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The Bishop of Worcester sent a circular of ques- in ceremonial. “ It is the rule of strict ceremonial," tions to churchwardens inquiring, among other the archbishop continued, “ that makes it unlawful things, whether the vicar used incense or wafer by the Church's law to elevate the consecrated elebread; whether any other books were used in the ments in the communion office; to reserve them after offices of the church than the Book of Common the office is over ; to carry them out of the church for Prayer; whether the services were conducted any purpose whatever; to use incense ceremonially strictly in accordance with the Prayer Book, with- by carrying it in procession, or by censing persons out addition, diminution, or alteration; whether wa- or things; to mix water with wine ceremonially ter was mixed with wine during the service; and by doing it visibly during the office; to introduce whether any additions or alterations had been made additional prayers; to introduce psalms or hymns in the ornaments of the church or in the fabric or anthems at any point during the services, except itself since 1895, and if so, by whose authority. where there is special order permitting it or where

The Bishop of Winchester requested his clergy to the service is for any reason illegitimately intergive him the opportunity of inspecting all forms rupted.” The lawful authority who could authorize and offices used in their churches in addition to any modifications was the bishop. Coercive juristhose prescribed in the Book of Common Prayer, diction was exercised through the courts, but the saying that “in times of anxiety, whether reasonable bishop had very little power of that kind. The one or unreasonable, our security seems to be in falling power he possessed was the power not to enforce, back upon the definite terms of the prescribed rule but to empower other people to abstain from enand system of our Church. The result must be to forcing. The archbishop deprecated recourse to strengthen our mutual confidence, to allay fears if the courts, because it presented the Church to the they are groundless, and to restrain irregularities world in an aspect of strife. where such there are."

National Protestant Congress.— The ninth Charge of the Archbishop of Canterbury.- annual Congress in connection with the National The Archbishop of Canterbury, in his address to the Protestant League met at Folkestone, Oct. 17. The Diocesan Conference of Canterbury, said that he did chairman, Sir C. Robert Leighton, in his opening not think it worth while to deny that there were a address, spoke of the plain statements of the Archfew men who did very much desire to carry the bishop of Canterbury in his visitation addresses of Church of England back under the domination of the previous week as having, he hoped, not parathe Church of Rome. There were also some men, lyzed, but electrified the Protestant people of Engprobably quite as many, who would very much de- land. The primate, he said, voicing almost the sire to get rid of the present constitution of the entire episcopate of the English Church, had deChurch of England in such a way as to join with it clared that it was not unlawful to hold the Lutheran the nonconformist bodies on their own terms. But doctrine of consubstantiation, or to teach it in the to say that the great body of the clergy of the Church of England. They knew now why Dr. Church of England had the smallest desire to sub- Temple had, with the so-called wish of keeping the mit themselves to the domination of the Church of peace, vetoed them when they had endeavored to Rome he was certain was not the fact. The arch- put down unlawful things in the Church of Eng. bishop acknowledged the existence of a great many land, and they knew now why he had put off irregularities that had grown out of a good deal of their appeals to him in their difficulties. It was mistaken zeal, which it would be necessary that the useless to go on memorializing bishops, because bishops generally should look to. A simple way to they had practically avowed through their mouthsettle the matter would be for the clergy, in com- piece, the archbishops, that they were of the sacerpliance with their ordination vows, to abandon all dotal party. The duty of Protestants was to join services that did not find a place in the Prayer together more firmly and unitedly than ever, and Book.

