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Grévy a commander of the Legion of Honor. In Ewer & Co., London, having retired from business, 1896 he was created a Knight of St. Michael and purchased an estate near Genoa, which he named St. George.

* Villa Novello," and persuaded the Cowden Clarkes Clark, George Thomas, an English genealogist to make their home with him. After the death of and archæologist, born in 1809; died at Tal-y-Garn her husband, in his ninetieth year, March 13, 1877, near Llantrissant, Wales, Jan. 31, 1898. He was Mrs. Clarke passed much of her time with her siseducated at the Charterhouse School, and in early ter Clara, Countess Gigliucci, at Fermo, Italy. life was a civil engineer. His attention was directed From 1877 to 1885 she traveled much on the Contito archæology early in his career, and for many nent, principally in Germany and Austria, always years he devoted his leisure to examination of med- returning to the Villa Novello. She was actively iæval castles, the result of his investigations appear- engaged as a writer of magazine articles during ing in 1883 in a work in two volumes on " Mediæval the closing years of her life. Her principal works Military Architecture in England.” He knew his are: “ The Complete Concordance to Shakespeare subject more thoroughly than any man of his time, (London, 1845); “World-Noted Women” (New and his great work is a standard authority. He York, 1858); “The Girlhood of Shakespeare's possessed a clear, terse style, and his descriptions Heroines ”; The Story of the Drop of Water, a and explanations of castle arrangements leave very London Legend,” under the pseudonym of Harry little to be desired. He published “ The Land of Wandsworth Shortfellow (London, i856); “Life Morgan: Its Conquest and its Conquerors" a vol- and Labors of Vincent Novello" (London, 1864); ume relating to Glamorganshire (London, 1880); * Trust and Remittance, Love Stories in Metrical

Limbus Patrum Morganik and Glamorganik,” a Prose** (London, 1873); “ A Rambling Story”(Longenealogical work (London, 1886); and “ Cartæ et don, 1874); "Honey from the Weed” (London, alia Munimenta quæ ad Dominum de Glamorgan 1881); “Slippery Ford: or, How Tom was Taught Pertinent" (London, 1885–93).

