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12. (2cm - am) = (22 a*")
(ac? + a”) (20* + a 4) (908 + ans

.(225

(22" + a2"). Find the square roots of13, a + b + c + 2 (ałyk + alch + Btch). 14. 4xy$ – ago gây +

12 xiy + 17 x*y} – 12 x{y} + 420?. 15. a'b-1 - 4 ab-1-8a-175 + 4 a-6 + 8.

a Find the cube roots of 16. m* + 9 x4 + 6x4 - 99.2 - 42 25 + 441 } - 343.

zł 17. my-1 + 3 x*y–} + 3 x’y-} + 1. 18. ab (1 + 3 a-$} + 3 a-{b} + a-18) (ab-1 - 3 a 6 }

+ 3 ałb-} + 1).

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CHAPTER IV.

SURDS.

12. A surd quantity is one in which the root indicated cannot be denoted without the use of a fractional index. Thus, the following quantities are surds :

Ja
Ja, ja+ xe", Wa? + b3 + c,

/x

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C + y

a + 2

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2 +

* * , (****)

al

3/135,

Wany.

Since, from what has been explained in the last chapter, these quantities may be written thus

(a + x)* , (a2 + ax*)}, (a + b + c)”,

(3 + y)} it follows that surds may be dealt with exactly as we deal with their equivalent expressions with fractional indices.

It is evident that rational quantities may be put in the form of surds, and conversely, expressions which have the form of surds may sometimes be rational quantities.

Thus, a = Va?)= Yas;
and Tax + 3 a2b + 3 ab? + 63 la + b)3 = a + b.

13. A mixed quantity may be expressed as a surd.
Thus, 3 35 = 933. 35 = 333 x 5 =
and so, « Wy = 2". Vy

14. Conversely, a surd may be expressed as a mixed quantity, when the root of any factor can be obtained. Thus, V18 a362

V9 a’62 x 2 a
19 a’62. J2a = 3 ab 12 a.

aụb
And Na + b*)*x*y> = V(a + b*)**

? b2x xy? 8/(a + b^)x - Rao (a + b)?xy Tay. 15. Fractional surd expressions may be 80 expressed that the surd portion may be integral.

The process is called rationalizing the denominator, and is worth special notice.

21 3 x 7

121 . 1

72

JE 7. It is much easier to find approximately the value of 121, and divide the result by 7, than to find the values of 13 and /7, and divide the former by the latter. Ex. 2. Reduce to its simplest form

ху

.

.

Ex. 1. V

Ni

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/c/(b - c).
b

4 Ex. 3. Find the arithmetical value of

2 73 The denominator is the difference of two quantities, one of hich is a quadratic surd.

Now, we know that (2 V3) (2 + 1/3) = 22 - (1/3)* = 4 - 3 = 1, and hence we see that by multiplying

3 numerator and denominator by the sum of the quantities in the denominator we can obtain the denominator in a rational form. 4

4 (2 + 13) 4 (2 + 13) Thus, 2 1/3 (2 V3) (2 + 13)

22 - (13) 4 (2 + 1/3) 4 (2 + 1/3)

= 4 (2 + 13)
4 3

1
4 (2 + 1.73205) 4 (3.73205.)

= 14:92820.
4

4(472 – 3 13)
na so,

4.2
4 12 + 3 73" (4 + 3 13) (4 12 - 313)

VI
4(4 72 - 3 13) 4 (4 12 3 13)

= ? (4 12 - 3/3). (4 12)2 – (3/3) 32 27

We shall now give an example when the surds are not quadratic. Ex 4. Rationalize the denominator of

x - y

? Since (cł)12 (33)12 is (Art. 29, page 175) divisible by at - y}, it follows that the rationalizing factor is their quotient, which is easily found. 16. Surds

may

be reduced to a common index. Ex. 1. Express ma and mb as surds having a common index. Since la am, and */6 bn, it follows that, by reducing the fractional indices to a common denominator, the given surds become respectively amn, bm, or mm/a", mn/om.

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Ex. 2. Reduce Va36 and 3vy to a common index.

The least common denominator of the fractional indices of the given surds is 4 x 3 or 12. Hence we proceed as follows:Valb (aoo)? (a*b)**

ab)* ab,
Vzaj: = (x*y*)} = (x+y?) !
(

1'1 (z®y?)* = "z20y%. When the student has had a little practice, the first two steps of each of the operations may be omitted.

17. Addition and subtraction of similar surds.

DEF. Similar surds are those which have the same irrational factors.

Ex. 1. Find the sum of 112, 5/27, - 2 275. We have

12 + 5/27 - 2275

122 x 3 + 5 132 x 3 - 25 x 3
= 2 73 + 5 x 3 73 – 2 x 573
= x

2 3 + 15/3 - 10/3
(2 + 15

10) W3 = 7 N3.
Ex. 2. Simplify-
a ́b + 2ab + 73 a b 2ab + 63

2ab + 62 a + 2ab + 62 The given expression

(a + 5)26 Ja 6)

(a - b) (a + b)2
a + b

7
NT- No= (a
7
a + b

6
(a +
6) (a 6)2

4 ab

No (a - b) (a + b)

Vi. a?

32 18. Multiplication and division of surds.

The following examples will best illustrate these operations:

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Ex. 1. Multiply a Na*yz by b.Nüyêu.
We have, a Vøyz x 6 Væyou = ab Va*yz x wyért

= ab *yʻuz = abx®yJuz. Ex. 2. Multiply a + cvā by a – Vod.

. Arranging as in the case of rational quantities, we have

+ en
ed

sod
a 1b + ac Jd
- ab - cd J6

N

cd) 1b + alc b) ja Ex. 3. Divide a /6 by b Ja.

a No. Na We have,

1 b Na o da. Na When the divisor is a compound quantity it will generally be the best to express the surds as quantities with fractional indices, and proceed as in ordinary division.

19.The square root of a rational quantity cannot be partly rational and partly irrational. If possible, let ja = m + vo; then, squaring, a = m + 2 m /b + b; or, 2 m jo (m + b);

(ma + b) or, 16

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that is, an irrational quantity is equal to a rational quantity, which is absurd.

20. To find the square root of a binomial, one of whose terms is a quadratic surd.

Let a + jo be the binomial.
Assume va + b = + Vy,

.(1); then, squaring, a + 16 = x + y + 2 Næy,. .... (2).

Equating the rational and irrational parts (Art. 19), we

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