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11. A. and B. barter; A. has 145 barrels flour at $8 per barrel, ready money, but in barter he will have $88: B. has salt at $1 per bushel ready money: How must B. sell his salt per bushel in proportion to A's bartering price, and how many bushels are equal to A's flour ?

Ans. Barter price $1 9 cts. 3 m. and must give A. 1160 bus.

LOSS AND GAIN. Loss and Gain is a rule by which traders calculate their profit, or loss per cent. or on the gross : It also directs them how to raise or fall the price of their goods, so as to gain, or lose any proposed rate per cent, &c. I. To calculate the gain or loss per cent. on goods having the

prime cost and selling price given. RULE--Find the gain or loss by Subtraction; then say as the price it cost: is to the gain or loss :: So is 1001. or dollars : to the gain or loss per cent.

EXAMPLES. 1. Bought tea at 87} cents per lb. which I sold at $1 per lb. what do I gain per cent ?

As 87} : 100—871 :: 100 : 144 per cent. Ans. 2. If I buy tea at $1 per lb. and sell it again at 87} cents per lb. what is lost per cent ?

Ans. 127 per cent. 3. Bought 1 cwt. of butter for 81. 8s. which I sell again at 20d. per lb. what is the gain on the whole and what per cent?

Ans.

Gain on the whole 18s. 8d.
Gain per cent. 111. 2s. 2336

. 4. A merchant bought 315 bushels of wheat at 168. per bushel, and 537 bushels of ditto, at 138. per bushel, and sold it, one with another, at 158. per bushel : What did he gain on the whole and what per cent ?

Ans.

S Gain on the whole 371. 19s.

Gain per cent. 61. 6s. 3-4 185 5. If a merchant gain 24d. on a shilling, what is that per eent?

Ans. 181. 108. 10d. 6. Bought cloth at 8s. per yard, ready money, which I immediately sell again at 9s. per yard on 6 months credit: What is the gain per cent ?

l. 1.

mo. l.
As 8:9--8: : 100 : 12 10. As 12 : 6::6: 3
1. 1. 1. 1. 1.

1. 8. d.
A$ 100+3 : 100 : : 100+12 10 : 109 4 5 605.

1. 8. d. 1. 1. 8. 2.
Hence, 109 4 51903-100=9 4 5.05 Ans.

12024d.

8.

mo. l.

7. If I buy wine at 125 cents per gallon ready money, and sell

it again at 175 cents per gallon on 4 months credit : What do I gain per cent ?

Ans. $37 25 18 cts. 8. If for ready money I could purchase tobacco at 86 per 100 lb. and sell it on 3 months credit, at $7 50 cts. per 100 lb, What would be my gain per cent ?

Ans. 823 153 cts. 9. Suppose I receive from Richmond, Virginia, 12 hogsheads of tobacco, weighing 15457 lb. neat, which, with the charges there, amounted to $796 85 cts. freight from thence to New York $6 per hogshead, (rayage and storage there 90 cts. per hogshead, and freight to Albany, $1 50 cts. per hogshead. What does it stand me in per 100 lb. and what will be my gain per cent. by selling it at 7} cts. per lb. on 5 months credit ? Ans. Stands me in per 100 lb. 85 8011449

cts.

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920091 2 5

10. Bought 1 pipe of wine, for 501. ready money, and sold it for 541. 10s. payable in 2 months. Quere, the gain per cent. per annum.

£.
54 10
50

£. 50 :

4 10: : 100months 2

12 months. Ans. 541. 11. Bought a house and lot at $5000, payable in 9 months, which I sold again for $5500, payable in 15 months : What is the gain per cent. per annum?

Ans.

$20. 12. What is the profit per cent. in 12 months upon 3000 lb. of coffee, which cost 25 cents per lb. ready money, and sold for 30 cents per lb. on a credit of 8 months ? Ans. $30.

13. A tobacconist buys 21 barrels of manufactured tobacco, neat weight 30 cwt. 3 grs. 14 lb. at $94 per 100 lb. ready money, and sells it for $111 per 100 lb. on 4 months credit: I demand the gain per cent. per annum ?

Ans. 860 8614 cts. 14. If I buy run at 9s. per gallon on a credit of 4 months, and sell the same at 8s. per gallon, for ready money: What is the loss zer cent. per annum ?

Ans. 331. 68. 8d. II. To calculate how goods must be sold, so as to gain or lose

any proposed rate per cent. RULE--As 1001. or dollars: is to the price :: So is 1001. or dollars, with the gain added, or loss subtracted : to the price accordingly?

cts.

EXAMPLES. 15. Bought tea at 87} cts. per lb. how must I sell it, so as to gain at the rate of $144 per cent ?

$ As 100: 87 : : 100+144 : 100 cents per lb. Ans. 16. If I buy a quantity of tea at $1 per lb. how must it be sold to lose $123 per cent ?

Ans. 874 cts. 17. Bought cloth at 45s. per yard, which I find on examination to be of inferior quality to what I expected, and must lose 173 per cent. by it. What will be the price per yard ?

Ans. 373. 14d. 18. Bought a pipe of wine containing 126 gallons at 10s. per gallon, but by accident 16 gallons leaked out : At what rate must the remainder be sold per gallon, to gain upon the whole prime cost, at the rate of 124 per cent ?

Ans, 128. 101d. III. When the gain or loss per cent. is given with the selling price

of the commodity, to find the prime cost, RULE--As 1001. or dollars, with the gain per cent. added, or loss per centsubtracted : is to the price : : So is 100l. or dollars : to the prime cost.

EXAMPLES. 19. If by selling tea at $1 per lb. there is gained $144

What did the pound cost ?