(London, 1885); “A Centennial Biographic Sketch Clarke, Mary Victoria Cowden, English au- of Charles Cowden Clarke, by her whom he made thoress and Shakespearean editor, born in London, his Second Self” (London, 1887); and “ My Busy England, June 22, 1809; died in Genoa, Italy, Jan. Life," an autobiography (New York, 1896). 13, 1898. She was a daughter of Vincent Novello, Cochrane, William, clergyman and educator, an eminent musician and composer, and married, born in Paisley, Scotland, in 1831 ; died in BrantJuly 5, 1828, an intimate friend of her family, ford, Ontario, Canada, Oct. 17, 1898. He entered twenty-two years older than herself, Charles Cowden the University of Glasgow, but removed to the Clarke, an author and lecturer. The home of Mr. United States before he had completed the course Novello was a resting place for many of the best of study. He was graduated at Hanover College, literary, artistic, and dramatic persons of the day, Indiana, in 1857. He was ordained to the ministry and the little Victoria, as she was called in the home in 1859, and in 1862 became pastor of Zion Presbycircle, became disposed toward literature at a very terian Church, Brantford. In the conduct of this early age. In her childhood she was taught by Mary pastorate, which lasted through his life, he became Lamb; and Charles Lamb, John Keats, Leigh Hunt, prominent in all the affairs of his denomination, and Shelley were associates of her early years and he was conceded to be the most distinguisheni After leaving the care of Mrs. Lamb she was sent to minister of the Presbyterian Church in Canada. a boarding school in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France, for He was for many years president of the Young education in the language and letters of that coun- Ladies' College in Brantford. In 1875 Hanover try: Returning to London, she became a governess College conferred the degree of D. D. upon him. and spent the years that intervened until her mar- He published · The Heavenly Vision (1873): riage as such in one family. She began her literary “Christ and Christian Life" (1875); “ The Church work during this time with the contribution of seve and the Commonwealth” and Memoirs and Reeral interesting articles to Hone's "Table Book.” mains of the Rev. Peter Inglis” (1887); and “ FuAfter her marriage her husband and she resided ture Punishment” (1888). with her parents. Mr. Cowden Clarke was at this Crespo, Joaquin, ex-President of Venezuela, time dramatic writer for the “Examiner” and “ At- died in April, 1898. He rose to high political posilas” newspapers, and the young wife became deeply tions when Guzman Blanco was President, and was interested in the drama and in study of Shakespeare. chosen by the latter to succeed him when the ConShe began her celebrated concordance to the plays stitution forbade him to occupy the presidential of Shakespeare in 1829, and completed it in 1845. chair. Not content with the role of a substitute. This book has gone through many editions both in Crespo drove Guzman Blanco from power. When England and America, and constitutes the best he in turn fell from power in 1892, he took up arms monument of the gentle compiler's worth. Thence against President Andueza Palacio, overturned him, ensued a busy life of book and essay writing, varied and had himself elected in his place. After a tranwith social meetings in which mutually helpful quil administration he yielded up the chair to Gen. groups of writers, singers, and actors were gathered Åndrade, whom he had chosen for his successor, around her. In an amateur performance of “The and replaced the latter as Governor of Miranda. Rivals,” Nov. 10, 1847, Mrs. Cowden Clarke played Gen. Hernandez, the opposing candidate, pretendMrs. Malaprop so charmingly that Charles Dickens ing to believe that Crespo had conducted the presieasily induced her to join his famous company of dential election arbitrarily, began to recruit partiliterary players. With these eminent associates, sans in the interior in February, 1898, and in an among whom were Dickens, Mark Lemon, and John encounter with these, in April, Gen. Crespo found Forster, she played in the series of performances his death. given in the principal cities of England in 1848. In Dauphin, Albert, a French statesman, born in 1856 she and husband removed to Nice. About the Amiens, Aug. 26, 1827; died there in November. same time she was introduced to American litera- 1898. He was mayor of Amiens in 1870, in 1873 ture by the Messrs. Appleton, who engaged her to president of the Council of the Somme, and in edit an edition of Shakespeare published in 1858, 1876 was elected to the Senate, where he took his thus bestowing upon her the distinction of being seat in the Left Center and supported the Dufaure the first woman editor of the great dramatist. ministry. He was re-elected in 1882, presided in From that time she became also a contributor to 1884 over one of the committees for the revision of American magazines. In 1860 her brother Alfred, the Constitution, and in 1886 received the portfolio founder of the music publishing house of Novello, of Finance in the Goblet ministry.

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Davidson, Samuel, an Irish clergyman, born abstruse mathematical works, but to the Englishnear Ballymena, Ireland, in 1807; died April 1, speaking world in general he was Lewis Carroll 1898. He was educated for the Presbyterian min- author of "Alice in Wonderland.” His love for istry at Glasgow University and at the Theological children was a marked feature in his character, and College of the Presbyterians in Belfast, Ireland, and it was to amuse the children of Dean Liddell of

became Professor of Biblical Criticism at the latter Oxford that he began the tale which afterward de- institution in 1835. His sympathies inclining himveloped into the delightful child's book which

