Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

power; and their savage devastations of property, the very means of cementing our union, and adding vigour to every etfort in opposition to them.”

Thus, honourable representatives of the states and people, have we stated our case: and we respectfully pray that Congress would appropriate a tract of land equal to that granted by the state of Virginia to Col. George Rogers Clarke's regiment; or in proportion to that granted by Connecticut to New London and her other towns—to be divided by commissioners to be appointed by the President of the United States-to the old Wyoming sufferers, their widows, heirs, and legal representatives. Signed by order and in behalf of the meeting.

WM. ROSS, Chairman. ANDERSON Dana, Secretary.

[ocr errors]

COL. HUBLEY'S JOURNAL. Regarding General Sullivan's expedition to avenge Wyoming, and the remaining Wyoming military force having accompanied him, I deemed it proper to preserve a full account of it. To this end I had obtained a journal of an officer in Maxwell's Jersey Brigade, kept during the march; and another by an officer in Poor's New Hampshire Brigade, intending to insert one or the other in the Appendix. But both having been some years ago published in the newspapers, and the kindness of my friend Mr. Jordan having placed in my possession the journal of Col. ADAM HUBLEY, of Lancaster county, which, besides coming from a superior officer, and a Pennsylvanian, it is believed will have all the freshness of novelty, 1 give it the preference. The reader will be struck with the harsh, I had like to have said, unsoldier-like reflection upon the public authorities in Gen. Sullivan's address to his army of August 30th. Nor will he be less surprised at the soldiers being called upon to vote whether they should be put on half allowance of flour. In a country replete to profusion with corn, beans, melons, potatoes and peaches, which the army was destroying, the idea of famine, or even want, seems preposterous. On Saturday the 28th, two days previous to that address, Col Hubley says“ The corn already destroyed by our army is not less than 5000 bushels, upon a moderate calculation, and the quantity yet on the ground, in this neighbourhood, is at least the same."*

Besides the journal of Col. Hubley, and those of the Jersey and New Hampshire officers, I have obtained the minutes of a Mr. Newman, who was with Gen. Clinton in his march from the Mohawk to Lake Otsego, and thence to his junction with Sullivan at Tioga point. Throwing a cloudy light on that portion of the army, and containing several curious incidents, I think too valuable to be lost, and regret that our limits do not admit of its publication here.

We have then four journals relating to Sullivan's expedition. Is not the inference fair that it was a common practice in the continental army to keep such journals? Are there not in existence very many such diaries in the hands of descendants of Revolutionary soldiers? This remark is made with the hope that they may sought out and published, as every incident of the war for independence, which has produced Revolutions so extraordinary throughout the whole civilized world, should be regarded worthy of the most careful preservation.

*“It was estimated 160,000 bushels of corn were destroyed during the expedition.” -Thatcher.

F

be

COPY OF LT. COL. ADAM HUBLEY'S JOURNAL

ON THE

WESTERN EXPEDITION AGAINST THE INDIANS,

UNDER THE COMMAND OF

MAJOR GENERAL SULLIVAN, 1779.

BY SIMON STEVENS, LANCASTER, PA., AUG. 9, 1845.

GENERAL ORDERS.

Head Quarters, Easton, May 24, A. D. 1779. When the army shall be fully assembled the following arrangements are to take place :

Armandt's, Hubley's, Shott's, 6 comLight corps, commanded by Gen. panies of Rangers, Wm. Butler's battaHand, to consist of —

lion, Morgan's corps, and all volunteers

who may join the army. Maxwell's brigade consists of

Dayton, Shreeve, Ogden, Spencer,

forming right of first line. Poor's brigade consists of

Cilley, Reed, Scammel, Courtland, and form left of first line.

Livingston, Dubois, Gainsworth, Ol

The right of the first line to be covered by 100 men, draughted from Maxwell's brigade, the left to be covered by 100 men detached from Poor's brigade, each flank of the second line to be covered by 50 men detached from Clinton's brigade, the flanking division on the right to consist of Hubley's regiment, and a draught from the line of 100 men, the flanking division on left to consist of the German battalion, and 100 draughted men from the line.

ORDER OF MARCH.

The light corps will advance by the right of companies in files, and keep at least one mile in front. Maxwell's brigade will advance by its right in files, sections, or platoons, as the country will admit. Poor's brigade will advance by its left in the same manner. Clinton's brigade will advance by the right of regiments, in platoons, files, or sections, as the country will admit

. All the covering parties and flanking divisions on the right will advance by their left; those on the left of the army will advance by their right. The artillery and pack horses are to march in the centre.

