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X

=

x?

30 (20 6) (x + 5); for the product of - 6 and 5 is 30, and their sum is 1.

And so, 18 x + 32 (20 2) (2 - 16),

And as + 3 ab 108 62 a + (12 9 b) a (126) (- 96) = (a + 126) (a 96).

(IV.) The form ax + bx + C.

This is the general form of a trinomial. The following remarks, though equally applying to each of the three preceding forms, are especially intended to be practically applied to trinomnials not included by them.

The above form will include such expressions as the following:-20 + 11 x 42, 6cm

37 x + 55. It is evident that the product of the first terms of the factors will be the first term of the given trinomial, and that the product of the last terms of the factors will be the third term of the given trinomial.

And, further, when the third term is negative, the last term of one factor must have the sign +, and the last term of the other the sign -; but, when the third term is positive, the last terms of the factors must have the same sign as the middle term. Thus, 12 xa

30 (4 x + 3) (3 x 10). Here the factors of 12 ca are either 3 x and 4 x, 6 x and 2 x, 12 x and x, and the factors of 30 either 5 and 6, 3 and 10, 2 and 15, 1 and 30; and we must give a + sign to one of each of these latter pairs, and a sign to the other. It is easily found on trial that, in order to obtain - 31 x as the middle terni, the factors of the trinomial must be 4 x + 3 and 3 x 10.

So we have 10 ao 41 ab + 21 22 (5 a 36) (2 a -76), and acxa + (ad + bc) ay + bdy = (ax + by) (cs + dy).

(V.) The forms 2" + yn and an y".

We shall show in the next article that a rational integral algebraical expression, involving x, contains ac – a as a factor when it vanishes on substituting a for ..

Hence, 2c+ y" and y” must each vanish on putting for X, if they contain a y as a factor, n being an integer. The former becomes you + y" or 2 y", and the latter yn

We therefore conclude that2n + ydoes not contain a y as a factor, and that

31 x

y" or 0.

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20% - ydoes contain x y as a factor, whether n be even or odd.

Again, on the same principle, they must each vanish if they contain x + y as a factor, on putting - y for X.

The former becomes ( – y)” + y", which vanishes when n isodd, and the latter becomes ( - y)" y”, which vanishes when n is even. Hence we conclude thatacne + ycontains 2 + y as a factor when n is odd, and

ycontains x + y as a factor when n is even. Now, the quotient of either of these quantities by x + y or

y can in any particular case be found by long division. We thus find that20 + ys

(x + y) (224 2c%y + 2ʻy2 ry + y), y4 = (xc 3) (z + z^2 + 2 + /*), goud yu (x - y) (x2 + xy + y^). The law of formation of the co-factor in each case is

easy to see; and if we may assume this apparent law as generally true, we may conclude that, when an algebraical quantity is of the form xin + y" or 2cm y", and it contains x + y or x as a factor, the law of formation of the co-factor is as follows:

Law of Formation of Co-Factor. 1. The terms are homogeneous, and of dimensions one degree lower than the given expression, the power of x in the first term being n 1, and diminishing each successive term by unity; and the power of y increasing each successive term by unity, and first appearing in the second term.

2. The coefficient of every term is unity.

3. The signs are alternately + and when x + y is the corresponding elementary factor; and are all +, when x - y is the corresponding elementary factor.

Ex. 1. a + 32 ab + 25 (a + 2) (a* + a2 • 2 + a2. 22 + a • 23 + 24) = (a + 2) (a* + 2 a3 + 4 a2 + 8 a + 16).

Ex. 2. a 76 (ap)2 – (63)2 = (a3 + 63) (as 63) (a + b) (az - ab + 62). (a - b) (a2 + ab + b2 = (a + b) (a ) (a? ab + b^) (a2 + ab + b*).

30. The remainder of the division of a rational integral function of x by x - a may be found by putting a for x in the given function.

a.

or R

a.

DEF.-A function of x is an algebraical expression involving w; and a rational integral function of x is an expression of the form ax" + buch-T + &c. + s + t, where all the powers of x are integral and positive.

Let f (x)* be a rational integral function of x, and suppose Q to be the quotient, and R the remainder on dividing the function by a Then, evidently

Q (a) + R = f(x) identically.
And this identity must hold for all values of x, and
therefore holds when x = a.
In this case we have Q (a

a) + R f(a)
Ó + R = f (a)

f (a). Now f (a) is the result of putting a for in the given function, and is, as we have just shown, the remainder on dividing the given fun

on by a COR. 1. When there is no remainder, we must, of course, have f (a) = 0. Hence, a given rational integral function of x vanishes when a is put for x, if it be divisible by x – a.

