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May, in which he examined the weather charts for able for rainfall are found to be nearness to the the past twenty years, Dr. R. Hennig, of Berlin, ocean, proximity to the track of storms, and the posifinds that these days are, with rare exceptions, a tion of mountain ranges. The rainfall of the North yearly recurring phenomenon, but do not affect the Pacific coast is discussed as an example of the comsame parts of Europe; that the period of their oc- bined effect of all three of these conditions. There currence varies considerably. It may embrace the a wet season prevails from October to March, and whole month, but most frequently takes place dur- the summer is nearly rainless, except in northern ing the second decade, and usually lasts for three California and parts of Oregon and Washington. or four days; that the phenomenon generally begins About half the yearly fall occurs between December during stormy northwest winds, accompanied with and February. "In a narrow belt on the northwest frequent showers of rain, snow, or hail. Nightcoast, extending from Cape Flattery to about the frosts and hoarfrost sometimes occur during the middle of the Oregon coast, and some distance inearly period of this unsettled weather, but generally land, the annual amount of rain is more than 50 take place after the passage of areas of low baro- inches, and at some points is 100 inches. To the east metric pressure. During this cold period an exten- and north of this, the annual rainfall diminishes, sive area of high pressure obtains over the ocean and is least on the lowlands and valleys between adjacent to the western or northwestern shores of the Coast Range on the west and the Sierra Nevada Europe. The subject was investigated before by and the Cascade Range on the east, where the Dove, in 1856, and Von Bezold, in 1882.
amount is in some cases not more than 10 inches, From the examination of the weather charts though in years of plentiful rainfall it may rise to issued from the Meteorological Office of Paris, 20 inches in the best-watered parts. East of the particularly those from January to March, 1895, Rocky mountains the annual rainfall ranges from the Rev. M. Decheirans, of the St. Louis Observa- 10 to 18 inches, and increases slowly to 60 inches tory, Jersey, has found that the extremes of heat on the Florida and Gulf coasts, and to from 40 to and cold, observed respectively in areas of low and 50 inches in the Eastern States. It, however, graduhigh barometric pressures, do not occur at the cen- ally declines from the Atlantic coast westward and ters of those systems, but in the neighborhood of from the Gulf coast northward. The large majority the mean isobars; also that the descending current of excessive rains are said to occur west of longiof air in an area of high pressure escapes along di- tude 105° west, and principally in the summer vergent lines, and that it is principally due to this months, in connection with afternoon thunderdivergence that the cold usual in anticyclones is storms. They occasionally take place on the track observed. Similarly, the relatively high tempera- of the West India hurricanes, and are more abunture in areas of low pressure is due to the con- dant on the Gulf and South Atlantic coasts than at vergence of ascending air currents.
inland places. The greatest rates of rainfall per The bulletin of the Society of Naturalists of hour, estimated from periods of five minutes at the Moscow contains an account of observations made Weather Bureau stations that possess self-registerby M. Walther, of Jena, in the transcaspian coun- ing gauges, were 9 inches at Bismarck, N. Dak., 8.4 try upon the temperature of the surface of the inches at St. Paul, Minn., and 8.2 inches at New ground. The temperature of the air was registered Orleans. on a day in September, 1897, every hour from five A formation of small cumulus clouds over a o'clock in the morning till ten o'clock in the even- fire has been observed by Mr. R. de C. Ward, at the ing, upon an isolated hill about 35 feet high; and Harvard College Observatory, Arequipa, Peru, and the temperatures of the sand, the clayey soil, and is described by him in the “ United States Weather an olive-brown dolomite were taken by means of a Review." Behind the western flank of Mount special thermometer. Independently of the angle Charchani, and about 15 miles away, a column of of incidence of the rays of the sun, M. Walther smoke was rising from a considerable fire of bushtook note of a considerable influence of the wind. wood, at a probable height of about 14,000 feet The removal of the thermometer situated in the above sea level. While looking at the smoke, Mr. wind to a sheltered spot gave a rise of temperature Ward noticed the formation of a small cumulus of 6.5° C. for the sand, 4.5° C. for the clay, and 4.5° cloud directly over it, and between 4,000 and 5,000 C. for the rock, the temperature of the air remain- feet above it, when the sky was almost clear and ing the same. The temperature of the air reached there was little wind. The cloud soon disappeared, its greatest height at two o'clock, when it was 33.5° and was succeeded by another, which again disapC.; that of the clay soon rose to 46.5° C.; and even a peared within five minutes. Eight distinct cloudlittle before two o'clock the temperature of the sand lets were seen thus to form and disappear within was 48.5° C. The rock did not reach its highest half an hour, after which the smoke vanished. Two temperature till three o'clock. The setting of the previous similar cases are referred to by Mr. Ward sun had considerable effect; and shortly after it one recorded by Prof. Espy, and the other dethe temperature curve of the soil cut that of the scribed in “Science” of Jan. 8, 1897. air and continued to be several degrees below it. The report of the International Meteorological Rain had a still greater effect. Ahnger observed Committee on cloud observations records nearly in the desert on the same day that the temperature 3,000 measurements of heights and velocities made fell after a heavy shower from 30° C. to 10o C. M. at Upsale Observatory, Sweden, during the year beWalther relies on sudden changes like these to ex- ginning May, 1896, 1,635 of which were taken by plain the disintegration of rocks and their breaking photography. The discussion of the results shows up by parallel fissures.