make a crusade against what they believed to be The archbishop delivered in October a series of doctrine contrary to the Church of England, convisitation charges, in the course of which he inter- trary to the teaching of the early infant Church, preted the doctrinal teachings of the Church on a and dishonoring to the Lord. Besides addresses number of points. Concerning the sacraments, on a number of general topics relating to Christianhaving shown that the spiritual reception by the ity, discussions were had on subjects bearing upon communicant of the flesh and blood is taught, he the existing crisis, such as “ The Encroachments of said, respecting the question of the real presence, Priesteraft (a) in the Church and State; (b) in the that the Church certainly teaches Hooker's doctrine Family and Society"; "The Imperial Protestant that the presence should be looked for in the receiv- Federation”; “ National Council of Evangelical ers of the consecrated elements, but that it “nowhere Free Churches in its Relation to Protestantism"; forbids the further doctrine that there is a real pres- " The Jesuits: (a) Their Tactics and Influence; ence in some way attached to the elements at the (6) Notorious Secret Societies in the Church of Engtime of consecration," the Supreme Court of Appeal land.” in matters ecclesiastical, he asserted, having de- Resumption of the Protests.-Mr. Kensit gave clared in the case of Mr. Bennet that this is open to notice, Aug. 3, that he had no intention of making all to believe if they think fit. The Church con- any further protests till the first Sunday in Novemdemned the Roman doctrine of transubstantiation, ber, by which time he hoped the bishops might have but permitted the teaching of the doctrine of Luther, interfered. If not, he hoped to arrange for a thouor consubstantiation. As to objects of worship, the sand simultaneous protests in different parts of Church allowed none except God himself. The England, without, however, any disturbance. In ecclesiastical courts had decided that prayer for the meantime he organized a body of young men as the dead was not forbidden in the New Testament • Wycliffe preachers” to co-operate with him and or by the Church of England, but the Church did assist him. A meeting preparatory to the resumption not authorize the introduction of such prayers into of the protests was held in London, Oct. 28, amid public worship, except in the most cautious and some demonstrations of opposition. Mr. Kensit adguarded manner. The archbishop condemned dressed this meeting respecting his movement, and habitual and compulsory confession, and explained said that the protests he had been compelled to make the law of the Church of England on the subject to in the house of God against ritualism were distastebe that confession should be always free and volun- ful to him, but he believed that God had directed him tary. While the Church tolerated a large diversity to make them, and had used them to work up the of opinion, it was strict in the enforcement of unity nation to the importance of the movement. He

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read a letter he had received from the Bishop of ciety for the broadest toleration in ritual and sacerLondon, warning him against persistence in his dotal doctrine, and by a meeting of the Church Conproceedings, and predicting their failure. Con- gress Evangelical Union, at which Sir John Kennacerning his own course, the bishop wrote that he way presided, and, maintaining exactly opposite was endeavoring by private exhortation to deal views from Lord Halifax, spoke of the present tension with such irregularities or indiscretions as were of the crisis through which the Church was passing. brought before his notice in such a shape that he Other addresses were made respecting the gravity could deal with them.

of the situation and the character and persistency The Church Congress. The Church Congress of the ritualistic movement; a resolution was adoptmet at Bradford, Sept. 27. The Bishop of Ripon ed inviting all loyal Churchmen "prepared to uppresided, and delivered an opening address on "The hold in their integrity the principles of the Church Opportunities, the Deeds, and the Characteristics as received from apostolic times and authoritatively of the Age, the Condition of the Church of Eng- set forth at the Reformation to unite in furtherance land, and the Message of the Church.” The regu- of a memorial on the present crisis to be presented lar proceedings of the Congress began with the to the archbishops"; and a committee was appointed reading of a paper on "The Share of Yorkshire and to promote the objects of the meeting, with authorthe Columban Mission in the Christianization of ity to add to their number clergymen of other England," by the Bishop of Bristol. The subject schools of thought who are loyal to the Reformation of - The Mutual Relations of Clergy and Laity" settlement. A united Christian meeting and conFas treated under various aspects and as to various ference of all denominations was held after the close periods: historically by the Rev. Dr. Jessopp, and of the Congress for the consideration of the subject with reference to the question whether any altera- "The Message of the Christian Church to the Engtions are needed in the relative positions to-day of lish Nation, and its Outlook.” The Dean of Ripon the clergy and the laity by Mr. Justice Grantham, presided. Addresses were made by the chairman, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and Mr. John Ken- the Rev. Dr. Glover, of Bristol, the Rev. W. L. sit, who rebuked the clergy and the bishops and Watkinson (Wesleyan), Dean Farrar, the Rev. Dr. arehbishops for the prevalence of ritualism. Other Horton, and Mr. George Harwood, M. P. subjects discussed were “Sunday Observance"; ARCHÆOLOGY. Scotland. A Crannog on - The Mission of the Church in Relation to Imperial the Clyde.- A crannog, or ancient lake dwelling, Poliey”; “ The Church's Duty as regards Various of a very remarkable type discovered by Mr. W. Å. Aspects of Internal Affairs," such as (1) the respon- Donnelly on the Dumbrook foreshores of the ancient sibilities of capital and labor : (a) for healthy con- Colquhoun County, on the banks of the river Clyde,

