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* A BRAHAMIANS, a denomination in the ninth century, so called from their founder, Abraham. They received the doctrines of the Paulicians, and are said to have employed the cross in the most servile offices.” See Paulicians. ABYSSINIAN CHURCH, that established in the empire of Abyssinia. They maintain that the two natures are united in Christ, without either confusion or mixture ; so that though the nature of our Saviour be really one, yet it is at the same time two-fold and “ompound.
They differ from the Eutychians in this respect: they confess that the nature of Christ is composed of two natures, the divine and human, which, being united, became one single nature: but Eutyches affirmed the human to be wholly absorbed in the divine.
The Abyssinian church embraced these tenets in the seventh century. They disown the pope's supremacy, and transubstantiation, though they believe the real presence of Christin the sacrament. They administer the communion in both kinds. Like the Roman
catholics, they offer their de
* + Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, vol. i. p. 10.
votions and prayers to the saints, and have proper offices, fasts, and festivals, in memory of them. They believe a middle state, in which departed souls must be purged from their sins, and may be greatly assisted and relieved by the prayers, alms, and penances of their surviving friends, who seldom fail of performing so charitable, and, as they deem it, meritorious a duty to them frequently, and with great fervency. They use confession, and receive penance and absolution from the priests.” For other particulars relating to this church see part the second. ACEPHALI, i.e. headless. The word is compounded of the privative a and xíoaxi, a head. They were a branch of the Eutychians, who by the submission of Mongos, bishop of Alexandria, had been deprived of their chief. This denomination was afterwards divided into three others, who were called Anthropomorphites, Barsanaphites, and Esaianites.t. See Eutychians, ADAMITES, a denomination in the second century, who assumed this title from their asserting, that since their redemption by the death of Christ they were as innocent
as Adam before the fall, and consequently went naked in their assemblies. The author of this denomination was Prodicus, a disciple of Carpocrates. It was renewed in the fifteenth century by one Picard, a native of Flanders.; ADESSENARIANS, area branch of the Sacramentarians; so called from the latin, adesse, (to be present) because they believed the presence of Christ's body in the eucharist, though in a different manner from the Romanists. They were subdivided into those who held that the body of Jesus Christ is in the bread, (whence they were called Impanatores) those who hold that it is about the bread, those who said it is with the bread, and those who maintained that it is under the bread. §
* Mosheim, vol. ii. p. 172, vol. iii. p. 492. Dict, of Arts and Scien; vol. i. p. 15. Mod, Univ. Hist, vol. xv, p. 174–177. Ludolph's Hist, of Ethiopia,
t Mosheino, vol. i. p. 418. $ Broughton, vol. i. p. 15,
t Broughton's Hist. Lib, vol. i. p. 49. || Dict, of Arts and Scien, vol. i. p. 49.
two; so called from one Aerius, a presbyter monk, and SemiArian. One of his principal tenets was, that there is no distinction founded in scripture between a presbyter and a bishop. He built his opinion chiefly on the passage in the first epistle to Timothy, in which the apostle exhorts him not to neglect the gift he had received by the laying on the hands of the presbytery. Aerius condemned prayers for the dead, stated fasts, the celebration of Easter, and other rites of the like nature.” AFTIANS, a denomination which appeared about the year three hundred and thirty-six; so called from Aetius, a Syrian. Besides the opinions which the Aetians held in common with the Arians, they maintained that faith without works was sufficient to salvation; and that no sin, however grievous, would be imputed to the faithful. Aetius moreover affirmed, that what God had concealed from the apostles he had revealed to him.* AGINIANS, a denomination which appeared about the end of the seventh century. They condemned the use of certain meats and marriage. They had but few followers, and were soon suppressed.t
' AGNOITES, a denomination which appeared about the year three hundred and seventy. They were followers of Theophronius, the Capadocian, who called in question the omniscience of God; alleging that he knew things past only by memory, and things future only by an uncertain prescience. There arose another sect of the same name about the year five hundred and thirty-five, who followed the sentiments of Themisticus, deacon of Alexandria, who held that Christ knew not when the day of judgment shall be. He founded this opinion on a passage in St. Mark: Of that day and hour knoweth no man ; no, not the angels who are in heaven; nor the Son, but the Father only. This sect derive their name from the greek, Aywasow, to be ignorant.' ALBANENSES, a denomination which commenced about the year seven hundred and ninety-six. They held, with the Gnostics and Manicheans, two principles, the one of good, the other of evil. They denied the divinity, and even the humanity of Jesus Christ; asserting that he was not truly man, did not suffer on the cross, die, rise again,
nor really ascend into heaven. They rejected the doctrine of the resurrection, affirmed that the general judgment was past, and that hell-torments were no other than the , evils, we feel and suffer, in this life. They denied free-will, did not admit original sin, and never administered baptism to infants. They held that a man. can give the holy Spirit of himself, and that it is unlawful for a christian to take an oath. ' ' ... . . . . • This denomination derived their name from the place where their spiritual ruler resided.” See Manicheans and Catherists, ... . . . . . . ALBANOIS, a denomination which sprung up in the eighth century, and renewed the greatest part of the Manichean principles. They also maintained that the world was from eternity.t., See. Manicheans. . - ALBIGENSES, so called from their first increase in Albi and Albigeois. A denomination remarkable for their opposition to the discipline and ceremonies of the church of Rome. Their opinions are
similar to the Waldenses.t. See Waldenses. . . . .
ALMARICIANS, a denomination that arose in the thirteenth century. They derived their origin from Alma
ric, professor of . logic and
theology at Paris. His adversaries charged him with having taught that every christian was obliged to believe himself a member of Jesus Christ, and that without this belief none could be saved. His followers , asserted that the power of the Father had continued only during the Mosaic dispensation, that of the Son twelve hundred years after his entrance upon earth, and that in the thirteenth century the age of the holy Spirit commenced, in which the sacraments and all external worship were to be abolished; and that every one was to be saved by the internal operations of the holy Spirit alone, without any external act of religion.| ALOGIANS, a denomination in Asia Minor in the year one hundred and seventy-one; so called because they denied the divine logos, or word, and the gospel and writings of St.
Mosheim, vol. ii. p. 445.
- t Collier's Historical Dictionary, vol. i. See Albanois.
f Perrin's History of the Waldenses, p. 3,
. § The learned Spanheim imagines that Almaric was falsely charged with maintaining the sentiments above mentioned, in order to render his memory odious, because he had opposed the worship of Saints and images.