that the annual deviation of the mean height of the Precipitation.--In a bulletin of the Weather clouds is very pronounced, with a maximum during Bureau of the United States Department of Agri- June and July and a minimum during winter. culture, on the rainfall of the United States, pre- During the summer season the mean height of the pared by Mr. A. J. Henry, observations obtained cirrus is 8,176 metres, and that of the cumulus 1,685 from the largest and most trustworthy registers are metres. The heights of the upper and middle compared, and annual, seasonal, and other charts level clouds are lower than at the Blue Hill Obserare discussed. Special attention is given to the vatory in Massachusetts, while the lower forms are rainfall of the crop-growing season as being a mat- at nearly the same level; this is accounted for as ter of most vital interest. As regards the monthly probably a natural effect of the difference of posidistribution of rainfall by districts and types ac- tion of the two stations. The velocity of the upper cording to natural boundaries, the conditions favor- clouds is greater than that of the lower, and the
velocity of all clouds is greater in winter than in experiments with anemometers attached to the rigsuminer.
ging of ships at different heights, finds as general It has been found by C. T. R. Nilson that clouds facts deducible from them, that the instruments may be produced by the action of ultraviolet light must have a fairly clear exposure to be of much on moist air. When the light from an arc-lamp value, and that for a mile at least all around there was brought to a focus by means of a quartz lens should be no hills or anything higher than the posiwithin a vessel containing moist, dust-free air, a tion they occupy; that on a ship the results may bluish fog became visible in the course of a few be considered fairly accurately determined by havminutes along the path of the light. The cloud ing the instrument 50 feet above the hull, but that particles remained in suspension for hours after on land it will generally be necessary to carry the the light was cut off. The phenomenon was shown instruments somewhat higher, the height to be eren in unsaturated air, but the faint blue haze which determined by the local conditions; that no other then developed took much longer to form. When form of anemometer offers such advantages as the the radiation was not sufficiently intense to show pressure tube, from the fact that it can be run up these effects, a dense fog could still be obtained by and secured easily at the desired height above a bringing about slight supersaturation by expan- building, and that the pipes and stays can be slight sion. The clouds, unlike those obtained by Tyndall so as to offer no resistance to the wind and cause and by Aitken by the action of light on various no deflecting currents. The committee found that vapors, are due to the ultraviolet rays above ; for the ship itself modified the indications of the lower if à thin sheet of glass or mica (substances which anemometers, while some low hills and trees a are opaque to those rays) be interposed, not a trace quarter of a mile away affected the wind velocity of fog or rain is formed, even when a high degree from the quarters in which they lay. of supersaturation is brought about by expansion. In the instrument of Prof. F. E. Nipher for It is possible that the small particles to which the measuring wind pressure, two equal thin metal blue of the sky is due are the result of this action disks, 24 inches in diameter, having beveled rims, of the ultraviolet rays, of which sunlight, when it are screwed together so as to leave a small space first enters our atmosphere, doubtless contains a between, into which a connecting tube is passed plentiful supply.
