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and hunger, may upon the whole have more
enjoyment than misery (for even the life of a
savage seems better than no life at all, nay some
have gone so far as to say that it was better than
any other life) it would be desirable that there
should be such another island so inhabited. But
it is exactly the same thing whether we suppose
twice the number of people inhabiting twice
the extent of ground, or maintained on the same
ground, being twice as much cultivated; popu-

single article, and by shrugging up his shoulders, making wry
mouths at him, and fairly turning your stomach, excites in you
the same loathing and abhorrence of this poor creature, that he
takes delight in feeling himself. “Your very nice people have
the nastiest imaginations." He triumphs over the calamities
and degradation of his fellow-creatures. He lays open all the
sores and blotches of humanity with the same calmness and .
alacrity as a hospital surgeon does those of a diseased body,
He turns the world into a charnel-house. Through a dreary
space of 300 “ chill and comfortless" pages, he ransacks all
quarters of the globe only “ to present a speaking picture of
“ hunger and nakedness, in quest of objects best suited to his
“ feelings, in anxious search of calamities most akin to his
invalid imagination," and eagerly gropes into every hole and
corner of wretchedness to collect evidence in support of his
grand misery-scheme, as at the time of an election, you see
the city-candidates sneaking into the dirty alleys, and putrid
cellars of Shoreditch or Whitechapel, and the candidates for
Westminster into those of St. Giles's, canvassing for votes, their
patriotic zeal prevailing over their sense of dignity, and sense
of smell.

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lation would not press the inore on the means of subsistence, nor would the misery be greater, nor the checks. required to prevent it greater. That is to say, an advance made in the state of cultivation and in the arts of life so as to maintain double the population must always be the means of doubling the numbers and enjoyment of any people. The only possible difference would be that as this increased popu. lation would be the consequence of greater industry and knowledge, it would, one should think, denote of itself, that the people would be less liable to unforeseen accidents, and less likely to involve themselves in wilful distress than before. This is the first step in the progress of civilization and in the history of all nations. From this description of a barren island supporting a few wandering half-starved ignorant savages, such as England might have been once, let us turn our eyes to what England is now ;-populous, enlightened, free, rich, powerful and happy; excelling equally in arts, and arms, the delight and terror of the rest of the world; the abode of science, the purse of virtue, the darling seat of the muses; boasting her long line of heroes, and sages ; her Bacon, her Newton, her Shakespear, her Milton, and

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her Locke ;* blest with the most perfect government administered in the most perfect manner; having a king, lords, and commons, each balancing the other, and each in their several station and degree being security for every kind of liberty and every kind of property, harmoniously conspiring together for the good of the whole, taking care first of their own rights and interests as the most important, and then of those of others : subject to mild and equal laws, which afford the same immediate protection to every one in the enjoyment of his liberty and his property, whether that property is five thousand a year or no more than a shilling & day: maintaining in different degrees of comfort, and affluence, from the common necessaries to the highest luxuries of life, ten millions of souls, all supported by their own labour and industry or that of others ;

all plying close with cheerful and patient activity to some ingenious and useful handicraft, or some more severe but necessary lahour, or else reclining in ease and elegance, and basking in the sunshine of life;

I mention these names because it is always customary to mention them in speaking on this subject : and there are some readers who are more impressed with a thing, the oftener it is repeated.

her meanést beggar owing the rags whicli cover his nakedness, and the crust of bread which keeps his body and soul together to some of the most useful inventions which support, and to that humanity which is only to be found in civilized society. Shall we forget her schools, her colleges, her hospitals, her churches, her crowded cities, her streets lined with shops, enriched with the produce and manufactures of her own soil, or glittering with the spoils of a hundred nations, her thronged assemblies, her theatres, her balls, her operas, her “ palaces, her “ ladies and her pomp;" her villas, her parks, her cottages, her hamlets, her rich cultivated lands, teeming with plenty, her green valleys, her “ upland swells, echoing to the bleat of “ flocks,” her brave contented peasantry, their simple manners and honest integrity; and shall we wish to degrade this queen of nations, this mistress of the world once more into a horde of fierce barbarians, treading back our steps, and resigning this splendid profusion of all that can adorn and gladden human life, this gay variety, this happy union of all that is useful and all that is ornamental, the refinements of taste and decorations of fashion, the beautiful distinctions of artificial society, and the solid advantages derived from our constitution in


church and state, for the groveling dispositions, the brutal ignorance, the disgusting poverty, the dried skins and miserable huts of the inhabitants of Terra del Fuego, or New Holland ? Yet this it seems from the doctrine of Mr. Malthus is our only safe policy, since the lower we are in the scale of existence, the fewer and more miserable we are, the farther removed we must be from the tremendous evils of excessive population, which are the necessary consequences of the progress of refinement and civilization. But as the fact so far does not, as I suppose Mr. Malthus will himself allow, square with his theory, (for at no time during the progress of cultivation does the population appear to have been pressing with encreased force on the means of subsistence, so that though the produce of the earth was increasing every year, the inhabitants were increasing much faster, every addition to the actual produce only occasioning some new addition to the swoln and bloated state of population, and aggravating the already dreadful symptoms of the disease) as I say the progress of cultivation and improvement of different kinds has not produced any of those fatal consequences we might be led to expect from it, so neither do I apprehend any of these fatal consequences in future from carrying it as

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