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was the steady, able, and persistent work of the was read. The archbishop represented in the Liberation Society that had brought the question upper house that the working of the voluntary to the position in which it stood to-day. The so- schools act of the last session had been very satisciety had kept the free-church principles to the factory, and the operation of the associations of front, and by its collection and diffusion of accurate schools had been exceedingly favorable all over the information had supplied speakers with the means country. The creation of the federations of schools of educating public opinion. He thought the move- had had the effect intended. The archbishop and ment would gain by a sympathetic co-operation of the Archbishop of York had agreed that the holdthe Liberation Society, with its long experience, ing of joint sessions of the two convocations from and the new Nonconformist Political Council, with time to time would be good for the Church. Resoits youthful enthusiasm. A resolution was adopted lutions appended to the report of the committee affirming the belief that no effective remedy for the of the upper house on parochial councils and evils complained of would be found in either the discussed in the lower house sought to impress action of the bishops of the Established Church, upon the parochial clergy “the importance of the renewal of ecclesiastical prosecutions, or new securing the confidence and co-operation of lay parliamentary enactinents. The state, having Churchmen in the manner which in each parish proved itself unable to exercise adequate control may be best adapted to its wants," and suggest over the Established clergy or successfully to regu- that one mode by which this may be accomplished late the Established Church's affairs, should with. would be by the formation of parochial Church draw from the Church national authority and en- councils, the initiative in forming these councils dowments, and, concurrently therewith, permit its and the power of dissolving them to rest in the inmembers to possess the same rights of self-govern- cuinbent, subject to the approval of the bishop; the ment as are enjoyed by non-established religious councils to consist of the incumbent, who should communities. In the opinion of the Council the be chairman, the assistant clergy licensed by the time had arrived when the question of disestablish- bishop, the churchwardens, şidesmen duly appointed inent should be urgently pressed upon the leaders and admitted, and elected councilors, all to be of the Liberal party, and also upon the constituen- communicants of the Church of England. The cies, in view of the next general election. Another duties of the council should be to take the princiresolution called for new and vigorous efforts to pal share in the raising of funds and administrative, remove the grievance caused by the absence of finance, and to assist the incumbent in the initiapublic unsectarian schools under popular control tion and development in the parish of all departin thousands of English parishes, and urging ments of parochial Church work, and to advise him especially the necessity of increased facilities for on matters in which he thinks it expedient to conthe training of teachers in undenominational sult them. The House of Laymen directed the apcolleges.

pointment of a committee to consider and report The Church and Papal Claims.-In a letter how “ the freedom for self-regulation” referred to addressed to Cardinal Vaughan, March 12, concern- in a resolution passed by the house on May 13, 1897, ing a paper issued by him entitled “A Vindication should be exercised, and what steps should be taken of the Bull Apostolicæ Curæ," the archbishops with a view to obtain such freedom. The resolution entered a denial of the claims made in the paper of of May 13 referred to in this action contemplated supremacy of power and authority in the Pope, the institution of a reformed convocation • with affirming that such claims had been deliberately the assistance in matters other than the definition and consistently rejected not only by the Church and interpretation of the faith and doctrine of the of England, but also by the great churches of the Church of a representative body or bodies of the East, and declining to allow that those bodies faithful laity.” “ have given any evidence of that chaos which you The Houses of Convocation met again May 11. suppose to be inevitable where the papal claims are A petition was presented in both houses from Mr. not accepted." The letter called attention to the John Kensit, publisher, 18 Paternoster Row, Lonfact that the author of the “ Vindication” had in- don, drawing the attention of the houses to the facts troduced the doctrine of transubstantiation as prac- " that in a large number of the dioceses of the tically constituting the one sure test of the valid- province, and especially in the metropolitan area ity of holy orders," while the Pope had made no services other than those in the Book of Common direct reference to that subject. * Had his Holi- Prayer are in constant use, in most cases without ness” they say, “followed the line of argument lawful authority; that these services are largely which you have now adopted, our answer must have those in use in the Church of Rome, and taken from taken & different form." But we could not answer the Roman Missal and other books belonging to what he did not say. . . . It is, for us, simply im- that Church. I have been blamed for making possible to believe it to be the will of the Lord that public protest against these practices, and I desire admission to the ministry of the Church of Christ to state that these protests are most painful to myshould depend upon the acceptance of a metaphys- self, and will most gladly be discontinued if those ical definition, expressed in terms of mediæval having authority will exercise the same and cause philosophy, of the mysterious gift bestowed in the these illegal services to be discontinued.” The holy eucharist ; above all, when we remember that archbishop, while criticising Mr. Kensit's proceedsuch a definition was unknown to the Church in the ings in making the public protests, called attention early ages of its history and only publicly affirmed to the importance of the subject and advised action by the Church of Rome in the thirteenth century." upon it, saying that he had himself been intending The archbishops concluded their letter with the to bring the matter before Convocation. expression of the belief that among the hindrances The lower house requested the archbishop to to the fulfillment of the unity of the Church “there direct the appointment of a joint committee of both are few more powerful than the claims of suprem- houses to consider and report on the position of the acy and infallibility alleged on behalf of the Popelaity in the early Church and under the constituof Rome and the novel dogmas which have been tion of the Church of England, with reference to accepted from time to time by the Roman Church.” legislation on matters ecclesiastical, with power to