through the center of one of the disks. The end of In connection with the attempts to establish a the tube is flush with the inner surface of the disk, twenty-six day period for meteorological phenomena, and the interspace is filled up with a certain numProf. Arthur Schuster is cited as being led to think, ber of layers of wire screen which project at least from a critical examination of the published investi- half an inch beyond the edges of the metal disks. gations on the subject, that “although the magnetic When this simple device is placed in a stream of phenomena and the occurrence of thunderstorms air, it is found that the effects of rarefaction and seem to be affected by a period of twenty-six days compression, set up at different parts of the porous and of its first multiple
, the subject requires a good screen, neutralize each other, so that the pressure deal of further study before we can be sure as to at the mouth of the tube is the same as the true the exact nature of the period. Even though it intrinsic pressure of the external air. This propmay be considered as proved, it must not necessarily erty of the collector was severely tested by thrustbe assumed that it is due to solar action. If it is à ing it out of a carriage window in a train which question merely of magnetic disturbances, there was traveling at the rate of sixty miles an hour. does not seem to be any great improbability, how- No effect on the gauge could be noticed, although ever, that some periodicity may be connected with the instrument was sufficiently tangent to the edge. the sun's rotation about its axis, especially at times The gauge employed was a water manometer conof great sun-spot activity.”
sisting of a cylindrical vessel partly filled with Winds.-Addressing the Royal Meteorological So- water, with a straight glass tube leading out from ciety upon the progressive movements of the cores of the bottom and inclined at 5 in 100 to the horithe permanent high-pressure areas which are found zontal. The open end of this tube was in commuto be associated with different localities at different nication with a collector of the form suggested by times of the year, Major H. E. Rawson referred Abbe so as to secure a standard pressure of comto previous investigations by Abercromby, Scott, parison. Loomis, H. C. Russell, and Buchan, and then pro- From observations of dust particles in the atceeded to give the results of an exainination which mosphere made at Mont Salève in Savoy, the oasis he had made of all the available synoptic weather of Biskra, the village of Tortola and the forest of charts for the eleven years 1881 to 1891. During Loimola in Finland, the neighborhood of Cristianthis period there were 212 cases in which the center sund on the west coast of Norway, and the island or core of an anticyclonic system was over the of Grip, M. G. Melander finds that the number of British Isles, and of these 130 were due to the At- particles generally increases with the dryness of the lantic system, 41 to the Scandinavian, 17 to the air. This fact seems adequate to account for the Greenland system, 22 to the Atlantic and Scandi- influence of the direction of the wind that has been navian systems extending and merging together, observed at different stations. Aitken's theory and 2 to the same thing occurring in the case of that the number of dust particles diminishes as the the Atlautic and Greenland systems. It is thus evi- wind increases in strength seems to be liable to dent that the greater number of the British cyclones modification in the light of these observations and are owing to the Atlantic system. They occur in may be regarded as subject to local conditions. all months, but more especially in January, June, M. Melander further finds that the vapors from a and October, and are least frequent in April and saline solution carry, even at the ordinary temperNovember. When such cyclones move away from ature, particles of salt in suspension or solution ; the British area the direction is very much in the number of particles in this case increases in the fluenced by the season of the year; by far the vicinity of the liquid. He concludes that, at least largest number drift off in some direction between in many cases, particles of salt suspended in the atnortheast, through east to south, and take the more mosphere are causes of fogs, clouds, and rain. This southerly course in December, January, and Feb- hypothesis is confirmed by the deposits left by the ruary. A few between April and July move west evaporation of raindrops on a plate of glass. There or southwest, and still fewer north or northwest. seems to be an infinite number of saline particles
The report of the Wind Force Committee of the constantly in the atmosphere which when dry are Royal Meteorological Society giving the results of almost without action, are light and constantly invisible, but when sufficient water is present, con- of the neighboring ocean. The subject is one that dense into fine drops and become a visible cloud. affords great scope for study.
From a study of the records-1763 to 1897—R. The second meeting of the International AëroO. Mossman finds that, in London, snow is of most nautical Congress, at Hamburg, March 31 to April frequent occurrence with north and east winds, and 4, was largely occupied with the discussion of quesleast cominon with southwest winds. Hails, how- tions relating to the equipment of ballons sondés, ever, occur most often with west, northwest, and or captive balloons, and manned balloons. The connorth winds. Gales are most frequent with west gress recommended, among other things, that the and south winds. The greatest number of thunder- instrumental equipment of manned balloons should storms, both in summer and winter, occur with be uniform, so far as possible, and that for each west winds, although the values in summer are also ballon sondé an instrument should be provided to high with east, southeast, and south winds. The serve as a basis of comparison with perfected ingreatest number of fogs are recorded on calın days, struments whose construction may change from and these are closely followed by days on which one ascent to another as improvements may be the wind blows from the west.