toward the Congregationalists, he became Professor brought him fame, the name of Alice being borrowed of Biblical Literature in the Lancashire Independent from one of the Liddell children for his heroine. College, Manchester, in 1842, but resigned this chair But his name never appeared on the title-page of in 1857 on account of the dissatisfaction expressed this or his later books for children, and he never acregarding his supposed heterodox views. He then knowledged their authorship in so many words. settled in London, which continued to be his home, Only his mathematical works appeared with his own absorbed in study and authorship. Although his name on the title-page. Of the former, the "Alice" views became somewhat more advanced with the books are by far the best, but the peculiar, inimitalapse of time, he lived nevertheless to be regarded ble quality of his humor is seen in all. His life was as comparatively conservative and firmly opposed to very quiet and retired, and for more than forty what he considered to be revolutionary views. He years he occupied the same rooms in Christ Church, had great learning and was courageous in the ex- where children were always welcome. In his latest pression of his opinions. He published “ Revision years he withdrew almost entirely from society and of the Hebrew Text of the Old Testament” (Lon- was seen only among the fellows when dining with don, 1855); “ Facts, Statements, and Explanations them in the college hall. His writings include "A connected with the Publication of the Second Vol- Syllabus of Plane Algebraical Geometry " (London, ume of the Tenth Edition of Horne's “Introduction 1860); “ The Formula of Plane Trigonometry" (Oxto the Study of the Holy Scriptures?" (London, 1857); ford, 1861); “ Guide to the Mathematical Student * Introduction to the Old Testament" (London, (Oxford, 1864); "Alice's Adventures in Wonder1862-'63); translation of Fuerst's Hebrew and land(London, 1865); "An Elementary Treatise Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament" (London, on Determinants” (1867); “Phantasmagoria and 1865); “ An Introduction to the Study of the New Other Poems" (1867); “ Through the Looking-glass Testament” (London, 1868); On a Fresh Revision and what Alice found there (1871); “ Facts, Figof the English Old Testament” (London, 1873); ures, and Fancies (1871); “ Euclid-Book V translation of “The New Testament from the proved Algebraically” (1874); " The Hunting of the Critical Text of Tischendorf” (London, 1875); Snark” (1876); “Euclid and his Modern Rivals "The Canon of the Bible: Its Formation, History, (1879); “ Doublets: A Word Puzzle” (1879): and Fluctuations" (London, 1877); “The Doctrine “Rhyme ? and Reason ?” (1883); “A Tangled Tale' of Last Things contained in the New Testament” (1885); “ Alice's Adventures Underground: A Fac(London, 1882).

simile Edition of the Original Manuscript of Alice's Delianoff, Count Ivan Davidovich, a Russian Adventures in Wonderland ” (1886); "The Game statesman, born in Moscow in 1818; died in St. of Logic” (1887); "A New Theory of Parallels" Petersburg, Jan. 10, 1898. He was of Armenian (1888); “Sylvie and Bruno Concluded” (1894); parentage, and remained through life a communi. “Symbolic Logic,” Part I (1896). The second and cant of the Armenian Church. He studied at the third parts of the last-named work were in process Moscow University, and at the age of twenty entered of completion at the time of the author's death. the Government service in the legislative depart- Dowling, Richard, an Irish novelist, born in ment of the Imperial Chancellerie, being employed Clonmel, Ireland, June 3, 1846 ; died July 28, 1898. for a long time in the preparation of a new crimi- He was educated at St. Munchin's College, Limernal code. He passed over in 1858 to the Depart. ick, and in 1870 became a member of the editorial ment of Public Instruction, with which he was con- staff of “ The Nation" in Dublin. He removed to nected for the greater part of his subsequent London in 1875, where he engaged in journalism, career, first as curator of St. Petersburg and depend- but soon devoted himself to novel writing. His ent provinces, then as assistant to the minister. In work displays vigor of style and skill in construc1882 he was appointed Minister of Public Instruc- tion, but the influence of Victor Hugo is apparent tion. In carrying out the policy of Russiafying the in his manner. A nearly complete list of his writheterodox and alien populations of the empire un- ings comprises “ Babies and Ladders," a collection der the present Czar he was zealous and energetic. of humorous essays; "The Mystery of Killard: A All the educational privileges and distinctions were Novel” (London, 1879); “The Spirit of Fate” swept away in the Baltic provinces, Poland, and the (1880); “ Under St. Paul's: A Romance" (1880); Caucasus, and the Russian language and state “London Town: Sketches of London Life and religion introduced with the teachings of Muscovite Character ” (1880); “ The Weird Sisters (1880); patriotism. One of his last acts was to take away “ The Duke's Sweetheart " (1881); “ The Husband's from the Armenian patriarchate the control of the Secret ”.. (1881); "A Sapphire Ring, and Other Armenian Church schools and place them under the Stories ” (1882); “Sweet Inisfail” (1882); “ The exclusive power of the Government, by which he Last Call” (1884); ", The Hidden Flame" (1885); gave great offense to his own people.