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ditions of labor, (6) moral and religious : (2) co-oper- has received much attention from British archæation:(a)general, (6) its rules and prospects; “Church ologists on account of its being the first instance Music: In Cathedral, Town, and Country": " The recorded of such a structure on tidal waters. On Unrest of the Age, General, Intellectual, Social, and the advice of the eminent archæologist Dr. Munro, Moral”; “Gains from Recent Criticism : Gospels, author of the book “Historic Problems," who recogActs, Epistles, and New Testament Apocrypha”; nized the importance of the discovery at once, “How can the Church Congress be made more prac- careful and thorough excavations were undertaken, tically useful ?” “The Message of the Church to with siftings of the refuse mound of the former the Heart of Man ”; “ The Devotional and Practi- settlement, by Mr. Donnelly, with the help of the çal l'se of Holy Scriptures”; “ The Church and the Helensburgh Naturalist and Antiquarian Society. World: 1, Interchange between Home and Foreign The result of the work has made it plain that there Missionary Service ; 2, Evangelization of the World were design and execution in the building, with in this Generation ; 3, Aboriginal Races ; 4, Revival occupation and habitation over a long period. of the Missionary Spirit.”

Positive evidence of fire is afforded in the shape of The meeting of the Congress was preceded by a numerous firestones and calcined embers, and meeting of the English Church Union, where Lord excellent indications of the condition of life at the Halifax presented the claims maintained by that so- period in the implements, ornaments, and tools

recovered. The crannog, situated 1,600 yards east village at Glastonbury, for example, yielded speciof the castle rock of Dumbarton, and about 2,000 mens of bronze fibulæ and other articles. The largest yards from Dunglass Castle, below high-water mark, article found in the Dumbarton crannog was a canoe, is about 50 yards from the river at low tide, but is 37 feet long and 40 inches beam, dug out of a single

oak tree, which lay in what has proved to have been a dock. A curious ladder was also found here, the rungs of which were cut out of the solid wood, and which has somewhat the general appearance of a post of a post-and-rail fence. The exploration of the site is much impeded by the rising of the tide, which covers the crannog for a considerable time every day. All the rel

ics found, consisting chiefly PREHISTORIC IMPLEMENTS FOUND IN THE CRANNOG.

of objects of bone, staghorn,

jet, chert, and cannel coal, submerged when the tide is in to a depth of from 3 with some querns, the canoe, ladder, etc., have been to 12 feet of water. The approach to the dwelling placed in the museum at Glasgow. is from the north. The circuit of the crannog is 184 feet. The piles in the outer circle are of oak, which below the mud surface is still quite fresh. The transverse beams and pavements inside are of wood of the consistence of cheese (willow, alder, and oak), while the smaller branches are of fir, birch, and hazel, with bracken, moss, and chips. The stones in the outer circle and along the causeway leading to the dwelling place seem to have been set in methodical order, most of the boulders being about a lift for a man. The refuse mound extends for about 12 feet outside for the greater part of the circuit, and in this most of the bone and flint implements have been discovered. While this crannog does not differ in construction (of stones, wooden piles, and pavements) and shape from other well-known sites of the kind in Ireland and elsewhere, it is absolutely unique in two respects; first, in being situated on the shores of a tidal France. The Ancient Walls of Paris.-At river; and, second, in that so far none but imple- Paris, behind the Church of Notre Dame, excava

tions made for the construction of a private house have brought to light extensive remains of the ancient wall of the city. They were found at a depth of about 16 feet below the actual level of the ground, running on a line of 195 feet between the Quai aux Fleurs, the Rue Chenimesse, and the Cloître Notre Dame, in the face of the Ile St. Louis. The wall was a strong construction, nearly 10 feet thick. The material of which it was composed consisted of large stones taken from older Roman buildings. Several blocks, cut in the shape of steps and covered with inscriptions, are supposed to come, like the pieces found several years ago on the Parvis de Notre Dame, from the ancient amphitheater known as the Arènes of the Rue Monge. The inscriptions contain certain names of the citizens of the ancient Lutetia for whom those seats were reserved.

A Phænician Inscription at Avignon.—A Phænician inscription discovered at Avignon in 1897 is the first of the kind found in France, the origin of which is beyond dispute. A translation of it which has been published by M. Mayer Lambert in the “ Journal Asiatique,” shows it to be the epitaph of a married priestess of a divinity whose name has been unfortunately mutilated. 'It ends with an injunction against opening the tomb. The fact that it was not found at a port, but a considerable distance in the interior is to be remarked.

Rome. The Graffito of the House of Timents of flint and bone have been discovered. berins.-A graffito discovered by Prof. Orazio This would throw its occupation back to the Marucchi in the house of Tiberius on the Palatine Neolithic period, whereas crannogs are usually Hill, in Rome, has attracted much attention beassociated with the bronze age. The British lake cause of a suggestion that was made at the time

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A PREHISTORIC

CANOE.

A PREHISTORIC LADDER.

that it might be a rude representation of the Crucifixion. It is drawn on the cement in one of the rooms that were used as cells for the soldiers and slaves, reaches to a man's height on the wall, and is marked by the style as of the first century, A. D. A confused group of many words is visible on the upper part of the drawing, and among them a name which in its damaged condition has been variously read Crestus, Cresus, Crescus, and Crescens. Following this are an instrument resembling a hammer, lines of verses, and disconnected fragments of lines. Below these writings is a design of posts or poles standing upright in the ground, with lateral supports at their feet, and a crossbar connecting them at the top. Below this crossbar are smaller individual crossbars, giving the erections the likeness of crosses, from the right arm of each of which hangs a rope held by a man standing on the ground, and on one of them is a figure seeming to hold a hammer. Other figures stand on ladders leaning against the uprights of the crosses. Names are written above the heads of some of the figures, of which Nostumus, Eulogus, and Terties have been made out, with another, which is variously read Pilatus, Piletus, and Filetus. The subject of the graffito is not explained. The suggestion uttered at the first sight of the figures that it is a representation of the crucifixion is not insisted upon. Some persons have supposed that it represented a naval manoeuvre or the preparation for the launching of a vessel; others regard it simply as a scaffolding on which men are at work.

Greece. The Jewish Synagogue at Corinth. -In the excavations at Corinth, in the valley east of the temple, under Prof. Rufus B. Richardson, a marble block about 34 feet long was found, one of the broad sides of which was elaborately and peculiarly carved, having a band of molding below it as well as above. This was, of course, the original face. On what was once its upper side or edge was cut an inscription, mutilated at both ends, in letters about two inches high, running thus:

ΑΓΩΓΗ ΕΒΡ

After reflection the discoverer concluded that the letters represented and were all that was left of the words Sunagoge Ebraion, and that the stone probably "came from the very synagogue in which the apostle Paul reasoned every Sabbath and persuaded the Jews and the Greeks." It is not likely, however, that this block marked the site of the synagogue. It had probably been removed from there, and even when built into the synagogue in the first place had been taken from some structure in the old city. That the placing of it in the synagogue was not its first use is indicated by the existence of the original front of the stone with the molding.

Egypt. Relics of the Earliest Dynasties.A collection of antiquities from the excavations of the Egypt Exploration Fund at Dendereh and of the Egyptian Research Account, under Mr. Quibell, at Hierakonpolis, exhibited by Mr. W. M. Flinders Petrie at University College, London, in July, included objects from the earliest dynasties. The history of Dendereh as reflected in its cemetery was found to have had its beginning in the fourth dynasty, and to have included a flourishing age from the sixth to the eleventh dynasties, and then a later prosperity in the Ptolemaic or Roman times. While the remains of primitive kings hitherto found have been chiefly sepulchral, monuments of warfare and of history known to belong to the earliest dynasties have now, for the first time, been found at Hierakonpolis. The researches represented by these collections appear to fill a large intermediate space