Convocations. At the meeting of the Convoca- confer with a committee of the ('onvocation of tion of Canterbury, Feb. 15, the reply of the Queen York appointed for the same purpose. It also sugto the address presented by the Convocation to her gested the appointment of a committee to confer Majesty on the occasion of her diamond jubilee with the Church Committee of the House of Com

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mons respecting bills before the house affecting therefore this house considers it necessary at the Church interests.

present juncture that the clergy of our respective At the third meeting of the Convocation, July 5, dioceses should be called upon to remember the the

upper house adopted a report concerning the re- solemn declarations, subscriptions, and oaths made marriage of divorced persons, explaining that in and taken by them at their ordination, licensing, or consequence of recent legislation the Church had institution, and in particular their legal and moral had to consider the matter from the point of view obligation to use the form prescribed in the Book of principle. In so doing it could not shut its eyes of Common Prayer and none other, except so far as to a conflict of opinion on the subject of the Lord's shall be ordered by lawful authority." The bishop words, and to the course adopted by the Eastern observed that he regarded the Church of England Church in allowing dissolution of marriage for as at the present moment in a very perilous posiadultery. The resolutions of the Lambeth Confer- tion, above all, from the dangerous fact that the ence of 1888 were quoted, declaring divorces for people were complaining continually in every part adultery the only valid ones, with absolute prohibi- of the land that the bishops would not speak out, tion of marriage of the guilty party during the life and would not do anything to show whether they of the other, and recognizing difference of opinion approved or disapproved of the movement that was within the Church as to the right of the innocent going on in the Church of England. The result of party to marry, in view of which the clergy should that must certainly be that sooner or later, driftnot be instructed to refuse the sacraments or other ing as they appeared to be, the end of all would be privileges of the Church to such parties remarried; disruption and disestablishment. Churchmen all and continued: “It ought, in our judgment, to be over the land were angry, and many refused to go clearly and strongly impressed upon the faithful and to church because they said the clergy were going upon the clergy as their advisers in matters of disci. behind the Reformation. The evil was increasing pline and conduct that the Christian ideal is that of more and more, and was a cancer eating into the indissoluble marriage, and that the most dutiful and very vitals of the Church of England. The motion loyal course, even in the case of the innocent party, was supported by the Bishops of Manchester, Duris to put aside any thought of marriage after ham, and Sodor and Man, who recognized equally divorce. But if any Christian, conscientiously be with the archbishop the gravity of the crisis and lieving himself or herself to be permitted by the advanced arguments in substantial harmony with Lord's words to remarry, determine to do so, then those which he had presented. The Bishop of endeavor should be made to dissuade such people Wakefield moved an amendment, declaring that, from seeking marriage with the rites of the Church, * in the opinion of this house, there is a serious legal provision having been made for marriage by danger at the present time of wide divergencies in civil process. The language of the marriage service liturgical practices, owing to the introduction on is unsuitable for repetition, except in case where the part of some of the clergy of services and cerethe marriage tie has been dissolved by death or the monies unauthorized by lawful authority and alien marriage is proved to have been invalid from the to the principles of the Church of England, and beginning." "Further, the report cites the declara- especially owing to the alterations by way of omistion on the subject in the evangelical letter of the sion or addition to the order for the administration Lambeth Conference of 1897, uttering " earnest of holy communion, and that these practices need words of warning against the lightness with which some restraint and guidance, due regard being had the lifelong view of marriage is often taken, against under the authority of the ordinary to modern needs the looseness with which those who enter this holy and the reasonable liberty which has always obestate often regard its obligations, and against the tained in the Church of England.” Supporting frequency and facility of recourse to the courts of his motion, he claimed that the bishops had acted, law for the dissolution of this most solemn bond." and were acting, and held that it was futile to un