“The Skeleton Key” (1886); “ Tempest Driven Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge, an English clergy. (1886); “ Ignorant Éssays " (1887); With the Uninan, born in Daresbury, Cheshire, Jan. 27, 1832 ; changed ” (1887); “ Miracle Gold” (1888) : An died in Guildford, Surrey, Jan. 14, 1898. He was a Isle of Surrey”; “ Indolent Essays"; "A Baffling son of the Rev. Charles Dodgson, archdeacon of Rich- Quest ” (1891): "A Dark Intruder" (1894); "While mond, Yorkshire, and was educated at Richmond, London Sleeps" (1895) ; " Catmur's Caves " (1896); Rugby, and Oxford. In 1854 he was appointed “Old Corcoran's Money” (1897); “A Lance in mathematical lecturer at Christ Church, and he held Ambush " (1898). that chair until 1881. He became a fellow of Christ Ebers, Georg Moritz, a German Egyptologist Church in 1861 and so remained until his death. In and novelist, born in Berlin, March 1, 1837; died the same year that he attained his fellowship he be in Tutzing, Bavaria, Aug. 8, 1898. His education came a deacon in the Church of England, but he was obtained at the gymnasiums of Kottbus and never was advanced to the.priesthood. To a cir- Quedlinburg and the universities of Göttingen and cumscribed circle he was known as the author of Berlin, and in 1865 he became lecturer at the Uni

versity of Jena, and subsequently Professor of of the court, and fond of roving to the hunting Egyption Archæology there. In 1870 he was called fields of England and Ireland, or in pedestrian to the professorship of Egyptology at the University tours in the Alpine country, or wherever she could of Leipsic, and he remained there until his retire- find delight in art and nature and healthful pleasment in 1889. He was already famous for his ures, she became henceforth a wanderer and an thesis " On the Twenty-sixth Egyptian Dynasty," exile from the scenes that recalled the terrible "Egypt and the Book of Moses," and “Scientific blow. When her sister, the Duchess d'Alençon, Journey to Egypt," which latter book appeared perished by fire in 1897, she was once more plunged

in 1869-'70, and in sorrow. The culmination of all the series of to these works his tragedies was her own death by the hand of an elevation to the assassin, an Italian anarchist. Ker dauntless courLeipsic chair was age, which she bad displayed in many &n emerdue. In 1872–73 gency, did not desert her in the final scene. The he made another Empress Elisabeth had a refined literary taste, journey to Egypt, delighting especially in the poetry of Heinrich and among other Heine, Alfred de Musset, and Lord Byron, and also discoveries made in painting and sculpture, with which she filled her by him at this summer palace in Corfu. She spent large sums in time was that of charity, and was accustomed to go privately among the scroll since the poor and minister to their wants personally. called the “Papy- Eybesfeld, Baron Conrad von, an Austrian rus Ebers." In statesman, born in 1831 ; died in Gratz in July, 1876 an attack of 1898. He belonged to the group of Count Hohenparalysis prevent- wart, which was favorable to Federalism and the ed him from walk- national aspirations of the Slavs, and the Clerical ing, and he then principles of the Germans of the Alps. In ques. turned his atten- tions of the Church and the schools he defended

tion to the field of the Clerical standpoint with warmth, and in 1888 historical novel writing, which in 1864 he had essayed he was made Minister of Public Instruction and by the publication of "An Egyptian Princess." Worship in the Cabinet of Count Taaffe. After *Uarda: A Romance of Ancient Egypt,” appeared the fall of the ministry in 1885 he withdrew from in 1877 and was immediately popular, being trans- public affairs, though remaining a member of the lated into English, as were a number of his subse- Chamber of Peers. quent works, by Clara Bell. His later novels were Fabre, Ferdinand, a French novelist, born in "Homo Sum" (1878); “The Sisters" (1880); “ The Bédarieux, Hérault, in 1830; died Feb. 16, 1898. Emperor and the Burgomaster's Wife” (1881); He was originally destined for the priesthood, but "Only a Word” (1883); "Lempis ” (1885); " Mar- preferred a literary career, and won a reputation gery" (1889); " Per Aspera” (1892); “Cleopatra by his scenes from clerical life and rural romances. (1894); " In the Fire of the Forge” (1895); "In the His best works were “ Courbezon,” “ Julien SaviBlue Pike” (1896); " Barbara Blomberg" (1897); gnac,” “ L'Abbé Tigrane,” « Le Chevrier," * La Petite and “Arachne" (1898). Among his other works Mère," " Mon Oncle Célestin," " Le Roi Ramire,” are " Papyrus E: A Hieratic Manual of Egyptian “ Madame Fuster," " Ma Vocation,” “Un Illuminé,” Medicine” (1872); “Through Goshen to Sinai” “Ravière," and "Sylviane." (1872); “Egypt: Descriptive, Historical, and Pic- Faucit, Helena, Lady Martin, actress, born in turesque" (1878); “ Palestine: Descriptive, Histor- London, England, Oct. 11, 1819; died in Brynty ical, and Picturesque,” with Guthe (1881); "Lorenz Silis, near Llangollen, Wales, Oct. 31, 1898. She Alma-Tadema: His Life and Work” (1886); and was the daughter of John Saville Faucit, a well“ The Story of my Life," an autobiography (1893). known actor of his time, and was known of late

