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GEOMETRY, ARITHMETIC; & MENSURATION;

With the Application of those Rules to Practice.

THE TRUE METHOD OF

Drawing the Ichnography and Orthography of Objects,

GEOMETRICAL RULES FOR SHADOWS,

ALSO THE

FIVE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE;

WITH A GREAT

VARIETY OF BEAUTIFUL EXAMPLES,

SELECTED FROM THE ANTIQUE;

AND

MANY USEFUL AND ELEGANT ORNAMENTS,

WITH RULLS FOR PROJECTING THEM.

By P. NICHOLSON, Architect.
Illustrated with Two Hundred and Sixteen Copper-plates, engraved in a
superior Manner by W. Lowry, from original Drawings by the Author.

IN THREE VOLUMES.

THE SECOND EDITION WITH ADDITIONS,

REVISED AND CORRECTED BY THE AUTHOR.

VOL. I.

London:
PRINTED FOR J. BARFIELD, WAR DOUR-STREET,
AND T. GARDINER, PRINCES-STREET CAVENDISH-SQUARE.

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PREFACE.

ALTHOUGH a number of publications have at different times appeared, professing to treat of the Principles, or Elements of Architecture, it is justly complained of them, that they do not fully correspond to their title. For not sufficiently entering into those mathematical principles, on which this noble art ultimately rests, and from which indeed it derives its very existence, they may ra. ther be said to consider it merely as an art, than as a science also; and are more calculated to instruct the Student in drawing Architectural Plans, than to point out a 2

and

and elucidate those unalterable rules, and first principles, which, however unperceived, must enter into the very essence of every plan that is correct and practicable. It is for want of attention to this circumstance, that many excellent works rather puzzle, than inform the mind of a beginner ; who ought, like the student in astronomý, to commence his inquiries by going back to the most simple elements of mathematical knowledge, there to get the real clue to his future studies, and from thence gradually and scientifically proceed to more complex problems, and more diversified pláns. If the monuments of Grecian and Roman art which yet remain (remain unrivalled), it is not merely to be ascribed to their greater boldness in design, and greater expence in execution, but to that perfect knowledge and perpetual remembrance of the true principles of their art, which shines in every

part

part of their edifices, uniting correctness with elegance, and permanence with gran- : deur.' He, therefore, who wishes 'thoroughly to understand what the ancients have done, or to do any thing yet unattempted, must not content himself with merely drawing from their works, and then superadding the inventions of his own imagination; he must continually recur to the ground on which they trod, and make that the criterion of all his attempts,

It is principally to assist the student in this important article, that I design the following work; in which, I trust, it will appear, great pains have been taken to lay down the fundamental Principles of Architecture in a clear, distinct, and intelligible manner; and to apply the whole to practice by plain and obvious examples, illustrative of them. This I have

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