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A thing moft brutish, I endow'd thy purposes With words that made them known. But thy vile race (Tho' thou didst learn) had that in't, which good


Could not abide to be with; therefore waft thou
Defervedly confin'd into this rock,

Who hadft deferv'd more than a prifon

Cal. You taught me language, and my profit on't Is, I know how to curfe: the red plague rid 8 For learning me your language!

Pro. Hag-feed, hence!


Fetch us in fewel and be quick (thou wer't best) To answer other bufinefs. Shrug'ft thou, malice? If thou neglect'ft, or doft unwillingly

What I command, I'll rack thee with old cramps; Fill all thy bones with aches, make thee roar, That beafts fhall tremble at thy din.

Cal. No, 'pray thee.

I must obey; his art is of fuch pow'r,
It would control my dam's god Setebos,
And make a vaffal of him.

Pro. So, flave, hence!

tions of its own mind, which, it would feem, a Brute hath not. Tho' this, I fay, may be applied to a brute, and confequently to Caliban, and tho' to remedy this brutality be a nobler benefit than even the teaching language; yet fuch a fenfe would be impertinent and abfurd in this place, where only the benefit of language


[Exit Caliban.

is talked of by an exact and learned Speaker. Befides, Profpero exprefly fays, that Caliban. had purposes; which, in other words, is that he did know his own meaning.


8 Red Plague.] I fuppofe from the Redness of the Body univerfally inflamed.


C 4


Enter Ferdinand, at the remoteft part of the stage; and Ariel invifible, playing and finging.


Come unto thofe yellow fands,
And then take hand:

Court'fied when you have, and kist,

The wild waves whift;

Foot it featly here and there,

And, fweet Sprites, the burden bear.

[Burden, difperfedly.

Hark, hark, baugh-waugh: the watch-dogs bark,


Ari. Hark, hark, I hear

The ftrain of ftrutting chanticlere

Cry, Cock a-doodle-do.

Fer. Where fhould this mufick be, i'th' air, or


It founds no more: and fure, it waits upon
Some God o'th' Ifland. Sitting on a bank,
Weeping again the King my father's wreck,
This mufick crept by me upon the waters;
Allaying both their fury and my paffion,
With its fweet air; thence I have follow'd it,
Or it hath drawn me rather--but 'tis gone,
No, it begins again.

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But doth fuffer a fea-change,
Into fomething rich and strange.
Sea-nymphs hourly ring his knell.

Hark, now I hear them, ding-dong, bell. 9

9 Full fathom five thy father lies, &c.] Gildon, who has pretended to criticife our Author, would give this up as an infufferable and fenfelefs piece of trifling. And I believe this is the general opinion concerning it. But a very unjust one. Let us confider the business Ariel is here upon, and his manner of executing it. The Commiffion Prof pero had intrufted to him, in a whisper, was plainly this; to conduct Ferdinand to the fight of Miranda, and to difpofe him to the quick fentiments of love, while he, on the other hand, prepared his daughter for the fame impreffions. Ariel fets about his bufinefs by acquainting Ferdinand, in an extraordinary manner, with the afflictive news of his father's death. A very odd Apparatus, one would think, for a love-fit. And yet as odd as it appears, the Poet has fhewn in it the fineft conduct for carrying on his plot. Profpero had faid,

I find my Zenith doth depend upon
A most aufpicious far; whofe

If now I count not, but 'emit,


Will ever after droop. —— In confequence of this his prescience, he takes advantage of every favourable circumftance

[Burden, ding-dong.


that the occafion offers. The principal affair is the Marriage of his daughter with young Ferdinand. But to fecure this point it was neceffary they should be contracted before the affair came to Alonzo the Father's knowledge! For Profpero was ignorant how this ftorm and fhipwreck, caufed by him, would work upon A lonzo's temper. It might either foften him, or increase his averfion for Profpero as the Author. On the other hand, to engage Ferdinand, without the confent of his Father, was difficult. For not to fpeak of his Quality, where fuch engagements are not made without the confent of the Sovereign, Ferdinand is reprefented (to fhew it a Match worth the feeking) of a most pious temper and difpofition, which would prevent his contracting himself without his Father's knowledge. The Poet therefore, with the utmost addrefs, has made Ariel perfuade him of has Father's death to remove this Remora. WARBURTON.