Elisabeth, Empress of Austria, born in Possen- years as Lady Martin from her marriage to Sir hofen, Bavaria, Dec. 24, 1837; died in Geneva, Theodore Martin. From the fact that her parents Switzerland, Sept. 10, 1898. She was the daughter and other members of her immediate family were of Duke Maximilian Josef of Bavaria, who super- actors, it came about that she made her first public vised her education in the Schloss on the Lake of appearance on the stage at a very early age. In Starnberg, and had her trained in riding and swim- November, 1833, her elder sister Harriet was playming as well as in literary and artistic knowledge. ing at the Theater Royal, Richmond, Surrey, and Her cousin, the Emperor Franz Josef, fell in love one day Helen and she were rehearsing the balcony with her while visiting her parents, and on April scene of " Romeo and Juliet," with Helen as Juliet, 24, 1854, they were married. The young Empress- when Willis Jones, manager of the theater, acciQueen, who with the Emperor was crowned with dentally overheard the impromptu effort of the the insignia of St. Stephen when the inauguration young girl. He was so pleased that he induced of the dual system was solemnized, made herself her parents to consent to her playing with him. liked by the Hungarian as well as the Austrian She played Juliet in “Romeo and Juliet,” Mariana people, but did not win easily some of the envious in “The Wife," and Mrs. Haller in "The Stranger," cliques of the court, who were taught in the end to with considerable success, but was withdrawn by adınire and respect her by the exercise of her social her parents after these three performances and talents. The constitutional compromise of 1867, by placed under the professional tutelage of Percy which the ancient liberties of Hungary were revived, Farren, brother of William Farren. the elder, with was in a measure brought about by her influence. the intention that at a later date she should 'enter She was strongly attached to her family, the ancient formally upon the dramatic calling. This she did house of Wittelsbach, and grieved at the deposition with instant and great success at the Theater Royal, of her sister, the last Queen of the Two Sicilies, and Covent Garden, London, Tuesday, Jan. 5, 1836, as was much affected by the tragic death of King Lyd- Julia in Sheridan Knowles's play - The Hunchback," wig of Bavaria, and had other sorrows to endure be- Mr. Knowles playing the part of Master Walter and fore she was stricken with the crowning grief, the Mr. Charles Kemble that of Sir Thomas Clifford, the death of all her hopes, through the violent and mys- original performers of the same parts in the first terious end of heronly son, the Crown-Prince Rudolf. production of the play in 1832. On Wednesday the Glad before to escape from the irksome formalism play was announced for that night, Friday, and