attempted in them. Mr. A. Lawrence Rotch, of Blue In observations on the transparency of haze dur- Hill Observatory, Mass., was present and made a ing 1897, the Hon. F. A. Rollo Russell found that report on the use of kites at his observatory. The the greatest clearness occurred with winds from chief of the United States Weather Bureau sent a the westward, and the least clearness with winds letter explaining the proposed use of kites to obtain from the eastward. The highest mean visibility data for a daily synoptic weather chart over the was 24 miles with the west winds, and the lowest United States at the height of a mile or more. mean visibility was 10.6 miles with northeast Resolutions were passed favoring the use of kites at winds.
suitable stations. It was announced that M. TeisMiscellaneous. The average height of the me- serene de Bort was equipping a kite station at teorograph in Mr. A. Lawrence Rotch's kite-flying Trappes, near Paris, after the model of Blue Hill, experiments at Blue Hill, Mass., during August, and Gen. Rykatcheff stated that an anemograph of 1898, was 7,800 feet, and on August 26 the meteoro- his invention was being raised with Hargrave kites graph was raised higher than ever before, its alti- at St. Petersburg. tude, determined trigonometrically, being 11,444 A work on the meteorology of the Southern feet above Blue Hill, or 12,074 feet above the adja- Ocean, between the Cape of Good Hope and New cont sea. The meteorograph was suspended from Zealand, was mentioned in the English Meteorologthe top kite, a Lamson aëro-curve with 71 square ical Council for 1896 as having then been under feet of lifting surface; and 4 kites of the modified preparation; and as no charts for that area had Hargrave form, with a combined lifting surface of been previously published by the office, the work 149 square feet, aided to lift the wire, which was was expected to prove of much value. The results 5 miles long and weighed 75 pounds. The total of the weather forecasts continued to show a conweight of the kites, lines, and apparatus in the air siderable amount of success; for those published in was 112 pounds. The meteorograph left the ground the morning newspapers, a complete and partial at 10.40 Å. M., attained its greatest height at 4.15 P. M., success of 81 per cent. was claimed for the year in and reached the ground at 8.40 P. M. It passed question, while for the special forecasts during the through cumulus clouds about three quarters of a hay harvest, the figures showed that 88 per cent. mile from the earth, and above them the air was were useful. A still greater success was claimed found to be very dry. The maximum wind veloc- for the warnings of storms, of which 91.5 per cent. ity, 40 miles an hour, was reached at the height of were justified. For the study of the climatology of 11,000 feet, while 100 feet higher the wind blew at the British Isles, the office continued to subsidize a the rate of 32 iniles an hour from the south west. small number of observatories of the highest class, On the hill at this time the wind was west, and its and maintain an intimate relationship with them, velocity was 22 miles an hour. The temperature of and to supplement this information by observations the air there was 72° when it was 38° in the free air from a large number of voluntary stations. 11,444 feet above.
In an analysis of the duration of sunshine in A phenomenon, called Barisal guns in India and North America, presented to the German MeteoroMistpoefers in Europe, sounds like distant reports logical Society at its triennial meeting in April, of cannon or explosions, the causes of which are not Prof. Dr. Van Bebber stated that the amount of sunknown, has received much attention of late years. shine increases rapidly toward the south as in A book concerning them has been published by M. Europe, and reaches a maximum in Arizona. As E. Van den Broeck, in which hundreds of instances in Europe, the mountains receive the most morning are cited and described by the author or quoted sunshine, but, unlike Europe, the annual maximum from authentic sources, in all of which an explana- in America occurs in July, and in the South in tion is sought. The sounds appear to be heard June. The speaker inferred that the characteristics most frequently near the sea, and in warm weather. of the Northern and Southern people are to be atCominunications made by Samuel W. Kain and tributed to climatic conditions, and are especially others to the “ United States Monthly Weather Re- affected by the deviation of sunshine. . viow,” show that the sounds are very frequent on In an address to the Royal Meteorological Sofine, calın summer days in the Bay of Fundy. ciety, Mr. A. W. Clayden spoke of the extreme Prof. Cleveland Abbe has pointed out that there value of photographic methods of recording the is a resemblance between the sounds as they are de- movements of instruments, and of the real imscribed and sounds made by drumfish in aquaria; portance of preserving photographic records of all and that a large drumfish will give out a sound sorts of unusual meteorological phenomena, and that may be heard a long distance away. Prof. Abbe emphasized the necessity of companion photographs, suggests that the noises proceeding from the ocean showing the same scene under normal conditions. may have different characters and origins. Some Having referred to some of the puzzles offered by may be due to the drumfish; others to breakers lightning photographs, the lecturer said that he had dashing on rocky cliffs, whence heavy thuds spread repeatedly found that a single discharge lasted for many miles through the air and many miles several seconds. He had several years before been farther through the ocean ; others to the cracking of led to the proof that the "black" flashes shown in rocks in ledges near the surface; and others, occasion- photographs were merely a photographic phenomally, to genuine earthquakes occurring at the bottom enon, but it is one that still remains unexplained. The author's method of measuring cloud altitudes book” went to press. For these the figures are differs from other methods in that he uses the sun taken from the reports for 1897. There will thereas a reference point.