I know not whether Dr. Warburton has very fuccefsfully defended thefe Songs from Gildon's accufation. Ariel's lays, however feafonable and efficacious, must be allowed to be of no fupernatural dignity or elegance, they exprefs nothing great, nog

Fer. The ditty does remember my drown'd father. This is no mortal bufinefs, nor no found

That the earth owns: I hear it now above me.
Pro. The fringed curtains of thine eyes advance,
And fay, what thou fee'ft yond.

Mira. What is't, a fpirit?

Lord, how it looks about! believe me, Sir,
It carries a brave form. But 'tis a fpirit.

Pro. No, wench, it eats, and fleeps, and hath

fuch fenfes

As we have, fuch.

Was in the wreck

This gallant, which thou feeft, and, but he's fomething ftain'd

With grief, that's beauty's canker, thou might'ft

call him

A goodly perfon. He hath loft his fellows,
And ftrays about to find 'em.

Mira, I might call him

A thing divine; for nothing natural

I ever faw fo noble.

Pro. It goes on, I fee,


As my foul promps it. Spirit, fine fpirit, I'll free


Within two days for this.

Fer. Most fure, the Goddess

On whom thefe airs attend!-Vouchfafe, my pray'r
May know, if you remain upon this Island;
And that you will fome good inftruction give,
How I may bear me here: my prime request
(Which I do laft pronounce) is, O you wonder!
If you be maid or no?

Miro. No wonder, Sir,

reveal any thing above mortal difcovery.

The reafon for which Ariel is introduced thus trifling is, that he and his companions are evidently of the fairy kind, an or

der of beings to which tradition has always afcribed a fort of diminutive agency, powerful but ludicrous, a humorous and frolick controlment of nature, well expreffed by the Songs of Ariel.


But certainly a maid.


Fer. My language! heav'n's!

I am the best of them that fpeak this fpeech,
Were I but where 'tis fpoken.

Pro. How? the best?

What wert thou, if the King of Naples heard thee?
Fer. A fingle thing, as I am now, that wonders
To hear thee speak of Naples. He does hear me ;
And, that he does, I weep: myself am Naples,
Who, with mine eyes (ne'er fince at ebb) beheld
The King my father wreckt.

Mira. Alack, for mercy!

Fer. Yes, faith, and all his lords: the Duke of Milan, And his brave Son, being twain. 2

Pro. The Duke of Milan,

And his more braver daughter, could control thee, 3 If now 'twere fit to do't:At the first sight,

[Afide to Ariel.

They have chang'd eyes:-delicate Ariel,

Dr. Warburton has here found a beauty which I think the Author never intended. Ferdinand afks her not whether the was a created being, a question which, if he meant it, he has ill expreffed, but whether the was unmarried; for after the dialogue which Profpero's interruption produces, he goes on perfuing his former question..

1-certainly a maid.] Nothing could be more prettily imagined to illuftrate the fingularity of her character, than this pleasant miftake. She had been bred up in the rough and plain-dealing documents of moral philofophy, which teaches us the knowledge of ourselves: And was an utter Atranger to the flattery invented by vicious and designing Men to corrupt the other Sex. So that it could not enter into her imagnation, that complaifance and a defire of appearing amiable, qualities of humanity which he had been inftructed, in her moral lef fons, to cultivate, could ever degenerate into fuch excefs, as that any one fhould be willing to 3 have his fellow-creature believe thee, that he thought her a Godde thee. or an immortal. WARBURTON.

O, if a Virgin,

I'll make you Queen of Naples,

2 This is a flight forgetfulnefs. Nobody was left in the wreck, yet we find no fuch character as the fon of the Duke of THEOBALD. Milan. control thee.] Confute unanswerably contradict


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