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Saturday, and on Thursday this notice headed the Edward Lytton Bulwer achieved another great bill of the day: " Mr. Osbaldiston has the gratifi- success in “ Richelieu," wherein Miss Faucit was cation of announcing to the public that in conse- the Julie de Mortemar. Oct. 31, 1839, another origquence of the complete overflow to all parts of the inal play of Bulwer's, “ The Sea Captain,” afterward theater, the enthusiastic applause that again at called “The Rightful Heir,” gave her an original tended the entire performance of The Hunch- part in Violet, the heroine. While Mr. Macready back, and the brilliant success that crowned the was at the Ilaymarket Theater, Dec. 8, 1840, Miss début and subsequent appearance of Miss Helen Faucit was the original of another of Bulwer's Faucit, in the character of Julia, that popular play heroines, Clara Douglas in “Money." Other plays will be repeated this evening, to-morrow, and Satur- in which she acted the leading female rôle with Mr. day.” So it continued during the entire month of Macready on their first productions were Knowles's January, and Helen became the favorite of London. “Woman's Wit” and “ The Secretary," Talfourd's Her first formal engagement was for three months at “Glencoe,” Serle's “ Master Clarke," Dr. Westland the Covent Garden, but hers was the history of the Marston's“ Patrician's Daughter," Byron's “ Marino English stage for forty years. Wednesday, Jan. 27, Faliero," and Troughton's " Nina Sforza.” In 1842 1836, she made her first appearance in the character of Miss Faucit accompanied Mr. Macready to Drury Belvidera in Otway's "Venice Preserved,” and Lane Theater as his leading woman, and here on Monday, Feb. 8, 1836, her first appearance in Lon- Feb. 23 she played Sophonisba in the first producdon as Mrs. Haller in " The Stranger.” Then fol- tion of Gerald Griffin's tender tragedy of Gissiplowed in quick succession the following first per- pus," after the gentle Irish boy had been laid in his formances, all repeated to crowded audiences: humble grave at Cork. Browning's “ Blot in the Feb. 25, 1836, Margaret in Joanna Baillie's tragedy Scutcheon” was first produced Feb. 11, 1843, and “Separation"; March 10, 1836, Juliet, Mr. Charles in it Miss Faucit originated the character of MilKemble as Mercutio; March 26, 1836, Lady Town- dred Tresham. Mr. Macready's retirement from ley in “ The Provoked Husband ”; April 16, 1836, management left London without a home for classic Donna Florinda de Sandoval in the first production plays, and Helen Faucit became a “star.” She of “ Don Juan of Austria ” (from the French); was hailed with acclamations of delight in EdinMay 27, 1836, Mariana in “ The Wife” (first time burgh, Dublin, Glasgow, and Manchester, and she in London); June 1, 1836, Clemanthe in Talfourd's continue traveling for two years. In 1845 she "Ion," with Mr. Macready as Ion. Helen Tree joined Macready again in a series of Shakespearean had played lon in the first production of the play a performances at the Salle Venladour, Paris. They few nights before, May 25. On June 30, 1836, played there with great success, especially for Miss Miss Faucit took her benefit as Mrs. Haller in "The Faucit, “ Othello,' Hamlet," Macbeth,” “ King Stranger." Charles Kemble was in the last year of Lear," “ Romeo and Juliet," “ Werner," and " Virhis career on the stage, and during the autumnginius.” In March, 1845, she played “ Antigone months Helen Faucit played the opposites to him, in Dublin, and was presented with a bracelet of including his farewell performances ending Dec. 23, Irish gold by the Royal Irish Academy. She also 1836. During this time, in addition to the parts played “ Iphigenia in Aulis” during the same enabove enumerated, she played with him Sept. 24, gagement. After playing through the provincial 1836, Portia in “ The Merchant of Venice”; Dct. 1, towns, Miss Faucit reappeared in London, Nov. 5, Lady Teazle in “ The School for Scandal"; Oct. 6, 1846, with a wonderfully attractive performance of Constance in “King John”; and on the same Rosalind in “ As You Like It.” One of the notable night Katherine in “ Katherine and Petruchio," plays in which she was the original heroine was with Sheridan Knowles as Petruchio. On Dec. 23, Dr. Marston's " Philip of France,” in which her 1836, she played Beatrice to Mr. Kemble's Bene-Marie de Meraine never has been equaled. On dick in “ Much Ado About Nothing,” his farewell Aug. 25, 1851, Miss Faucit married Theodore Marto the stage. Thus in one year, the seventeenth of tin, author of the “Bon Gaultier Ballads,” “The her age, this wonderfully gifted woman played for Life of the Prince Consort,” “Translations of lorthe first time fourteen greatly differing and ardu- ace,” and other works. She continued to play, with ous characters. On Jan, 4, 1837, she played the intervals of rest. April 25, 1853, Robert Browning's title rôle in the first production of "The Duchess play in five acts, “Colombe's Birthday," was prede la Vallière," a new play by E. L. Bulwer (after- sented at the Haymarket Theater, London, then ward Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton). Her other first under the management of J. B. Buckstone. Miss appearances in this year at the Covent Garden Faucit began a special engagement of ten performwere : March 13, 1837, “ Bertran”; April 20, Erina ances in London on this occasion and personally in Sheridan Knowles's “ Brian Boroihme (first directed the production of Mr. Browning's play, in production), with the song " Would you Hear my which she charmingly executed the role of CoSweet Harp !"; May 1, Lady Percy in Browning's lombe. In Mrs. Sutherland Orr's “Life of Robert ** Strafford (first time); May 8, Queen Catharine Browning” (Vol. I, page 281) this event is thus in “ Henry VIII": May 8, Editha in " Walter Tyr- noted : " Mrs. Browning writes about the performrell"; May 18, Imogen in “Cymbeline”; May 31, ance, April 12th: I am beginning to be anxious Marian in '“ The Wrecker's Daughter,” for the ben- about “ Colombe's Birthday.' I care inuch more efit of the author, Sheridan Knowles. In July, about it than Robert does. . . . I should like it to 1837, Helen Faucit became the leading woman of succeed.' She communicates the result in May: William Charles Macready on his assuming the “Yes, Robert's play succeeded, but there could be management of Covent Garden Theater, an asso- no run for a play of that kind. ... Miss Faucit ciation which continued many years to the glory of was alone in doing us justice!'” Mrs. Orr continthe English stage. During the first months of the ues : “Mrs. Browning did see Miss Faucit on her season of 1837–38 Miss Faucit played many Shake- next visit to England. She agreeably surprised spearean parts for the first tiine, as Cordelia, Desde- that lady by presenting herself alone one morning mona, and Hermione. On Feb. 15, 1838, “ The at her house and remaining with her for an hour Lady of Lyons” was produced for the first time, and a half. The only person who had done jusand Miss Faucit contributed in the greatest degree tice' to 'Colombe, besides contributing to whatto the triumph of the anonymous dramatist by her ever success her husband's earlier plays had obbrilliant performance of Pauline.