fore be some slight differences between the totals In seeking an explanation of the aurora borealis, in this table and those which will appear in the Gustav Wendt observes that oxygen is a paramag- book of “Minutes of the Annual Conferences,” netic element, and assumes polarity by the presence which was to appear later and include all their of the earth as a permanent magnet. Hence near later returns: Whole number of annual conferences, the magnetic pole, the magnetic attraction occa- 147; which are classified as conferences, 124; missions the descent of paramagnetic matter, especially sion conferences (including the newly organized of oxygen or condensed oxygen, and also of dust of Congo and South Japan mission conferences), 11, all kinds, including occasionally dust of meteoric and missions, 12; number of ministers in full coniron, etc. The northern lights may therefore be re- nection and on trial (including supernumeraries and garded as an electrical phenomenon arising when superannuates), 17,500; of local preachers, 14,610; oxygen and other paramagnetic matter are continu- of lay members (full members and probationers), ously drawn down from the higher regions of the 2.886,189 ; of Sunday schools, 31.666, with 349,026 atinosphere with the effect of setting up electric officers and teachers and 2,676,297 pupils; of currents. If, as a large series of accurate analyses churches, 26,657, valued at $113,781,905; of parsonindicates, the air of the mountains and moors of ages, 10,604, having a probable value of $17,832,the Scottish highlands generally contains 21 per 092. The increase of members and probationers cent. of oxygen while in large towns, especially in during the year is estimated at 33,000. fogs, the oxygen, content sinks to 20.8 per cent., and The receipts of the Board of Education for the in deep mines to 20.2 per cent., the fact may be ex- year covered by its report for 1898 were $93,308. plained by the circumstance that, besides the general The receipts from returned loans were $15,261, a diffusion, the magnetic attraction is brought into larger sum than in any previous year. The board play. Every large mountain must possess the had aided with its funds 1,825 students of 27 differmountain magnetism in a larger or smaller degree. ent nationalities. Of these, 1,129 were preparing The agreeable sensation felt in lofty yet protected for the ministry or for missionary work, and 279 of regions is usually owing to the presence of con- them were women. The whole number of students densed oxygen drawn downward in consequence of aided from the beginning of the board's work in the “ mountain magnetism."
1873 to July, 1898, was 8,909. The Sunday-school A sandstorm froin the Sahara, which occurred at Children's fund, instituted in 1866, has become a the Canary Islands about the middle of February, very important feature in the work of the Church. appears to have been felt over a wide area. On The collections for it, taken annually on the second Feb. 15, when, in latitude 22.5° north, longitude Sunday in June, reached $84,000 on the second year 17.25° west, the steamer“ Roslyn (astle” passed after its institution, and the amount has since been through the storm, large quantities of fine sand largely increased. The educational institutions of fell upon the deck and adhered to the sails and rig- the Church include 26 theological institutions, 53 ging. The steamer entered the dust cloud between colleges and universities, 63 classical seminaries, 8 five and ten miles off Cape Blanco, and continued institutions exclusively for women, 99 foreign misin it for nearly two days. It extended many miles sion schools, and 4 missionary institutes and Bible out to sea, and was so dense that objects on deck training schools; making a total, after deducting 23 could not be clearly distinguished, and officers and schools duplicated, of 230 schools, or 3 more than in men suffered great discomfort in their eyes. The 1897. These institutions have grounds and buildvessel was in considerable danger passing through ings valued at $17,132,501, endowments aggregating the Canaries. On Feb. 15, at Funchal, the sun had $12,299,601, of which $10,149,375 are productive; the appearance of the moon, and what seemed a are in debt $1,924,815, and return 3,143 professors fog of unusual and unprecedented character hung and 46,708 students. over the island. The dust penetrated everywhere. The third International Convention of the EpAlthough a gale was blowing at Madeira, there was worth League was held in Toronto, Ontario, July no wind when passing through the dust. A sample 15 to 18, and was attended by an estimated numof the dust was analyzed by Dr. Leonard Dobson, ber of 20,000 persons, 15,000 of whom were regiswho publishes the results of his examination in the tered. The discussions held during the four days * Chemical News" of March 18, 1898.