Should the army be attacked in front while on its march, the light corps will immediately form to repulse the enemy, the flanking divisions will endeavour to gain the flanks and rear of the enemy. While the line is forming the pack horses will, in all cases, fall into the position represented on the annexed plan. Should the enemy attack on either flank, the flanking division attacked will form a front, and sustain the attack till reinforced-in which case a part of the light corps is to be immediately detached to gain the enemy's Aank and rear, the covering parties of the 2d line move to gain the other flank. Should the enemy attack our rear, the 20 line will face and form a front to the enemy, the covering parties of the first line will move to sustain it, while the flanking division face about and endeavour to gain their flank and rear. Should the light troops be driven back, they will pass through the intervals of the main army, and form in the rear. Should the enemy in an engagement with the army, when formed, endeavour either flank, the covering party will move up to lengthen the line, and so much as may be found necessary from the flanking division will display outwards to prevent the attempt from succeeding. The light corps will have their advance and flank guards at a good distance from their main body. The flanking division will furnish flank guards, and the 2d line a rear guard for the main army.

When we find that the light corps are engaged in front, the front of the pack horses halt, and the rear close up, while the columns move in a proper distance, close and display, which will bring the horses in the position they are on the plan for the order of battle. Should the attack be made on either, in flank or in rear, the horses must be kept in the position they are at the commencement of the attack, unless other orders are then given.

SKETCH NO. 1. [The trees painted by the Indians, between Owego and Chokunut, on the head waters of the Susquehanna, with their characters]

Wyoming, July 30th, 1779.-Wyoming is situated on the east side of the east branch of the Susquehanna, the town consisting of about seventy houses, chiefly log buildings; besides these buildings there are sundry larger ones which were erected by the army for the purpose of receiving stores, &c., a large bake and smoke houses.

There is likewise a small fort erected in the town, with a strong abatta around it, and a small redoubt to shelter the inhabitants in cases of an alarm. This fort is garrisoned by 100 men, draughted from the western army, and put under the command of Col. Zeb’n Butler. I cannot omit taking notice of the poor inhabitants of the town; two-thirds of them are widows and orphans, who, by the vile hands of the savages, have not only deprived some of tender husbands, some of indulgent parents, and others of affectionate friends and acquaintances, besides robbed and plundered of all their furniture and clothing. In short, they are left totally dependent on the public, and are become absolute objects of charity.

The situation of this place is elegant and delightful. It composes an extensive valley, bounded both on the east and west side of the river by large chains of moun. tains. The valley, a mere garden, of an excellent rich soil, abounding with large timber of all kinds, and through the centre the east branch of the Susquehanna.

NO. 2. A SKETCH OF THE ENCAMPMENT AT WYOMING. Wyoming, July 31st, 1779.–Agreeable to orders, marched the western army under the command of Major General Sullivan, in the following order, from this place to Tioga.

No. 3. ORDER OF MARCH. The army being composed of the following regiments and brigades in following manner, viz..

Hubley,

Regiments,
Gen. Hand's brigade,

German,
Shott,
Ind. Corps,

Light Corps.
Spalding,

}

Dayton,
Gen. Maxwell's brigaile,

Shreeve,
Ogden,

Spencer,
From main body.

Cilley,

Reed,
Gen. Poor's brigade,

Scammel,

Courland Took up the line of march about one o'clock, P. M., viz.: light corps advanced in front of main body about a mile; vanguard, consisting of twenty-four men, ander command of a subaltern, and Poor's brigade, (main body,) followed by pack horses and cattle, after which one complete regiment, taken alternately from Maxwell's and Poor's brigade, (composed the rear guard.)

Observed the country to be much broken and mountainous, wood chiefly low, and composed of pine only. I was struck on this day's march with the ruins of many houses, chiefly built of logs, and uninhabited; though poor, yet happy in their situation, until that horrid engagement, when the British tyrant let loose upon them his emissaries, the savages of the wood, who not only destroyed and laid waste those cottages, but in cool blood massacred and cut off the inhabitants, not even sparing gray locks or helpless infancy.

About 4 o'clock, P. M., arrived at a most beautiful plain, covered with abundance of grass, soil excessively rich, through which run a delightful stream of water, known by the name of Lackawanna; crossed the same, and encamped about one mile on the northern side of it, advanced about one half mile in front of main body; after night fell in with rain-continued until morning.

Distance of march this day, 10 miles.