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an- tained, was much more than a great actress to Mrs. nounced next day, with the name of the author, Browning's mind, and we may imagine it would for indefinite repetition. On March 7, 1839, Sir have gone hard with her before she renounced the

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pleasure of making her acquaintance.” On July 6, vails. Prussian historical themes he treated in a 1855, she produced in London (having played it more popular style and with a martial and patriearlier in the provinces) her husband's version of otic spirit. The former were too wild and stern for " King Rene's Daughter," assuming the part of the taste of those days, and the subjects of the Iolanthe. For the most part, during subsequent latter interested nobody. It was his volumes deyears, she played only the characters of her very scribing tours through Mark Brandenburg that first extensive repertory; but on Nov. 3, 1864, she as- drew attention to the picturesqueness of the towns sumed for the first time the part of Lady Macbeth and to the peculiar charms of Nature in that sandy at Drury Lane Theater. Her greatest Shakespeare region and to the author as well. He wrote two ean presentations, however, were Juliet, Beatrice, novels to glorify Prussia, “ Vor dem Sturm and Imogen, Portia, and Rosalind. After her appear- "Schach von Wuthenow." The Danish, Austrian, ance in 1864 Lady Martin (her husband had now and French wars he saw as a newspaper correbeen knighted) went into comparative retirement. spondent, and in the last one was taken prisoner. On March 2, 1874, she played Lady Teazle in a per- Afterward he wrote on English politics, and then formance of “The School for Scandal” at Drury was for some time a dramatic critic. When the Lane Theater, for the benefit of Ben Webster, and taste of the Berliners was suddenly captivated by her last appearance in London was in June, 1876, the realism of Zola, instead of warring against the when she played Iolanthe at the Lyceum Theater tendency like other old romanticists, Fontane defor Henry Irving to his Sir Tristram. In April, termined to exercise his experienced hand in the 1879, she played Beatrice in “Much Ado About new art, and therefore wrote novels of Berlin soNothing” at the inauguration of the Memorial ciety in which the boldest modern realism is preTheater, Stratford-on-Avon, to the Benedick of Mr. sented, without didactic or moral purpose, without Barry Sullivan. In October of the saine year, the pessimistic or other tendency, but with a purely arsixtieth of her age, she played Rosalind at Manches- tistic, literary design. He avoided repulsive, abter for the benefit of the widow of the actor Charles normal, and dreadful subjects and characters, and Culvert. This was her last appearance on the treated the griefs and joys, the mingled virtues and stage in character, but she frequently gave public vices, which he