The Convocation of York met Feb. 16. A resolu- dertake to govern the Church of England as a systion was passed expressing the opinion that the tem of machinery which was two centuries old, and present method of procedure at the confirmation of which could not be applied in its entirety and bishops needs to be amended, and requesting the strictness to the ends of the present day. A great archbishop to counsel with the Archbishop of growing and lively Church like this must have Canterbury on the subject. The archbishop was constant developments tried in order to provide an also requested, in view of the possible legal repre- outlet for the religious needs of the present day. sentation of the laity, to appoint a joint committee The Bishop of Chester did not regard the crisis as to determine what shall be the qualification of acute, and thought it would be better for them to persons elected to serve as legal lay representatives. content themselves with the utterance of opinions. The lower house requested the archbishop to con- The archbishop, closing the debate, thought that fer with the Archbishop of Canterbury with refer- to regard the state of things as found in some ence to the appointment of a committee duly repre- quarters as characteristic of the Church as a whole sentative of the Houses of Laymen of both provinces would be a very grave exaggeration. His own imto consider and report upon the position which the pression was that there was, no doubt, in every laity should occupy in any scheme for the self-gov- diocese a certain number of instances in which the ernment of the Church; but advised that it is not things described in the complaints were done, but advisable to delay legislation on ecclesiastical mat- these were a mere handful among the clergy of the ters until a reform of the Houses of Convocation Church of England; and he believed that the presand the legal representation of lay members have ent evil, so far as it existed, was a temporary ailbeen effected."

ment which would sooner or later run its course At the second meeting of the Convocation, June and pass away. The amendment offered by the 8, the Bishop of Liverpool moved in the upper Bishop of Wakefield was adopted. house, “that, in the opinion of this house, the in- The Ritualistic Crisis. — The attention of the crease of lawlessness on the part of many of the people of England has been forcibly directed to the clergy in the conduct of divine worship in their development and extension of ritualism by a course churches, and especially the introduction of unau- of proceedings of novel and rather sensational charthorized services in the practice and celebration of acter. The feelings of the antiritualists among the holy communion, and the growing dissatisfac- the laymen were emphatically expressed in the tion of the laity in consequence of such lawlessness House of Laymen of the Convocation of Canterdemand the special attention of the bishops, and bury by Sir Henry Embree, M. P., who said they

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had heard a great deal about the susceptibilities of the words of the Bishop of Southwell, is 'actually the clergy; he would venture to put in a plea for and really the Lamb of God,' to be worshiped by the susceptibilities of the laity. It would be unwise, the congregation as being "God blessed foreverhe said, to shut their eyes to dissensions which more’; (b) that this Lamb of God'so reproduced existed in the Church. Interpolations of faith in the hands of a priest under the form of bread and doctrine were set before them by individual and wine' is offered upon an “altar' by the priest, as clergy, and they had “uses ” introduced at their a sacrifice, for the remission of pain or guilt, and services which were alien to the Church of England. for the absent or dead. Had the laity no right to speak on such questions? “II. That grave injustice is done to the laity They had every right, and they would exercise it. when idolatrous rites are enacted publicly by the If they did not, to whom could they look for guid- officiant in public worship, because his acts are ance Not to the bishops. Why not? “ Because those of the congregation which he represents, and we have bishops who do not govern, and clergy in whose person he addresses the Almighty. Every who will not obey.” The Church of England, he person present, therefore, who does not protest contended, was passing through an extremely is an accomplice and participant in these illegaligrave crisis, and to argue that the laity must have ties. As a result, thousands of parishioners are denothing to say to strange interpretations of faith barred from attending public worship, and repelled and doctrine was absurd.

