« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
The following pages will, it is hoped, form a proper introduction to more recondite works on the subject: the difficulties which a person entering upon this study is most likely to stumble at, have been dwelt upon at considerable length, and though different methods of investigation have been employed by different astronomers, the difficulties met with are nearly the same, and the principle of successive approximation is common to all. In the present work, the approximation is carried to the second order of small quantities, and this, though far from giving accurate values, is amply sufficient for the elucidation of the method.
The differences in the analytical solutions arise from the various ways in which the position of the moon may be indicated by altering the system of coordinates to which it is referred, or again, in the same system, by choosing different quantities for independent variables.
D'Alembert and Clairaut chose for coordinates the projection of the radius vector on the plane of the ecliptic and the longitude of this projection. To form the differential equations, the true longitude was taken for independent variable.
To determine the latitude, they, by analogy to Newton's method, employed the differential variations of the motion of the node and of the inclination of the orbit.
Laplace, Damoiseau, Plana, and also Herschel and Airy in their more elementary works, have found it more convenient to express the variations of the latitude directly, by an equation of the same form as that of the radius Lubbock and Pontécoulant, taking the same coordinates of the moon's position, make the time the independent variable; and when it is desired to carry the approximation to a high order, this method offers the advantage of not requiring any reversion of series.
Poisson proposed the method used in the planetary theory, that is, to determine the variation in the elements of the moon's orbit, and thence to conclude the corresponding variations of the radius vector, the longitude, and the latitude.
The selection of the method followed in the present work, which is the same as that of Airy, Herschel, &c., was made on account of its simplicity: moreover, it is the method which has obtained in this university, and it is hoped that it may prove of service to the student in his reading for the examination for Honours. In furtherance of this object, one of the chapters (the sixth) contains the physical interpretation of the various important terms in the radius vector, latitude, and longitude.*
The seventh chapter, or Appendix, contains some of the most interesting results in the terms of the higher orders, among which will be found the values of c
and pletely obtained to the third order.
The last chapter is a brief historical sketch of the Lunar Problem up to the time of Newton, containing an account of the discoveries of the several inequalities and of the. methods by which they were represented, those only being
See the Report of the “Board of Mathematical Studies” for 1850.
mentioned which, as the theory has since verified, were real onward steps. The perusal of this chapter will shew to what extent we are indebted to our great philosopher; at the same time we cannot fail being impressed with reverence for the genius and perseverance of the men who preceded him, and whose elaborate and multiplied hypotheses were in some measure necessary to the discovery of his simple and single law,
I take this opportunity of acknowledging my obligations to several friends, whose valuable suggestions have added to the utility of the work.
St. John's College, Cambridge,
In the present edition, besides the change of form and the incorporation of the figures with the text, which it is hoped will render the work more commodious, very few alterations have been thought necessary; and, except in one or two instances, where additional paragraphs have been introduced, nothing but the wording of some of the sentences has been altered.
INTEGRATION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
25 General Process described
27 Terms of a higher order which must be retained
30 Solution to the first order
35 Introduction of c and g
60 First Method. Theoretical Values
number of simultaneous Equations
62 Third Method. Independent determination of each Coefficient
64 Discussion of the terms in the Moon's Longitude
77 Discussion of the terms in the Moon's Latitude
83 Discussion of the terms in the Moon's Radius Vector
89 Periodic time of the Moon
91 The Moon is retained in her orbit by gravity
92 The Moon's orbit is everywhere concave to the Sun .
93 Effects of Central and Tangential Forces separately considered
94 The value of c to the third order
95 The value of g to the third order
97 Parallactic Inequality
99 Secular Acceleration
100 Inequalities depending on the figure of the Earth
102 Perturbations due to Venus
103 Motion of the Ecliptic
104 Note on the numerical Values of the Coefficients