were participated in by about 236 readers and The directors of the high- and the low-level obser- speakers. Resolutions were adopted upholding ratories at Ben Nevis, in announcing that they temperance and Sabbath observance; declaring it would have to be closed for want of funds, in Oc- a Christian duty to participate in all matters that tober, 1898, declared that by the establishment of concern the national, State, and municipal governthose observatories, and the unique observations ment; and expressing a desire for the establishment made at them, a great experiment had been carried of arbitration in the settlement of international out with signal success, and that in a large sense questions and perpetual peace between the United the objects aimed at had been attained. A long States and Great Britain. series of hourly observations had been obtained by The General Committee of Church Extension met night and by day without a break over a period of in Boston, Mass., Nov. 3. The receipts of the year fifteen years, including eye and other observations had been $173,720 for the general fund and $188,made outside in the severe climate of Ben Nevis. 653 for the Loan fund. While the receipts to the These formed a unique series of observations, noth- general fund had decreased $3,419, the joint acing like them having been as yet made at any other counts of both funds showed a net increase of $14,high-level observatory in the world. Funds were 011. The total sum of $172,337 had been authorfortunately supplied a few days after the announce- ized to be given out, of which the board had paid ment referred to was made, and the necessity of $80,656 and promised $72,222, while the balance closing the observatories has been avoided.
would be carried forward into the new year. The METHODISTS. 1. Methodist Episcopal plan of procuring new churches by special gifts of Church. The following is a summary of the sta- $250 had invited contributors to select this special tistics of this Church as given in the Methodist work. During the year 18 churches had been addYearbook " for 1899. In a few of the conferences ed to the nuinber previously reported as secured meeting near the end of 1898 the statistical reports in this way, making in all 623, of an average cost, had not been completed at the time the “ Year when dedicated, of more than $2,000 each. Many of
these churches had given place, as population and Bulgaria, $8,868; for Italy, $40,511 ; for South the strength of the people had increased, to larger America, $75,620; for Mexico, $79,275 ; for Africa, and more valuable buildings. By a system of special $24,635; for China, $118,254; for Japan, $49,272; gifts of $100 ach, what are called “mountain for Korea, $16,752; for India, $142,886 ; for Malaychurches” are procured, at a cost, on the average, of sia, $9,855 ; total for foreign missions, $621,184. $600 or $700 each. While the principal field of this for missions in the United States (classified as work is the mountain region of the central South, Welsh, Danish, Norwegian and Danish, German, it has extended into other parts of the country. French, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, Bohemian and The churches are situatod chiefly in small vil. Hungarian, Italian, Portuguese, American Indian, lages and rural districts, and are built with the and English-speaking), $413,022. The miscellaco-operation of the resident people. Ten such neous appropriations, for salaries, incidental exchurches had been added during the year, making penses, etc., amounted to $110,000, making the total the whole number 90. A much larger number of amount appropriated $1,177,206. In addition to churches of this class had been aided out of the this appropriations were made contingently for the general treasury in the ordinary course of the work. Congo Mission Conference, Alaska, Italian work in The capital of the Loan fund stood at $1.043,310, Louisiana, and the establishment of a mission in while churches borrowing had returned, in all, dur- Puerto Rico, amounting in all to $48,000. ing the history of the society, $1,169,711, showing The twenty-ninth annual meeting of the General an aggregate for use by loans to date of $2,213,- Executive Committee of the Woman's Foreign Mis021. In this way 3,315 different churches had been sionary Society was held at Indianapolis, Ind., in aided, furnishing sittings for about 965,000 hearers, November. The receipts for the year had been and worth in the aggregate, nearly $12,000,000. $328,488, $14,550 more than those of the previous