Ex. 1. The remainder, after the division of 2 203 6 2 + 7 by a - 2 is 15. For, putting a = 2, we have

2 203 – 5 cm + 6 + 7 2.23 5.22 + 6.2 + 7 = 15. Ex. 2. The function

2013 2 2* + 5 x 52 is divisible by x 4. For, putting o = 4, we have

2ec3 - 2 wc + 5 x 52 43 2 · 4? + 5.4 - 52 = 0. COR. 2. Any rational integral function of x is divisible by

1, when the sum of the coefficients of the terms is zero. For, putting a = 1 in the given function, it is evident that it is reduced to the sum of its coefficients, which sum must be zero if the function be divisible by a . 1.

Ex. Each of the following functions is divisible by 2 – 1, viz.:3 204 + 7 2c3 202 + 12 x

21, 5 x?

3, (a - b) a2 + (6c) x + (c – a), (a + b)*2*— 4 abx (a - b)?. * The expression f (x) must not be considered to mean the product off and x, but as a symbol used for convenience,

5 x +

22C

1

+1.

COR. 3. Any rational integral function of a is divisible by ac + 1, when the sum of the coefficients of the even powers of x is equal to the sum of the coefficients of the odd powers.

(The term independent of x is always to be considered as the coefficient of an even power).

Let ax" + ax" - + &c. + rza + sx + t be a rational integral function of x. Put x =

1, then we have, if the function be divisible by a + 1–

a (-1)" +b(-1)"–1 + &c. + = (-1): + 8 (-1) +t=0.

Suppose n to be even, then evidently ( – 1)" = ( - 1) (-1) ( – 1)...to an even number of factors

And so (-1)" -1 = ( - 1) ( - 1) (-1)...to an odd number of factors -1; and so on. Hence we get a

b + &c. + 70 S + t = 0, and this must evidently require the condition that the sum of the positive quantities is equal to the sum of the negative, and, therefore, that the sum of the coefficients of the even powers of x is equal to the sum of the coefficients of the odd powers. And a similar result will follow if we suppose n to be odd.

Ex. Each of the following functions is divisible by x + 1, viz:as + 5 at + 7 or + 3, 5 ach 4 204 + 8 cm

1, a®* - (a + 1) (a + 2) 2* + 2 + 3 a + 4, pak + (2 + r) 2* +(q + r) x + p.

Ex. IX. Resolve into elementary factors, 1. 2? - 9 a', 16 y - 25 24, 24 a’ - 54 6?, 8 23 - 27 y*. 2. af - ay, at - B, arry + avty, 2 aye - 8 ay'జి.

3. a* - 4 6, ac* + x*y + y, at – 2 aʼba + 34, ao + 12 - + 2 ab.

4. ^ + + d^ + 2 ab 2 cd, a 72 - C + MP + 2 bc + 2 ad, a? (6 c) 5. (x + 7) – (2 + 2), (2c + 5)2 – (2c + 2), (2 a + b)2 (a - c)?

6. (23 y3)2 + 4 (2c4 + acʻya + 34) 2*y?, (aca + y2)* 5 (202 + y2) c*y2 + 4 c*y!.

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4x

11 C

7. 2 - 3 3 - 70,300 + 11x + 10, ao - 15 ab + 56 b*, **

192. 8. a^2 + abxy - 42 b*yo, 3 ax® – 24 ax - 60 a, 24 ac – 5 ac + ac?

9. 6 x 11% -35, 8x2 + 6 x 135, 18.2° - 21. – 72, 20 22

42. 10. 3 xy + 10 xʻy2 + 3 xyl, 20 203 + 12 axo + 25 6x + 15 abx, məni + (mq + mp) * + Pq.

Write down the quotient of
11. 2C*
16 by a

2, 3.2c6 + 96 by x + 2, 20% aca 3.

12. (a + b)3 - (c + d) by a + b + c + d, a72 + c - do + 2 ac + 2 bd by a + b + c

d. Find the remainder after the division of

13. 2* + pacz + qaca + rac + s by » a, 20* + a* by ac2 a.

14. g3 - 530° + 72 - 9 by x + 3, ** - 3x + 7 by - 2. Show that 15. 5 205 3 203 + 7 x2

1 is divisible by x 1. 16. 2x 3 203 + 2ca

13 is divisible by x + 1.

27 by

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CHAPTER III.

INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION.

Involution.

31. Involution is the operation by which we obtain the powers of quantities. This can of course be done by multiplication, but the results obtained by the actual multiplication of simple formis enable us to develop without multiplication more complex forms. As the subject requires the aid of the Binomial Theorem, we shall here show how to develop a few only of the more simple expressions.

32. The power of a single term is obtained by raising the

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