NO. 4. SKETCH OF THE ENCAMPMENT AT LACKAWANNA. Sunday, August 1st.–Continued at Lackawanna waiting for the fleet, which, by reason of considerable rapids, was detained until nearly 12 o'clock this day before ihe van could possibly cross them. In getting through, lost two boats, chief of their cargoes were saved. About 2 o'clock, P. M., the whole arrived opposite our encampment, in consequence of which received orders for a march, struck tents accordingly, and moved about 3 o'clock, P. M. About one mile from the encampment, entered the narrows on the river, first detachment and left column under command of Capt. Burk, to join the right column of light corps, and cross the mountain, which was almost inaccessible, in order to cover the army from falling in an ambuscade. Whilst passing through the defile found passage through exceeding difficult and troublesome, owing to the badness of the path; we passed by a most beautiful cataract called the Spring Falls. To attempt a description of it would be almost presumption. Let this short account thereof suffice. The first or upper fall thereof is nearly ninety feet perpendicular, pouring from a solid rock, ushering forth a most beautiful echo, and is received by a cleft of rocks considerably more projected than the former, from whence it rolls gradually and empties into the Susquehanna. Light corps passed and got through the defile about 6 o'clock, P. M.; arrived about dusk at a place called Quilutimunk, and encamped one mile in front of the place, occupied that night by the main army,

The main army, on account of the difficult passage, marched nearly all night before they reached their encamping ground. Great quantities of baggage being dropped and left lying that nighi obliged us to continue on this ground. All the preceding day numbers of our pack horses were sent back and employed in bringing on the scattered stores, &c.; distance of march this day about 7 miles: fine clear evening. Quilutimunk is a spot of ground situate on the river; fine, open and clear; quantity, about 1200 acres; soil very rich, timber fine, grass in abundance, and contains several exceedingly fine springs.

SKETCH OF THE ENCAMPMENT AT QUILUTIMUNK. Monday, August 2d.-In consequence of the difficult and tedious march the preceding day, the army received orders to continue on the ground this day; in the meantime to provide themselves with five days provision, and getting every other matter in perfect readiness for a march next moming at 6 o'clock. Nothing material happened during our stay on this ground.

Wednesday 3d.--Agreeable to orders took up the line of march at 6 o'clock, A. M. Took the mountains after we assembled-found them exceedingly level for at least six miles. Land tolerable, the timber, viz., pine and white oak, chiefly large. About three miles from Quilutimunk we crossed near another cataract, which descended the mountain in three successive falls, the least of which is equal if not superior to the one already described. Although it is not quite so high, it is much wider, and likewise empties into the Susquehanna, seemingly white as milk. They are commonly known by the name of Buttermilk Falls.

SKETCH OF BUTTERMILK FALLS.

About 12 o'clock we descended the mountains near the river; marched about one mile on flat piece of ground, and arrived at Tunkhannunk, a beautiful stream of water so called, which empties into the Susquehanna; crossed the same, and encamped on the river about 1 o'clock, P. M. Nothing material happened this day excepting a discovery of two Indians by the party on the west side of the river. Indians finding themselves rather near the party were obliged to leave their canoe, and make through the mountains. Party took possession of the canoe, and brought it to their encamping place, for that evening immediately opposite the main army. Distance of march this day, 12 miles.

SKETCH OF TUNKHANNUNK ENCAMPMENT.

Wednesday 4th.-- The army was in motion 5 o'clock, A. M., and moved up the river for three miles, chielly on the beach, close under an almost inaccessible mountain. We then ascended the same with the greatest difficulty, and continued on it for near seven miles. A considerable distance from the river the path along the mountain was exceedingly rough, and carried through several very considerable swamps, in which were large morasses. The land in general thin and broken, abounds in wild deer and other game. We then descended the mountain, and at the foot of it crossed a small creek called Massasppi, immediately where it empties into the river. We then continued up the same until we made Vanderlip's farm, discovered several old Indian encampments; one of them appeared to have been very large.

The land, after crossing Massasppi, was exceedingly fine and rich, the soil very black and well timbered, chiefly with black walnut, which are remarkably large, some not less than six feet over, and excessively high. It is likewise well calculated for making fine and extensive meadows. The main army took post for this night on Vanderlip's farm, and the infantry advanced about one mile higher up, and encamped about 1 o'clock, P. M., on a place known by the name of Williamson's farm. Distance of march this day, 14 miles; fine clear day, very hot.

SKETCH OF THE ENCAMPMENT, VANDERLIP'S AND WILLIAMSON'S FARM. Thursday 5th.-In consequence of orders issued last evening to march this morning at 5 o'clock, we struck tents and loaded baggage. But the boats being considerably impeded by the rapidness of the water some miles below our encampment, could not reach us, and we were obliged to halt all night. Did not join us until 9 o'clock, A. M., all whích time we were obliged to halt. On their arrival the whole army was put in motion, and as more danger on this day's march was apprehended than any before, the following distribution of the army took place, viz.: The right and left columns of the light corps, conducted by Gen. Hand, moved along the top of a very high mountain; main body of light corps, under Col Hubley's command, with an advance of twenty-four men, moved on

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »