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and onward to 44o of east longitude and 9 of construction of a railroad from Jibutil to Harrar north latitude, then in a direct line to 47° of east with the object of opening up trade with Ethiopia. longitude and 8° of north latitude, and after that A more elaborate administrative organization was follows the line fixed in the Anglo-Italian conven- introduced in French Somaliland. Hlausa troops, tion of May 5, 1894, down to the sea. This boundary recruited in Dahomey, were sent to strengthen the conceded and transferred to Abyssinia about 15,000 native force at Jibutil. The population of this square miles of British Somaliland, a district in port had been increased by the railroad enterprise which the British had not been able to protect the from 85 Europeans and 4,000 natives in 1897 to Somalis from the raids of the Abyssinians, who 1,400 Europeans and 8,000 natives in 1898. Lieut. carried their conquests even beyond the new fron- J. L. Harrington arrived in Abyssinia in October to tier and were accustomed to baptize by force the enter upon his mission as British resident at the Mohammedan inhabitants. In the negotiations it court of Menelek. was stipulated that the Lion of the Tribe of Judah, AFGHANISTAN, a monarchy in central Asia, the title given to Menelek, shall treat the people separating British India from Russian Turkestan. well and provide them with an orderly government. The reigning Ameer, Abdurrahman Khan, was In return for the cession of the interior of British placed on the throne by the British in 1880 after Somaliland, cutting off that protectorate from the they had expelled Yakub Khan and occupied British East African sphere, Menelek relinquished Cabul. The kingdom has a length of 600 miles to Great Britain his claim to a strip of table-land and an extreme breadth of 500 miles. The populaabout 4,000 square miles in extent on the south- tion is about 4,000,000. The Amu Daria, or Öxus eastern border of the protectorate. The rectifica- river, forms the boundary between Afghanistan and tion of the frontier reduces the size of the elephant the Russian possessions up to its source in Lake reserve, recently constituted by the British authori- Victoria, whence the boundary follows a line eastties. Concerning the Gallas in the south, who have ward to a peak in the Sarikol range on the border of been forced to pay tribute to the Abyssinians, Chinese Turkestan. The delimitation of the frontier though within the borders of British East Africa, by British, Russian, and Afghan commissioners the treaty says nothing, nor concerning the rights established the fact that this southern arm of the assumed' by Menelek at the instigation of the Oxus is the inain stream, and consequently the French and Russians to the equatorial provinces of Afghans relinquished to Russia the khanates of Egypt as far as the shore of Lake Rudolf and the Roshan and Shignan, together with the main part Nile region.

of the Pamirs. The boundary between eastern The French had ceded to Abyssinia the greater and southern Afghanistan and the British sphere part of the Hinterland of their colony of Obok. has been demarcated in accordance with the Durand They had written engagements with Menelek, the agreement of 1893, with the exception of the section nature of which was not made public. The expedi- between Asmar and the Khaibar. The Ameer tion of the Marquis de Bonchamps that was ad- agreed that Chitral, Bajaur, Swat, and Chilas should vancing across the Anglo-Egyptian sphere to the be included in the British political boundary and upper Nile to join hands with the French expedi- conceded the British claim to Waziristan, while he tions that were already in the former Egyptian retained Asmar and the Kunar valley as far as province of the Bahr el Ghazal, consisted of an Abys- Chanak, with the tract of Birmal. Kafiristan, sinian force led by Frenchmen. Russian mission- which was acknowledged to be on the Afghan side aries, teachers, and physicians went to Abyssinia, of the boundary, was afterward occupied by a and the Russian Red Cross Society organized a military force, and the inhabitants, who have their hospital in Menelek's capital. Count Leontieff own religious and social system, were thoroughly returned to Russia, and in the early part of 1898 subjugated. arranged for the establishment of Abyssinian com- The Ameer levies taxes in kind, varying from a mercial agencies at St. Petersburg, Moscow, and tenth to a third of the produce in proportion to the other cities, and for the introduction of all kinds of benefits of irrigation. He receives a subsidy of 18 Russian goods in Abyssinia, in the hope of creating lakhs of rupees per annum from the Indian Governa direct trade between the two countries. He also ment. With the aid of this subvention he has shipped military stores to the Negus, some of which revived the regular army, established after the were seized by the British customs authorities at European pattern by Shere Ali, and maintains in Zeyla. Then he joined Prince Henri d'Orleans at the neighborhood of Cabul, the capital, about Paris, and the two proceeded to Adis Abeba, taking 20,000 troops, including a field batteries, 6 mule a force of Cossacks and Senegalese, with which batteries, and an elephant battery. In his arsenal they set out for the equatorial provinces and the rifled cannon, magazine rifles, and cartridges are Nile. The difficulties encountered on the way, if manufactured with European machinery under not the obstacles created by Lieut. Harrington, the superintendence of an Englishman. Includthe British agent who was appointed to the court ing tribal levies the effective war strength of the of the Emperor Menelek, compelled them to re- Afghan army is supposed to exceed 50,000 men. nounce this expedition. That of the Marquis de The chief products of Afghanistan are wheat, Bonchamps likewise came to naught.

barley, rice, millet, peas, beans, maize, spices, nuts, The Marquis de Bonchamps gave up his attempt fruits of many kinds, which are preserved for exto join the Marchand mission after passing through port to India, the castor-oil plant, madder, and the country of the Yanbos and reaching the White asafetida, which are abundant in the wild state, Nile. Of his force of 140 men 20 were killed and as large quantities of the latter drug being exported, many wounded. He made many treaties in the iron, gold, and precious stones, and of manufacname of the Emperor Menelek with native chiefs tured articles carpets, silk, felt, and sheepskin whom he won away from British influence, but garments. The principal imports are cotton goods, was finally obliged to turn back, as his men were sugar, indigo, and China tea. The chief exports exhausted and he had no boats to navigate the are wool, fruits and nuts, and horses. rivers and very few provisions left. Prince Henri During the armed conflict of the Afridis and d'Orleans prepared a new expedition for the com- other border tribes with the power of Great Britain ing winter, which he intended to conduct through the Ameer suffered much loss and inconvenience Shoa independently of Count Leontieff and the Rus- from the interruption of commerce and was placed sians. Envoys from the Negus were received by in a difficult position, being unable to support or President Faure in July. The French began the aid either the tribesmen or the British Government

without incurring political dangers. Arms and disbursements on warrants of the year, $2,205,ammunition were supplied to the tribesmen through 244.37; to disbursements on outstanding warrants Afghanistan, but the Indian Government was not of previous years, $3,387.32; total, $2,208,631.69; disposed to call Abdurrahman to account for any balance in treasury, $75,243.25. Against this balcovert action or complicity so long as his public ance there were chargeable: Outstanding warrants, attitude was correct. Afridi refugees who sought $13,467.43; salaries earned and not paid, $4,713.60; an asylum in Afghanistan were harbored, since the amounts due special funds: Pension fund, $122,Ameer was bound by his religion to receive them as 136.24; Penitentiary fund, $85,680.13; educational fugitive Mohammedans. Afridi envoys, however, fund, $56,437.96; Agricultural Department, $15,who went to Cabul in May, 1898, to solicit his aid 523.16; colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts, and protection, were dismissed without an audience. $18,612; 2- and 3-per-cent. fund, $428.63; total,

ALABAMA, a Southern State, admitted to the $316,999.15; deducting cash balance in treasury, Union Dec. 14, 1819; area, 52,250 square miles. $75,243.25, left net deficit of $241,755.90. The population, according to each decennial census Banks. — According to the statement of the since admission, was 127,901 in 1820; 309,527 in Comptroller of the Currency, the condition of the 1830; 590,756 in 1840; 771,623 in 1850; 964,201 in 26 national banks in the State was as follows in 1860; 996,992 in 1870; 1,262,505 in 1880; and 1,513,- February, 1898: Resources-Loans and discounts, 017 in 1890. Capital, Montgomery.

$5,721,483.14; overdrafts, $241,522.69; United Government. — The following were the State States bonds to secure circulation, $903,500; United officers during the year: Governor, Joseph F. States bonds to secure United States deposits, $100,Johnston; Secretary of State, James K. Jackson; 000; United States bonds on hand, $1,500; pre

miums on United States bonds, $80,591.13; stocks, securities, etc., $1,341,152.55; furniture and fixtures, $411,377.42; other real estate and mortgages owned, $224,514.78; due from other national banks (not reserve agents), $1,281,419.41; due from State banks and bankers, $446,756.37; due from approved reserve and other cash items, $61,502.23; exchanges for clearing house, $59,099.24; bills of other national banks, $148,439; fractional paper currency, nickels, and cents, $5,414.98; lawful money reserve in bank: gold coin, $360,197.60; gold Treasury certificates, $39,780; silver dollars, $157,062; silver Treasury certificates, $117,180: silver fractional coin, $43,607.66 ; total specie, $717,827.26 ; legal-tender notes, $398,105; total, $1,115,932.26 ; 5-per-cent. redemption fund with Treasurer, $39,809.56; due from United States Treasurer, $1,680,60 ; total, $14,292,525.59. Liabilities--Capital stock paid in, $3,355,000; surplus fund, $650,965.84 ; undivided profits, less expenses and taxes paid, $515,521.45; national

bank notes issued, $813,150; less amount on hand, JOSEPH F. JOHNSTON, GOVERNOR OF ALABAMA,

$33,340; amount outstanding, $779,810; due to

other national banks, $342,614.14; due to State Treasurer, George W. Ellis; Auditor and Comp- banks and bankers, $241,879.62; dividends unpaid, troller, Walter S. White; Attorney-General, Wil- $4,864.67; individual deposits, $8,153,142.61; liam C. Fitts; Commissioner of Agriculture, Isaac United States deposits, $81,624.55 ; deposits of F. Culver; Superintendent of Education, John 0. United States disbursing officers, $18,094.44; notes Turner; Adjutant General, Robert F. Ligon; Chief and bills rediscounted, $134,003.77; bills payable, Justice of the Supreme Court, Robert Č. Brickell; $15,000; average reserve held, 40.53 per cent. Associate Justices, Thomas N. McClellan, Thomas Education. In 1898 the number of children W. Coleman, James B. Head, and Jonathan Haral- attending school was 567,110—whites, 312,660 ; son; Clerk, Sterling A. Wood—all Democrats. colored, 254,450. The total educational fund was

Finances. The receipts and disbursements of $425,319.41. A report issued by the Superintendent the treasury during the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, of Education, giving the educational status of the 1897, were as follow: Balance in treasury Sept. 30, State from 1855, when the school system was organ1896, $58,319.40; receipts from Oct. 1, 1896, to ized, to 1898, was journalistically regarded as a Sept. 30, 1897, $2,174,644.37; total, $2,232,963.77. splendid showing for the progress of education in Disbursements on warrants of current year paid Alabama and for the present school system.”. In from Oct. 1, 1896, to Sept. 30, 1897, $2,188,955.20; 1855 there was appropriated to the school fund outstanding warrants of previous years paid during from all sources $237,515.39, and there were 145,588 the year, $3,028.36; total, $2,191,983.56. Balance pupils; in 1896 there was contributed from all in the treasury, $40,980.21. There were outstand- sources $657,516.64, and there were 308,507 pupils. ing warrants, $9,249.24; salaries earned and not Convicts.—The gross earnings from the hire and paid, $6,837.99; balance due the university on labor of convicts for the two years ending Aug, 31, appropriation, $3,000. Amounts due to special 1898, was $325,196.10, and the expenses (not includfunds: Penitentiary fund, $36,263.07; soldiers and ing the cost bills) was $136,662.50, showing a net widows, $116,807.99; Agricultural Department, profit of $188,533.60. There was a cash balance in $28,485.82; colleges of agriculture and mechanic the treasury to the credit of the convict fund of arts, $17,761.75; educational fund, $167,514.29 ; $82,619.39, in addition to which there was due from 2- and 3-per-cent. fund, $428.63 ; total, $386,348.78; contractors for the hire of convicts $10,780.56 and deduct cash balance in treasury, $40,980.21, and the the product of the Alabama Cotton Mill to the net deficiency was $345,368.57. Receipts and dis- amount of $25,102.56, making the available rebursements during the year ending Sept. 30, 1898, sources of the bureau $118,502.51 ; the convict were: To balance in treasury Sept. 30, 1897, $40,- cotton crop of the year was valued at $17,500, and 980.21.; to total receipts from Oct. 1, 1897, to Sept. the Alabama Cotton Mill plant at $78,347.77, mak30, 1898, $2,242,894.73; total, $2,283,874.94. To ing a grand total of $214,350.28. The Penitentiary

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was out of debt. Disbursements for the mainte- that any special effort has been made to work the nance of convicts for the two years ending in 1898 field, and even now it is being done in a comparaamounted to $128,288.55, against $173,033.25 for tively small way and with inadequate machinery. the former biennial period.

Hundreds are working small creeks and branches The Alabama Cotton Mill has 3,300 spindles, and with good results, and many gulches running off was largely built by convict labor; its entire cost the backbone of the ore system are paying handwas paid for during the two years ending in 1898, some profits.". excepting $9,801.74, which was paid in the preced- Cotton.—The acreage given to the cotton crop in ing biennial period; it began operation in 1897. 1897 was 2,656,333; bales produced, 833,789, or The entire expense incurred in the operation of the 422,731,023 pounds; average price per pound, 6.69 mill, charging it with cotton at the market price, cents; total value of crop, $28,280,705. was $42,987.16; the proceeds from the sale of cloth Cattle.—The breeding of cattle for shipment to of the crop of 1896 was $27,701.76, and the product the West, there to be fattened, is a new industry in of the mill on hand of the crop of 1897 was valued the State. It is estimated that 200,000 head were at $25,102.56, making the output of the mill $52,- shipped in 1898. 804.56 ; deducting disbursements, $42,987.16, left a Enterprise.—An industrial awakening was renet profit of $9,817.16.

ported from many parts of the State. The AmeriIn 1898 there were on hand 1,763 State and 786 can Net and Twine Company, of Boston, Mass., county convicts. The inspector said in his report established a factory at Anniston in 1897, and were that

a great number of convicts are received into soon working 150 men and making 20,000 pounds the Penitentiary in bad physical condition, due to of yarn and twine a week, with prospects of prothe terrible condition of our jails and overcrowd- ducing 50.000 pounds a week. The Alabama Steel ing.”

and Wire Company was incorporated in 1898, with Coal.— The production of coal in 1897 amounted capital stock of $2,000,000. The mill, which was to 5,868,271 tons. The number of men employed planned to be in operation by June, 1899, is to have was 11,091. The total coke production was 1,395, a capacity of 600 tons a day, with arrangement to 252 tons.

increase the capacity to 900 tons in twenty-four Iron. - About 750,000 tons of pig iron were hours. The output is to be sold to foreign markets shipped from the Birmingham district during 1897, exclusively. The Avondale Cotton Mills, a $1,000,and 40,924 tons of iron pipe. The pig iron pro- 000 plant on the outskirts of Birmingham, was duced in the State amounted to 947,831 tons. The ready to commence operations. A number of iron shipped does not represent all made and used, Birmingham foundries were running day and night a large quantity being consumed at home. Pig- on orders for machinery for Louisiana sugar refiniron shipments from the Birmingham district for eries. During the year new dwelling and business the first five months of 1898 were 323,000 tons, an houses were erected in Birmingham to the value of increase of 43,894 tons over the same period of about $200,000. Birmingham bank clearings for 1897. Cast-iron-pipe shipments for the first five the first six months of 1898 were $11,837,631.44, months of 1898 were 20,750 tons, an increase of against $9,648,315.12 for the same period in 1897, 6,511 tons. Export shipments fell off as compared an increase of $2,280,315.72. The product of brick with 1897, on account of the war with Spain. in the East Birmingham yards was 10,500,000.

Wages. The miners of the State met in conven- Good Roads.-A State roads convention was tion in May, 1898, and organized themselves into a held at Anniston and a permanent organization was State district affiliated with the United Mine reached. Workers of America. Statistics compiled by the Negro Farmers.—The colored farmers of the secretary of the Birmingham Commercial Club show capital county of the State met in convention to that there was an increase of one third in the num- discuss the interests of their industry, and the folber of wage earners in the Birmingham district lowing resolutions were adopted : during 1897; then there were 9,000 names on the “Wherecus, We feel that the great curse of the pay rolls of the industrial companies, and the num- negro farmer of the South is the continuous pracber had reached 12,000. The wages per month in tice of wholesale mortgaging of growing crops and 1897 amounted to $480,000, and had risen to $640,- the excessive rates of interest on the money and 000. In Jefferson County, not including Birming- goods received as a result of such mortgages; be it ham and the immediate suburbs, the wage earners resolved, numbered more than 17,000, with about $700,000 " That it is the sense of this meeting to discourin pay rolls, distributed as follow: Furnace em- age the practice of mortgaging and as far as ployees 3,500, wages per month $140,000; coal practicable advise the discontinuance of the same. ininers 6,507, wages per month $260,280; iron-ore " That we advise our fellow-farmers to give more miners 4,000, wages per month $140,000; coke-oven thought, time, and labor to raising of such products employees 1,400, wages per month $50,000; em- as will be of immediate use and benefit to their ployees in foundries, pipe works, etc., 2,000, wages homes. per month $100,000. În city and county there * That it shall be our future purpose to encourage were 29,407 employees, receiving monthly in wages our brother in black to practice economy, and $1,330,280. In 1897 the wage earners in the county thereby be enabled to purchase his own farm, throw numbered 24,000, with monthly wages amounting off the shackles of mortgages, and sleep under his to $1,110,000, showing an increase in 1898 of 5,000 own vine and fig tree.” employees and $200,000 per month in wages.

ANGLICAN CHURCHES. Statistical. The Gold. There is some gold mining in the counties fiftieth report of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners of Ciay, Cleburne, and Randolph. It is reported gives their total income as about £1,335,000. Its that within 18 miles of Anniston “gold is to be sources are, approximately: Rents of lands (mainly found in paying quantities, and hundreds of men agricultural) and premises, £240,000 : rents of are searching for it and finding it.”. A dispatch to houses, property, etc., in London and suburbs, the Montgomery “ Advertiser” said: “Some rich £115,000; tithe and corn rent charges, £233,000; finds have been made recently in the gold region of ground rents (mainly in London), £348,000; mining Cleburne County, about 20 miles from Anniston. royalties, etc., £341,000: other receipts, £58,000. In There is no excitement here over the finds, for the another year, after putting £85,000 to their reserve people of this section have long known that gold fund, as they did in 1897, the commissioners propose existed in Cleburne. It is only recently, however, to use £150,000 for the augmentation of endowments and benefices. Till the present time their augmen- 357 native and Eurasian clergy, 5,601 native lay tations and endowments are equivalent to a capital teachers, 63,768 communicants, 15,139 baptisms value of about £30,000,000. The report showed that during the year, and 2,191 schools, with 82,696 during the fifty years since 1840, when the commis- pupils. New openings were reported in China, where sion was created, the commissioners had augmented 744 persons had been baptized during the year, or endowed upward of 5.800 benefices by annual and a very interesting work was going on among payments charged on the common fund by capital the policemen and soldiers of Japan. The Student suis expended in the provision of parsonage houses, Volunteer_Movement, or the World's Student etc., and by the annexation of tithe charges, etc. Christian Federation, was represented at the anniThe value of the grants exceeded £813,380 per versary meeting of the society by its general secreannum in perpetuity, and was equivalent to a capital tary, Mr. J. R. Mott, as a society whose special value of £24.462,000. The value of benefactions met object was the cultivation of the missionary spirit for the most part by grants from the commissioners and the promotion of the success of missionary exceeded £184,850 per annum in perpetuity, equiva- enterprise. It had been established ten years, and lent to a capital sum of, say, £5,545,500. A further had enrolled 6,000 young men and women students sum of £26,000 per annum was also contributed by in universities and colleges in all parts of the world benefactors to meet the commissioners' grants for in co-operation with its work. curates in mining districts. The total increase in The Church Army.-The report of the Church the incomes of benefices thus resulting from the Army, made at its annual meeting, showed that duroperations of the commissioners exceeded £1,024,- ing 1897 abont 80 trained men and women had been 230 per annum, which might be taken to represent added to its staff, which now included 316 parochial a capital sum of £30,787,500.

evangelists, 120 van evangelists and colporteurs, 65 Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.- social officers, 154 mission nurses, rescue and slum The annual meeting of the Society for the Propa- workers, and 77 associate trained evangelists. The gation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts was held'in missionaries in charge of the 48 vans had conducted London, May 5, the Archbishop of Canterbury pre- during the year 2,400 seven-day parochial missions, siding. A resolution of sympathy with Mr. Glad- and had sold or distributed a large number of stone in his illness was unanimously, passed. It Bibles and other good literature. The year's gross recalled with gratitude the many occasions on which income had been £98,000, showing an increase of since he became a member, in 1837, Mr. Gladstone £5,000. had been the society's “ eloquent advocate and de- A statement of the social-work and labor-home Fout supporter.” The year's income of the society system of the Church Army, made at a meeting held had been £317,512, including £205,434 in legacies in London, March 14, represented that it had 70 and £11,289 in rents, dividends, etc. More than labor homes and other institutions in the metropo£177,000 had been received under the bequest lis and throughout the provinces for dealing with of the late Mr. Alfred Marriott, but this in the outcast-men, women, and boys—irrespective no way relieved the general fund. More than of creed, character, and color. More than 13,000 £100,000 of the bequest had been invested, and the cases had been dealt with in 1897, and 58 per cent. rest had been distributed in North America (£7,130); of them had obtained a genuinely fresh start in the West Indies (£4,505): Africa (£23,730); Asia life. The only qualifications required for admis(£25,660); Australasia (£8,975); and Europe (£1,000). sion to the homes were freedom from physical Including 12 bishops, 744 missionaries were main- infirmity; a desire to make use of the offered tained by the society, of whom 249 were in Asia, chance of a fresh start; and that the person's age 171 in Africa, 27 in Australia and the Pacific, 209 should not be more than forty years, or forty-five in North America, 48 in the West Indies, and 38 if possessing a trade. Nearly £13,000 had been chaplains in Europe. Of these, 127 were natives paid in wages to the inmates of the homes during laboring in Asia and 50 in Africa. There were in the past year. The average length of stay in a all about 2,900 lay teachers, 3,200 students in the home was thirteen weeks. colleges, and 38,000 children in the schools. In Sunday Schools.—The report of the Church of consequence of inadequate funds the mission sta- England Sunday-School Institute, May 10, shows, tions were everywhere undermanned, and further from returns sent by 13,635 out of 13,872 incumexertions were needed for the increase of the epis- bents, that the number of scholars in Church Sunday copate.

schools in 1897 was 2,910,565, the year's increase The Church Missionary Society.-The annual being 19,940. The teachers numbered 209,742. meeting of the Church Missionary Society was held Four hundred and two associations were in union in London, May 3, Sir John Kennaway presiding with the Institute, including, 19 in India and The treasurer's report showed that the whole amount the colonies. The Church of England Bible Readreceived for the society's general work was £305,625, ers' Union had 50,000 members. The report sug£7,000 more than in 1896, and £44,000 more than in gested that Sunday schools needed further episcopal the year before that; and that the total income of recognition and support, and that teachers should the society, including all special funds, had been be admitted to their office at a service in church or £331,598. This was the highest income ever re- in the school. A properly organized effort was ceived for the general work. The associations had also needed to improve the teaching. The year's contributed to the total of general receipts £197,224, revenue had been £1,586 for the general fund, and the largest amount ever sent up by them. Great £10,766 gross by the sale of publications. thankfulness was expressed in the report for the re

Clergy Relief. - The Queen Victoria Clergy sponse which had been given to the appeal made two fund was incorporated by royal celebration in the years previously on behalf of the Three Years' En- sixtieth year of her Majesty's reign as a national terprise,” to which £42,000 had been already con- fund to supplement the diminished incomes of the tribnted. Notwithstanding the large receipts and clergy. At a meeting in its behalf, held July 4, the the fact that the previous year's deficiency of £9,000 Archbishop of Canterbury represented that of the had been wiped off, the rapid development of the 14,000 benefices in the country, 6,000 were of the work had resulted in an expenditure exceeding the value of less than £200 a year; about 4,600 of them annual income by £20,000. From the mission fields had an average income of £150, and the remaining were retarned 483 stations; 411 ordained and 127 1,400 an average income of £65. It was not only lay European missionaries, with 300 wives and 254 the case that the incomes were so small; a great other woman missionaries, making a total of 1,092 ; number of these gentlemen had larger incomes only


a little while ago, but they had been gradually fall- Church Association.-The annual meeting of ing in consequence of the great diminution in the the Church Association was held in London, May 2, value of land and tithes.

Capt. A. W. Cobham presiding. The income of the The report of the Committee of the Poor Clergy association had been £7,183, but although a balance Relief Corporation, made at the annual meeting, of £46 was returned, the funds were declared to be July 7, emphasized the great need of the society, in totally inadequate. The van colporteurs had given view of the fact that of all the educated professions 2,322 addresses and distributed 116,000 Protestant the clergy of the present day belong to the poorest. 'publications in 1,541 villages. Help was afforded to necessitous clergy without ref- Church Reform League.-The third annual erence to party complexion or schools of thought. report of the Churen keform League contains the The income of the society for the past year had names of 1,600 Churchmen who have joined the been about £15,000, and £5,912 had been absorbed society, including 842 clergymen. Sixty-eight in money grants to clergymen, widows, and orphans, branches have been formed in England and Wales, besides £551 in holiday grants, while clothing of some of which are diocesan and some ruridecanal. the estimated value of £3.994 had been distributed. Sir Alfred Holdsworth has been employed as paid A surplus of about £6,000 was left to be carried to secretary, and an office has been established at the capital account.

Church House, Westminster. The total receipts Bishop of London's Fund.— The Bishop of for 1897 were £360, of which a balance of £22 reLondon's fund was established in 1864 by Arch- mained. About one hundred meetings were held bishop Tait of Canterbury in aid of church-erection during the year, and a number of pamphlets and and mission work in the metropolis. The public leaflets had been published and widely distributed, has since then given it more than £1,000,000, and among which was a letter from Mr. Gladstone exthis sum has been spent in building 185 churches in pressing sympathy with the movement. London and its surrounding districts. and in assist- The Liberation Society.—The sixteenth triing to provide clergy for those churches.

ennial Conference of the Society for the Liberation Society of the Sacred Mission.- The Society of the Church from the Patronage and Control of of the Sacred Mission was formed about 1890 at the State was held in London, May 3 and 4. The Brixton, having for its special object the training Rev. Dr. J. Guinness Rogers presided. The report of laymen who are willing to take the monastic of the executive referred to the results of the byvow for service, more especially for the foreign- elections and the school-board elections, and the mission field. At a meeting in the interest of this formation of the Free Church Council as indicative work, held Feb. 1, to consider means for obtaining of the growth of liberationism and the increase of new quarters for it (preferably at Cambridge), the nonconformist strength; adversely criticised the Bishop of Rochester presided, and made an address bill for the reconstruction of London University; commending the enterprise as a feature of a great exhorted friends of religions equality to resist the revival of the missionary spirit. The Rev. Canon endowment of a Roman Catholic university in IreNewbolt said he regarded the mission as an envoyland ; spoke of the present prospects of the nonconin reviving monastic religious life, and spoke of the formist marriages bill as uncertain; and, referring wrong that had been done in branding as lazy and to the “growing Romanistic lawlessness” within vicious the monks in the religious houses that were the Established Church and the attempts to reform suppressed. The purpose of the mission was not abuses therein, expressed the opinion that the Engonly to invite men to offer their service to the lish Church can not be effectually regulated by Church without prospect of reward, but to give legislative machinery or by appeals to judicial trithem an opportunity to test their vocation. More bunals. The financial report represented that the candidates were applying than could be received. receipts of the society had ainounted to £4,649, and

Church Defense Committee.—The second an- the expenditures to £4,500. This income was altonual meeting of the Church Defense Committee- gether inadequate to the demands made upon it, an organization formed by amalgamating in 1897 and needed to be increased by £1,000. Resolutions the Church Defense Institution with the Central were adopted welcoming recent declarations of Church Committee-was held in the Church House, leaders of the Liberal party of continued adherWestminster, March 28. The Archbishop of Can- ence to the policy of disestablishment in Wales terbury presided. The report recorded the quiet and Scotland: urging increased energy in carrying but unremitting pursuit during the year of the on the society's work; condemning the proposed work of Church defense and instruction. A cir- establishment of a Roman Catholic University in cular had been sent to every beneficed clergyman Ireland as a retrograde measure, not called for by suggesting the observance of Oct. 24 or some other the necessities of the case, but calculated to intenconvenient day as “ National Church Sunday," and sify existing sectarian differences and injuriously inviting sermons on Church defense and instruc- affect the interests of learning; and instructing the tion, with offertories whenever possible. A larger executive to take such steps as might be necessary number of illustrated lectures on Church history to defeat the measure, while they should support had been delivered than in the previous year. Six any needed changes in university teaching which hundred and forty-nine ruridecanal and 5,959 would be "free from sectarianism and consistent parochial secretaries were recorded. The income of with the maintenance of religious equality"; conthe committee for the year had been £11,307. The demning the educational policy of the Government, defeat of two parliamentary measures bearing ad- and hoping that friends of unsectarian education versely to the claims of the Church was mentioned. would persistently aim at the establishment of a Resolutions were adopted pledging support to the national system based on the principle of local and benefices bill, which was designed to remedy representative management, free from religious disacknowledged abuses in the Church and expressing abilities, and recognizing the just claims of the gratification at the progress it had made; urging teaching profession. continued organization of ruridecanal and parochial At the autumnal meeting of the council of the committees and continued effort “ to disseminate society, Oct. 24, Mr. Albert Spicer, M. P., presiding, an accurate knowledge among all classes of society speaking in reference to the prevailing excitement of the history and work of the national Church"; concerning ritualism, said that some of them had and expressing hope for a speedy satisfactory settle- always thought that disestablishment would come ment by the royal commissioners of the question naturally from the dissensions in the Church of of the burden of local taxation borne by the clergy. England, but it must never be overlooked that it

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