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less the judgments and mercies of God lead men to repentance, they, through the depravity of human nature, tend to increase indifference. Oh! that they were wise, that they understood this, that they would consider their latter end."-Deut. xxxii. 29.

Opposite to the present city, on the southern bank of the Tagus, is a village, commonly called Old Lisbon, between which and Belem Castle, are several beautiful spots, with many warehouses; near Old Lisbon are another range of the Royal gardens, more extensive than those already described, to which we had free access. In the vicinity of these gardens, and the village, are some of the finest vineyards. I ever beheld; some of them abound with the muscatel grape, whose juice has a peculiar richness and flavor. In walking through these vineyards, near the time of vintage, you are surrounded with clusters of grapes, and many of them hanging so low, that the appetite may be satisfied without putting forth a hand to pluck them. We expe

rienced the civility and hospitality of these villagers, in a greater degree than from our more refined and polite friends on the opposite shore, and their kindness to our sick, at the hospital in particular, demands a tribute of respect and gratitude.

CHAP. IV.

Leaves Lisbon-Proceeds to Oporto-Description of Oporto and its Vicinity—Shipwrecked on the Coast-Sufferings and Providential Preservation of the Crew-Return to Lisbon.

WE now proceeded off Oporto, to apprize our commerce of the depredations of priva teers, in doing which we explored the whole coast, from the Rock of Lisbon to Vigo. Oporto is, next to Lisbon, the capital of Portugal, in extent, trade, and number of inhabitants. It is situated on

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the banks of the Douro. The entrance of the river is frequently extremely difficult, on account of a dangerous bar, and rocky bottom; on this account shipping have frequently to wait a considerable time for a favourable opportunity. On this bar we were once in extreme danger, but unexpectedly and suddenly rescued from impending death, by that gracious Being, who

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"holds the winds in his fist, and the waters in the hollow of his hand."

After passing this dangerous navigation, a delightful prospect opens to view, which having just escaped danger, and being placed in security, heightened the beauty of the landscape, and ought to have raised the mind above these beauties of nature, to nature's God, accompanied with language like this, "What shall I render to the Lord for all his benefits."

This river is on a smaller scale than the one we had just left, but its contraction in this respect increased the effects of the sweet perfumes from the oranges, lemons, and other fine fruits, on the organs of smell on either side, the boughs were bending low with their precious burthens; this scene continues for near a mile, and then there opens to view the well-built town of Oporto and its environs, with a further prospect of the Douro, and its banks.

Oporto carries on considerable trade with the Brazils, and the river is in general well filled with ships from thence, and others of all nations; so that in proportion to its extent, it may equal, if not exceed, Lisbon, for trade. The merchants of the factory, &c. appear to possess much of that liberality and generosity frequently attendant on lawful enterprize.

The wine and fruit of Oporto ensure it a considerable trade; their vineyards are in general highly cultivated, and misery and poverty appeared much less predominant here than at Lisbon. Near the city is a fine quay close under the walls of the town, where, except in and immediately after the rainy seasons, ships lie conveniently and securely; one of these seasons the author witnessed. The heavy rains at the source of the river and its vicinity, of which rains we experienced but little at Oporto, was per ceived suddenly to increase, and every person connected or interested with the shipping, was assiduous in providing against the approaching deluge; but, notwithstand

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