between the aboriginal and the historical period, and extend our knowledge far back of any period it had distinctly reached before. Many of the most ancient objects are remarkable for their beauty and finish and their free and unconventional character. Some of Mr. Quibell's finds at Hierakonpolis are believed to date from before the fourth dynasty, or about 4000 B. C. The cemetery upon the desert yielded pottery of the types of the graves of Negada, of the "new race" described by Mr. Petrie in 1895, which go even behind the earliest kings. The later types are similar to those found in the tomb of Menes, and are assigned to the first dynasty. Among the objects found are slate palettes, mostly of the late square type, but one in the form of a scorpion, others with gazelles and giraffes and other animals, real or mythical, delineated with wonderful vigor and freedom. A trench found within the temple area was filled with ivory carvings, buried as offerings, much rotted and incrusted with lime, and believed to represent the second dynasty. The male figures have for the most part scanty pointed beards and sharp features, like the heads of the new race of prehistoric times, and are supposed probably to represent the Libyans, who then inhabited Egypt. Nearly all wear girdles, and most of them have a dagger sheath in front, while only one has the usual Egyptian kilt. The female figures are nearly all nude, with long wavy hair to the waist and two locks hanging in front over the breasts, and one of a dwarf bandylegged type, familiar in figures of Ptah. Other figures are outlined upon ivory cylinders and plaques, one with the Ka name of King Nat-Met, holding a wand. Models of boats, bowls, and stone vases, maces, alabaster dishes and porphyry bowls, green glazed ware of very early date representing monkeys, pigs, calves, oryxes, pelicans, scorpions, and other animals, were also among the objects. The great limestone masses with relief sculptures are described as being of extraordinary interest and beauty. On one of them are several male figures, the king among them, beautifully wrought, and at the base hieroglyphics mentioning "oxen 400,000, goats 1.422.500, captives 120,000." A great palette in the part of the collection that went to the museum in Gizeh was represented in the exhibition in London. The figures upon it exhibit a curious diversity of human types, only one of which is of the later Egyptians. Two are bearded men with long hair, like some men shown in the tomb of Paheri at El-Kab. The design is very elaborate, with many figures of men and animals, and the tablet is regarded as an important historical monument of the early kings. Among the fruits, extending over a vast period, of Mr. Petrie's researches at Dendereh, is a stele of the third or fourth dynasty of a prophet of Hathor Suten-abu, which stood over an elaborately carved false door, the only sculpture found in the group of great brick mastabas of the earliest style. Large numbers of worked flints, mostly of paleolithic types, were picked up on the surface of the desert, but statues such as are common in the cemetery of the old kingdom at Memphis are rare at Dendereh, and only one large one-of Prince Adu I-was found. The great mastabas of the princes of the sixth dynasty proved the most important in the cemetery. The series included Princes Mena and Adu under Pepi II, Prince Adu II, one nameless, Prince Merra, and Prince Beb. The catacombs for sacred animals, consisting of brickwork tunnels branching from main galleries, extended over a large area. A considerable quantity of blue glazed objects of temple furniture appeared, by the names, to belong to the eighteenth dynasty. In sculptures of Prince Merra, with his wife Beba and his daughter Duduerchetsa, of the late sixth or early seventh dynasty,

the style, though becoming degraded and clumsy, Tombs of Amenophis II and other Kings. retains the character of the old kingdom. Besides - It was announced in April that M. Lovet had many minor objects of the old and middle king- discovered and opened the tomb of Amenophis doms, a beautifully carved group of Mentuhotep, II, of the eighteenth dynasty, and found 'the son of Beba, and his wife Nefermeant, daughter of mummy of that king intact, and with it the mumHepy, probably of the eleventh dynasty, is men- mies of Thothmes IV, Amenophis III, Set Nakht, tioned. The man's head is lost, but the woman's is Seti II, and Rameses IV, Rameses VI, and Ramequal to the best work of the old kingdom.