depicted with an easy, careless grace readings at Llangollen for local charities. Sir and humor, a German objectiveness and scientific Theodore and Lady Martin lived in quiet content interest, distinguishing the school that he founded in the Vale of Llangollen, sympathetic and often of from the naturalistic writers of either France, practical help to young authors, actors, and artists. Russia, or Scandinavia. In her social sphere Helena Faucit was the friend Fowler, Sir John, an English engineer, born in of the greatest men of her time, among them Sir Sheffield in 1817; died in Bournemouth, Nov. 20, Walter Scott, Thackeray, Browning, Tennyson, 1898. He was the pupil of J. F. Leather, the engiCarlyle, Dickens, and Lord Lytton. She was hon- neer who planned the waterworks of Yorkshire, and ored with the personal friendship of her Sovereign, afterward assisted in preparing drawings and conwho, as a mark of her admiration of the purity and tracts for railroads, started on his own account at beauty of the actress's life, appointed her reader to the age of twenty-six, and was employed as chief the Queen. In her art Helen Faucit was true to engineer for various railroads that were successively the ideals of beauty and taste. She speedily over- chartered by Parliament, gaining a great reputation came the injurious influence of the Macready man- among railroad promoters by his services to the nerisms, and was always a model of fine diction. Great Grimsby line. He designed also and carried She excelled by a charm of manner rather than by through, against the opposition of local authorities natural force or startling innovations. Her book and interests and the prognostications of the most of essays, entitled “ Some of Shakespeare's Female eminent engineers, the London underground railCharacters (1887) has gone through several edi- road. As consulting engineer to the Khedire Istions.

mail Pasha he planned railroads and other schemes Feuillée, Félix Martin, a French statesman, for the improvement of Egypt, for which he was born in Rennes in 1830; died there in the begin- made a Knight of the British Colonial order in ning of August, 1898. He studied and practiced 1885. He was associated with Sir Benjamin Baker law in his native town, served in the war with Ger- in designing the Forth bridge, and was made a many, receiving the cross of the Legion of Honor baronet in 1880. for bravery during the siege of Paris, was elected a Garashanin, Milutin, a Servian statesman, born Deputy in 1876 and became one of the most active in Belgrade in 1843; died in Paris, March 6, 1898. members of the majority, took the under-secretary- He studied for eight years in French colleges, and ship of the Interior in 1879, and in 1880 entered the after returning home in 1868 cultivated his property Cabinet as Minister of Justice. He supported Jules at Grotzka until 1880, when, the opponents of Ferry, his chief, in important debates, but his repu- Ristich gaining the upper hand, he became Ministation rests mainly on the judicial reforms that he ter of the Interior under Pirochanatz. He was approposed and saw partly carried into execution in pointed minister to Vienna on retiring from the 1882 after long discussions. His name is connected Cabinet, and was recalled in 1884 to become Prime also with important administrative reforms, and he Minister. He remained at the head of the Governwas one of the chief advocates of the law of divorce. ment for three years, resigning in 1887 because he In 1889 he lost his seat to a Conservative.

would not countenance King Milan's design to get Fontane, Theodor, a German poet, born in Neu rid of Queen Natalie by a divorce. In 1895 he was Ruppin, Dec. 30, 1819; died in Berlin, Sept. 21, appointed Servian minister at Paris. 1898. He was educated as an apothecary, and fol- Garnier, Jean Louis Charles, a French archilowed this business in Leipsic and Berlin. The tect, born in Paris. Oct. 6, 1825; died Aug. 4, 1898. patriotic poems of his friend C. F. Scherenberg He entered the École des Beaux-Arts in 1842, and prompted him to try his hand at poetry. • Männer remained there six years, receiving in 1848 the und Helden," a series of Prussian ballads, was fol- Grand Prix de Rome for his design for a Conservalowed by the epic poem “ Von der schönen Rosa- toire pour Arts et Metiers. At the Salon of 1853 inunde.” During two visits to England he was at- and at the Exposition Universelle in 1855 his polytracted to Scottish subjects and inspired the ballad chromatic design for the restoration of the Temple of " Archibald Douglas,” followed later by poems of Jupiter in the island of Egina attracted much on Mary Stuart, Lady Jane Grey, and the War of attention. In 1860 he was appointed architect to the Roses, in which an elevated romantic tone pre- the city of Paris, and in the competition for the Paris

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