$ $ $

As 100+144 : 1: : 100 : 871 cts. per lb. Ans. 20. If by selling tea at 87} cents per lb. there is lost $124

What did it cost per pound? Ans. $1. 21. If 40 lb. of butter be sold at 1s. 6d. per lb. and I gain 91. per cent. What did the whole cost ?

Ans. 21. 158. Od. 21 grs. 22. If 126 gallons of wine be sold retail at 15s. per gallon, whereby I gain 201. per cent. What did it cost per gallon?

Ans. 128. 6d. IV. The selling price and the gain or loss per cent. being given ;

to find what would be the gain or loss per cent. if sold at any other price.

RULE--As the first price : is to 1001. or dollars with the gain per cent. added, or loss per cent subtracted : ; So is the other price : to gain or loss per cent required.

N. B. If the answer exceed 100, the excess is the gain per cent. but if less than 100, the deficiency is the loss per cent.

per cent.

per cent.

cts.

cts.

EXAMPLES. 23. If when tea is sold at $1 per lb. there is a gain of $144 per cent: What will be the gain or loss per cent. by selling it at 87} cents per lb ?

$

$
As 100 : 100+144 : : 871 : 100--100=0

Ans. Neither gain nor losse 24. If a merchant gain $127 per cent. by selling salt at $1 per bushel ; afterwards becoming scarce, he advances the price 124 cents per bushel : What will then be his gain per cent?

Ans. $26.564 cts. 25. If molasses sold at 48 cents per gallon, produce $10 per cent gain : What will be the gain or loss per cent. if it is sold at 42 cents per gallon?

Ans.

$34 loss. 26. A stationer sold quills at 8s. 9d. per hundred, by which he gained of the money, he afterwards found them to be in great demand and raised them to 9s. 6d. per hundred. Required

his gain per cent., by the latter price ? : 116

2016.11. fans. 261. 13s. 4d.

EXCHANGE. Exchange is the receiving or paying money in one state or country, for the like sum in another.

The par of exchange is when the sum received and paid away are of the same intrinsic value, or contain an equal quantity of pure gold or silver.

The course of exchange is the current price betwixt two places, which is fluctuating, being sometimes above and some. times below par, according to the circumstances of trade.

INLAND EXCHANGE. 1. To change Federal money, into the currencies of the different

states.

GENERAL RULE-As $1: is to its value in currency :: $0 is the given sum in dollars : to the answer in currency.

EXAMPLE AND PARTICULAR RULES. 1. Given $625 Federal money to be changed into the currencies of the different states of New-England, Virginia, Rule. X by 3 - by 10. or x by.3 Kentucky, Tennessee, &c. where $i is current at 6. S

Ans. 1871. 10s. New-York and North Carolina, 2 Rule. Xby 2-;-by 5.orxby.4 where $1 is current at 8s.

Ans. £250. New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Rule. Xby 3-;-by 8. Delaware and Maryland, where $1 is current at7s 6d

Ans. 2341. 78. 6d.

South-Carolina and Georgia, Rule. Xby 7 ;-by 30 where $1 is current at 45.8d. Ans. 1451. 168. 8d. II. To change the currencies of the different states, into Federal

money, and the currency of one state into that of another. GENERAL Rule-As the value of $1 in currency: is to $1 :

:: so is the given sum in currency: to the answer in dollars.

As the value of $1 in known currency: is to the value of Si in required currency :: so is the given sum in known currency: to the answer in currency required.

EXAMPLES AND PARTICULAR RULES. 2. Given 1871. 10s. currency of New-England, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, &c. where $1 is current at 6s. to be changed into the currency of The United States of America, 2 Rule. Xby 10---by 3. where $1 is current at 100cents.)

Ans. $625. New-York & North-Carolina, Rule. X by 4 - by 3. or +1 where Siis current at 8s.

Ans. £250 New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Rule. X by 5 ;- by 4. or + Delaware and Maryland, where $1 is current at 7. 6d.

Ans. 2341. 7s. 6d. South-Carolina and Georgia, 2 Rule. X by 7 - by 9.orwhere 1$ is current at 45. 8d. S

Ans. 1451. 16:. 8d. 3. Given £250 currency of New York and North-Carolina, where $1 is current at 8s. to be changed into the currency of The United States of America, 2 Rule. X by 5+- by 2.or-:-by.4 where $1 is current at 100 cents,

Ans. $625. New-England, Virginia, Rule. X by 3 ; by 4. or — Kentucky, Tennessee, &c. where 81 is current at 6s.

Ans. 1871. 108. New Jersey, Pensylvania, Rule. X by 15 - by 16. or-it Delaware and Maryland, where S1is current at7s.6d.

Ans. 2341. 78. 6d. South-Carolina and Georgia, 2 Rule. Xby 7 --by 12. or where $1 is current at 4s. 8d. S

Ans. 1451. 168. 8d. 4. Given 234l. 78. 6d, currency of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Maryland, where $1 is current at 78. 6d. to be changed into the currency of The United States of America Rule. Xby 8---by 3, or X by 2%. where $1is current at 100 cts.)

Ans. $625. New-England, Virginia, 7 Rule. Xby 4+- by 5, or by : 8 Kentucky, Tennessee, &c. where $1 is current at 6s.

Ans. 1871. 10s. New-York and N. Carolina, ? Rule. X by16-by 15, or +15 · where $1 is current at 8s. S

Ans. 2501. South-Carolina and Georgia, Rule. X by 28 -; by 45.

where $1 is current at 48. 8d. S Ans. 1451. 16s. 8d,

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