eses VIII. The discovery marks the first instance The Tomb of Osiris.-In excavations begun in in which the body of an Egyptian king has been 1896 at Abydos in search of relics of the worship of found actually in the tomb prepared for him, in Osiris, of which he had already found some traces, other instances the tombs having been found withM. E. Amélineau reached a point within three or out the bodies or the bodies found removed from four metres of a large tomb. His work there was their tombs. In this case the valuable objects had then suspended in consequence of his occupation at been taken away, but the tomb was in perfect other points. The hill under which the tomb was preservation, with the paintings fresh and the sarhidden, 180 metres long by 160 metres wide, and be- cophagi and chaplets of flowers in excellent conditween 7 and 8 metres high, was composed of " mil- tion. In the first chamber of the tomb the body lions upon millions of small jars and earthen of a man was found bound on a richly painted vases, along with some large ones mixed up with boat, his arms and feet tied with cord, a gag in his sand and a few rare pieces of stone. From the mouth, and wounds in his breast and head ; and in first days of the new excavations, begun in Decem. the next chamber three other bodies of persons who ber, 1897, pieces of pottery of all shapes, entire or had been killed by violence. It is believed that these broken, were found, bearing inscriptions written in bodies represent human sacrifices offered at the hieroglyphic or hieratic signs. Large numbers of time of the royal burial. pieces mentioned the name of Osiris, and a smaller Among the relics discovered by Mr. Petrie in his number bore the name of Amon-Ra. A few of explorations of 1896, and described in his book on them mentioned the House of Osiris. These dis- "Six Temples of Thebes," was a wine jar dated in coveries impressed M. Amélineau so strongly, he the twenty-sixth year of Amenophis II, vindicating says, that as early as Dec. 2 he recorded in the the statement of Manetho that this king reigned diary he kept of his excavations the belief that he twenty-five years and ten months, and refuting M. was going to come across the tomb of Osiris. The Maspero's theory that his reign was a short one." It tomb was a large rectangle in shape, and sur- is indeed wonderful,” Mr. Petrie remarks,“ how rounded on its four sides by series of tombs num- constantly Manetho's statements, after a long period bering about 200 in all. Moreover, the necropolis, of discredit, are justified by the monuments, and known in the country as Om-el-Gaab-el-Gharby, how accurate his records have lately proved." contained the sepulchres of persons of very high Early Remains at Deshasher.- In the explorarank, among them kings whose steles had been dis- tions of Deshasher, nearly opposite Beni Suef and covered by M. Amélineau two years previously. near the site of the ancient Heracleopolis Magna, On the 1st day of January the “ fortunate stair- by Prof. Petrie in 1897, an account of which is pub

mentioned in the text concerning the House lished in the fifteenth memoir of the Egypt Exof Osiris was discovered, and the next day a gran- ploration Fund, a portrait statue of Prince Neukite monolith in the shape of a bud decorated with heft-Ka, of the fifth dynasty, was recovered, the the head and legs of a lion, on which was lying a pleasing expression, European features, and execumummy bearing what is known as the white crown, tion of which bear witness to the high level attained and holding in its hands, which came out of the by Egyptian art at that early age. Here also were case, a flagellum and a pastoral cane. Near the found some of the oldest amulets in the world, difhead were two hawks, and two more were at the fering somewhat from those in use in the twentyfeet. The head was designated by the inscription, sixth dynasty, which were considered the earliest “ Osiris the Good Being”. The hawks were la- known 'examples. Some excellent bas-reliefs of beled “Horus, avenger of his father"; and the about a century later than the statue depict scenes goddess Isis was also designated by her name. The in a war between the Egyptians and another people monument was 1.70 metre, or 54 feet, in width, and which are very spirited and dramatic, and so far the about a metre (3 feet 3 inches) in height. The earliest of their kind. One of them represents the tomb itself had the shape of a dwelling, with a siege of a town defended almost entirely by women. courtyard in front. It contained 14 rooms and A partly successful escalade headed by bearded the staircase, 5 rooms to the north, 5 to the south, archers has taken place, but the assailants are all and 4 to the east, while the western face was open. disposed of by the women as they get over the ramThere were evidences of fire in the tomb, and it parts, while outside a round-capped officer is seen seemed to have suffered from spoliators; and for leaning on his staff and directing the efforts of two these reasons the results of the excavations are not soldiers who are mining the wall with pikes. so complete as was desirable.

Another discovery was that of many mutilated The - Journal Egyptien,” in publishing M. Amé- skeletons, the bodies having been dismembered lineau's letter, observes that M. Marriette spent before burial and each part wrapped separately in much time and money at Abydos in searching for a linen cloth. Mr. Petrie suggests that this may be the conventional tomb of Osiris. The discovery of a “relic of cannibalism." M. Amélineau, astonishing as it may appear, is a

Development of Egyptian Funereal Art.-By possibility and in accordance with the records of a change in arrangement the mummies and coffin's all the ancient authors and the belief of most in the British Museum have been made more accesEgyptologists. The tomb spoken of in connection sible, and may be seen to better advantage. The with this discovery and with M. Marriette's search museum preserves about 44 mummies and 80 is a conventional toinb, supposed to have been in- coffins, besides covers of coffins and various fragstituted by the priests in very ancient times, and ments, which, taken together, represent a period not any real tomb in which the god was actually of about four thousand years. The oldest mummiburied. It is possible that the tomb discovered may fied human remains in the collection are those of be proved, after more complete examination of the Mycerinus, the builder of the third pyramid of epigraphic documents exhumed, to be a sanctuary Gizeh; and the most modern, those of a lady whose to Osiris erected during one of the later dynasties. name is unknown, with her three children, who

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