The seventeenth annual meeting of the Woman's year, and the largest in the history of the society. Home Missionary Society was held at Minneapolis, Three missionaries had been sent to China during Minn., Oct. 19. The total cash receipts for the the year, 7 to India, 3 to Japan, 1 to Burmah, and year had been $135,164, and the expenditures $131,- 1 to Africa, while 9 had returned from the field for 430. Bequests to the amount of $36,000 had been rest. Eight missionary candidates had been acmade to the society during the year, of which $13,- cepted. The Felts Missionary Institute, at Her000 had been paid in. Reports were made of work kimer, N. Y., the gift of Mr. and Mrs. George P. in the South, where the society had 15 homes, with Felts, was accepted as a school for the training of religious, literary, and industrial schools; among Christian workers. the Indians of New Mexico and the frontier, with The bishops of this Church, at their semiannual a school for Indian girls at Lyndon, Wash.; meeting in November, adopted an address to the among the Spanish-Americans; in Alaska ; in members and friends of the Church inviting them Utah, where 13 missionaries and deaconesses are to contribute for a twentieth century thank offering laboring; among immigrants in New York, Boston, of $20,000,000, “ over and above all ordinary conand Philadelphia ; and among the Chinese in San tributions for the maintenance and spread of the Francisco. The society had 20 homes for deacon- “kingdom of Christ, which certainly ought not to esses, besides several centers of work, with 165 be diminished”—the subscription to be paid within deaconesses in the field, and a training school for three years from Jan. 1, 1899. Of this sum, it missionaries and deaconesses in Washington, D. C., was proposed to give $10,000,000 for the benefit of for which a new and larger building is needed and the universities, theological seminaries, colleges, projected, and homes for orphan and destitute and other schools; and $10,000,000 for the hospitals, children at York, Neb., Tivoli, N. Y., and Urbana, orphanages, homes for the aged, and other chariII., with about 175 children under care and in table institutions of the Church, and for payment training.
of debts on the various Church properties. A GenThe General Committee of the Freedmen's Aid eral Executive Commission was nominated for the and Southern Education Society met in Boston, accomplishment of this scheme, the first meeting Mass., Nov. 7. The treasurer reported that the of which was appointed to be held in the city of total receipts for the year had been $122,209, of New York, Jan. 5, 1899. which $80,932 were contributions from the confer- II. Methodist Episcopal Church, South.ences. The disbursements had been $126,756. The The tables of religious statistics published in the apportionments for the ensuing year were made on Independent," New York, Jan. 5, 1899, give this the basis of $248,950 as the total amount to be Church, for 1898, 5,901 ministers, 13,995 churches, raised. The regret of the committee was expressed and 1,458,345 communicants. by resolution at the fact that the collections from The thirteenth General Conference met in Baltithe churches for the society had been decreasing. more, Md., May 5. The episcopal address showed The society maintained 1 theological seminary, 12 that the number of itinerant preachers had incollegiate and 10 academic institutions among the creased since the last General Conference 502, and colored people, and 3 colleges and 20 academic the membership of the Church 123,221. The whole schools among white people.
number of itinerant preachers was 5,989 ; of local The General Missionary Committee met at Provi- preachers, 5,685 ; and of members, 1,478,431. The dence, R. I., Nov. 9 to 15. The treasurer reported aggregate value of the Church property of all kinds that the receipts for the year ending Oct. 31 had was estimated at a little more than $35,000,000, been $1,181,789, being $49,848 more than those of showing an increase of about $2,000,000 during the the preceding year. The expenditures had been four years. The Sunday-school reports gave the $1,196,802, of which $626,202 were charged to the number of such schools as 14,188, with 104,135 account of foreign missions, and the rest to domes- teachers and 851,488 pupils, or 825 schools, 8,459 tic. The total debt in the treasury was $177,417, teachers, and 86,202 pupils more than in 1894. The having been diminished $98,731. The sum of $60,- Church had under its control 76 educational insti838 had been received in the form of “special tutions of all grades, with more than 1,000 teachgifts."
ers, 16,000 students, property valued at $4,661,850, Appropriations were made for the missionary and endowments amounting to $2,189,695. The acwork of the ensuing year as follows: For Ger- counts of the several boards and benevolent sociemany. $36,575 ; for Switzerland, $7,390 ; for Nor- ties showed that the whole amount paid out by way, $12,421 : for Sweden, $16,256 ; for Denmark, them during the quadrennium had been $2,067,955. $7,490 ; for Finland and St. Petersburg, $5,124; for On an indebtedness of $129,144 lying against the