from the Lord's Table by the conduct of clergymen In January, Mr. John Kensit, of London, a pub- who, though members of the Protestant Reformed lisher, began a course of visiting churches where Church of England as by law established, yet reritualistic uses were practiced, and on their intro- pudiate the very name of Protestant, and in defiduction, rising, and, as a communicant and rate- ance of their ordination vows preach, teach, and payer of the Church of England, protesting against inculcate the doctrines and practices of the Church them. So he did at the Church of St. Ethelburga, of Rome. Bishopsgate, where he demanded to be given the “III. That these abuses, though growing rapidly, communion “in the Protestant way," secured the owing to the protection afforded to the wrongdoers removal of illegal objects, and caused the curate in by the bishops, have gone on uninterruptedly for. charge to resign his position rather than give the many years, and that the inaction of the bishops communion to him as he demanded; and at St. can be in no way due to the recent proceedings Michael's Church, Curtain Road, where a protest taken by your petitioner. was made against the ceremony of aspergation, or " IV. That great social and domestic evils are besprinkling with holy water, and one of his associates ing felt in many families owing to the inculcation was arrested for “ brawling," while a summons was of the practice of sacramental confession upon canasked for against the curate for assault by throwing didates for confirmation and others for which no water (the aspergation) upon the Protestants. For warrant exists in the Reformed Church of England ; some of his protests Mr. Kensit was himself taken and nothing would do so much to check this evil as to court and fined. He prepared a petition to its outspoken condemnation by the House of Bishops. the Convocation of Canterbury, calling the atten- “ V. That your petitioner recognizes the right of tion of the houses to the alleged illegal practices the legislature to alter, vary, and add to the ritual and asking them to take steps to have them cease. now in lawful use, and also the binding nature of He had difficulty in finding any member of Convo- the decisions of the Queen in Council, but he recation willing to introduce the petition, when he spectfully submits that no other standard can posreceived an unexpected letter from the Bishop of sibly be acceptable to the whole Church as estabLondon offering to present it the next day. The lished by law. The only hope of peace in an bishop added to the offer the words: It would established church is the common agreement to be greatly strengthen my hands in dealing with this bound by the same formularies until they have very important matter if you would assure us that been amended by the same authority which origiyou would discontinue your protests at divine nally enacted them. service and would submit to me a memorial stating “VI. Your petitioner submits the following list of objectionable practices and your reasons for object- some ornaments and ceremonies which have already ing to them." Mr. Kensit replied with an assur- been declared by the Queen's courts to be illegal: ance that he would make no public protest in any Unlawful ornaments of the minister : (1) the alb; Church for two calendar months, and that he would (2) the berretta ; (3) the chasuble; (4) the cope; (5) cause arrangements that had been made for public the dalmatica ; (6) the tunic or tunicle ; (7) the manprotests in thirteen other dioceses to be similarly iple. Unlawful ornaments of the church : (8) a suspended. The following statements were made in baldachino; (9) lighted candles when not required Mr. Kensit's petition to the bishops:

for giving light; (10) a stone altar ; (11) a cross on, “The petition of the undersigned, John Kensit, or over, or in apparent connection with the coma baptized communicant of the Church of England, munion table ; (12) a crucifix; (13) stations of the humbly showeth

Unlawful ceremonies: (14) bowing down “ I. That grave scandal and distress have been oc- before or addressing worship to the consecrated casioned to the minds of many, including the peti- elements: (15) the attendance of acolytes; (16) toll. tioner, by the restoration within many churches, ing of bell at consecration ; (17) making the sign of both of the metropolis and throughout the land, of the cross over the people; (18) hiding the manual the practices and teachings which were discarded acts; (19) elevation of the elements: (20) the use of by the national Church at the time of the blessed incense ; (21) the ceremonial mixing of water with Reformation, all of them borrowed from the Church the wine during divine service; (22) the use of of Rome, and designed to teach the false doctrine, wafers in lieu of bread. usual to be eaten.' among others (a) that the consecrated wafer is not "The growth of these illegal practices is indimerely an emblem of the Lamb of God, but, in cated by the following table :



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Altar lights.
Mixed chalice
Hiding manual acts









9 581

22 743

66 968

89 1,136

135 1.402

177 2,408

250 2,707

307 3,568 2,111 5,964








“ Under these circumstances, the Church has a was adopted setting forth certain principles adright to expect that the bishops should suppress all herence to which was regarded as essential to unlawful practices at once, and direct the removal enable the Church to maintain its position and of stone altars' or other illegal furniture intro- secure healthy conditions for effective progress. It duced without a faculty, and the restoration of the recognized that a chief difficulty hitherto to be conTen Commandments to their accustomed place; tended with had been in securing those Catholic should refuse to consecrate any church until illegal privileges which, while they obviously and certainly ornaments have been removed; and should at once belonged to Churchmen, had been overlaid and forsuppress all variations in the communion service gotten in past years of apathy and neglect. Indifroin the language and rubrical directions of the viduals endeavoring to vindicate their rights in Book of Common Prayer, and that no office book this respect had been moved by a desire to be be employed in any service which has not the au- united with other parts of the Church in witness thority of the entire Church of England. For to Catholic doctrine, but their action was limited these purposes the bishops have already ample to securing what seemed fairly within the limits powers. The bishops have already power to refuse of the authoritative sanctions and traditions of the to license any lawbreaking clergyman to a curacy, English Church. On the other hand difficulties to test the Romanizing spirit of candidates for the had arisen out of a return to certain practices ministry, and to refuse institution to lawbreakers which were explicitly or by implication abolished who will not conform in future to the requirements at the Reformation, or out of a resort to certain of the law. The paternal authority of the bishops foreign developments which never had any footwould enable them in the vast majority of cases to ing in the English Church. The signers of the put an end to the irregularities complained of, but memorandum wished to express their view that where that may not suffice they can direct a moni- developments of this kind could not be introduced tion to be served, disobedience to which would lead except by or under the sanction of authority, subin due course to the suspension, or it may be depri- mission to which was a first principle of Catholivation, of the contumacious wrongdoer.' Your pe- cism. The immediate authority with which Engtitioner respectfully submits that the long neglect lish Churchmen had to do was that of the English of the ordinaries themselves has been the cause of Church, not that of the Roman or the Gallican or the confusion and discrder which now exist.

any other Church. It followed that nothing could "Your petitioner humbly desires that your hon- have valid ecclesiastical authority for English orable house will take immediate steps for the re- Churchmen which the English Church had never pression of these evils and abuses.”

received or authorized, or which the English Church An appeal issued by the Church Association to had definitely repudiated, whether explicitly or by the people of England in the beginning of July implication, though it might at one time have called attention to the influence of secret societies had the authority of that Church. Authority exas the source of the existing troubles and of dangers pressed itself through the bishops jointly and from the teaching of the doctrines of the mass, and severally. The Declaration of Assent in the use of of sacerdotalism, which were described in forcible the Book of Common Prayer was interpreted in language.

this memorandum as a pledge to use the cereThe subject formed the principal topic discussed monials therein prescribed as the positive and at the annual meeting of the Church Association, sufficient rule and order of the ministrations of the May 2, when the presiding officer, Capt. A. W. Church for which they are provided as opposed to Cobham, in his opening address spoke of the situa- modifications of them, whether by change, addition, tion in its relation to the movement represented by or division, except in so far as such modifications the association as indicating an approaching crisis. may be enjoined or allowed by lawful authority.” “ The apathy of Protestants had been rudely shaken Action of the Church Union. The annual by the archbishop's reply to the Pope, by the at- meeting of the English Church Union was held tempt to upset the educational settlement of 1870, June 16, Viscount Halifax presiding. The presiby the

„proposal of an Irish Roman Catholic uni- dent, in his address, asserted the right of the Church versity," and by practices called idolations against to say or sing mass with the old ritual, except in which Mr. Kensit had been moved to utter open such particulars as had been forbidden, denounced protests during service. The report of the council those who would interfere with it or disturb the mentioned as the only effective remedy against the exercise of it, and said he was quite certain that advance of sacerdotalism the organization of a lights, vestments, and the mixed chalice would not Protestant party in the House of Commons, and be given up; but services not directly prescribed they were now endeavoring to enroll 100 Protestant by the Prayer Book, such as the Three Hours, the electors in every constituency, who would pledge Story of the Cross, and the Veneration of the their votes to the side which it might be decided to Cross, must be given up if the bishop of the diosupport. They had undertaken the cost of Mr. cese desired. Obedience to authority was of more Kensit's appeal against his recent conviction (based importance than any particular form of devotion on his protest), and the cost of his application for or liturgical enrichment. No one, however, who removing a tabernacle-an “ornament"-from the respected the authority of the Church could object Lord's table in St. Ethelburga's Church. A memo- to those services as superstitious or sensuous. It rial relating to St. Ethelburga's signed by 15,000 was no more superstitious to bow to an altar than Protestant Churchmen had that morning been pre- to the throne, to say " with my body I thee worsented to the Bishop of London. The decision of ship” to a wafer than to the emblem of our salvathe council to support Mr. Kensit was approved by tion. It was impossible to obey episcopal admonithe association, and it was decided to raise £2,000 tions founded on a denial of the truth, such as a for the purpose. Mr. Kensit attended the meeting condemnation of bowing to the altar because it and was received with cheers. He declared that he witnessed a belief in the real presence of the body was going all over the country in his crusade and blood of Christ under the forms of bread and against idolatry in the Church of England, and wine, or a proposal to renounce the Athanasian that he believed a glorious reaction in favor of Creed because it insisted on the necessity of holding Protestantism was setting in ; but it was a time for to the Catholic faith for salvation. It was necesdeeds, not words.

