luxury, and corruption of manners; they inveigh with vehemence, and generally with impunity, against the unjust, venal, and oppressive conduct of tyrants, who violate the laws and religion of their country. The sultans sometimes attend at these sermons; they generally on these occasions present the preacher with twenty, thirty, or forty ducats, which are given in a ceremonious manner, in the name of the sovereign, when he descends from the pulpit.*

Jews are very numerous in Turkey: they are subject to a chief of their own nation, called Cochan Pascha, whose power over them is greater than that which the patriarch exercises over the greek christians. Gypsies are found in all provinces. Upon the whole, the number of mahometans is greater than that of the subjects of other religious denominations.f

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* See D'Olosson's History of the Othoman Empire, vol. i. p. 485, 58. -

f Zimmermann, pp. 3

sand. The very numerous clergy in these states are not rich. The church is governed by five archbishops, and twenty-six bishops. The clergy are entirely dependent on the king, and subject to the secular jurisdiction. The church-preferments are all in the gift of the king. N A PL EST AND SICILY. The inhabitants of this kingdom are more zealous catholics than those of Rome. There is, however, no inquisiion established at present in this country. The power of the pope in this kingdom is not great. In Naples some prebends are his gift; but in Sicily all church-preferment is in the gift of the king. The clergy are very numerous, and so rich, that not less than one half of the riches of the country are in the possession of the church. There are in Naples twenty archbishops, and one hundred and seven bishops. In Sicily three archbishops, and eight bishops. In the year 1782 there were in Naples alone forty-five thousand five hundred and twenty-five priests, twenty-four thousand six hundred and ninety-four monks, twenty thousand seves,

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* Guthrie, p. 63,

f Naples is inserted in this place, though it is not an island, because Naples and Sicily belong to one kingdom, # We are informed that the inquisition was abolished in Sicily in 1784, without disturbance, and with general approbation, See Erskine's Sketches.

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