sary that present wants should be met by the At a large meeting of ministers of the Established sanction of additional services and collects. If Church, held in London in May, a memorandum individual priests had stretched the limits of their


responsibility, was it not partly due to the fact that fied are: The use of incense; the use of lighted canthe authorities of the Church had done so little dles in or near the communion table when not reThe need of authorized prayers for the faithful quired for the purpose of giving light; the use of departed and the reservation of the blessed sacra- sacrificial vestments at the holy communion; the ment for the communion of the sick, the duty of use of catechisms for children directly teaching restoring the last unction, the obligation of main- “ Mariolatry”; the use of prayers for the dead at taining the duty of Christian marriage at all risks, holy communion, not enjoined in the Book of when had these been put forward by authorities Common Prayer and expressly excluded from the of the English Church for the last thirty years ex- second book of Edward VI: the requirement of cept by Bishop Hamilton of Salisbury! It was not habitual auricular confession from communicants, necessary that every detail of the service should be as a condition precedent to communion, or as tendreferred to the bishop, or that authority should ing to promote the highest spiritual life, which was make itself felt to the same extent as in the Roman expressly condemned by the Lambeth Conference Catholic communion. Canon Gore advised circum- in 1878; the use of the “reserved sacrament" for spection and care to remove every cause of blame invalids, which was condemned by the twentyfrom among themselves. They could not forever eighth article of the communion rubric; the public acquiesce in the present situation; but history em- celebration of the Lord's Supper with less than phátically taught that there was no way to lose three persons to communicate with the priest ; and liberty like that of allowing themselves illegitimate the use of the word “mass” in giving notice of license. The Rev. A. J. Suckling, of St. Alban's, the holy communion. Holborn, held that by, altering anything while The Bishop of Hereford made a distinction bebrutal and barbarous interference was going on tween the ritual of reverent devotion and that which they would play into the hands of those who were was symbolical of unsound doctrine. That which doing their utmost to drive them out of the Church. spread sacerdotal and sacramental theories had no It would be an admission that they regarded ritual basis in the New Testament. He deprecated the as a kind of play, while it was most serious as an disposition to introduce new ceremonies into the exponent of doctrine. They could not help the service, which were almost always imitations of bishops by giving in. A resolution, moved by the some Roman Catholic practice, and strongly depreDean of Rochester, was carried without dissent: cated habitual confession as involving the risk of an * That this union is prepared to give all possible unnatural sentiment, dangerous to the moral and support to the lawful authority of the bishops as spiritual nature. As to the method of dealing with ordinaries in the settlement of liturgical difficulties, these excesses, he thought no wise bishop would rehumbly confiding that, as members of the Catholic sort to prosecutions till every other effort had episcopate, they will impose nothing on the con- failed. sciences of the clergy and laity which is contrary The Bishop of Lichfield in September instructed to the teaching and practices of the whole Catholic the clergy of his diocese that: Church of Christ. That the Union will give legal “1. The prescribed offices in the Book of Common and all other assistance in its power to incumbents Prayer should be said as ordered without omissions and congregations in all necessary efforts to protect or additions, except such as are allowed under the the celebration of the holy eucharist and the serv- act of uniformity amendment act, or as might be ices of the Church from profanity and sacrilege. lawfully authorized from time to time by the bishop That it must not be supposed that members of the of the diocese. Union and other loyal Churchmen, because they “ 2. Audible interpolations in the communion have not resorted to prosecutions, disturbances, or service are illegal. brawling in church, do not feel most keenly the “ 3. The reservation of the blessed sacrament for omissions and deviations from the Book of Common the purpose of adoration is neither legal nor primiPrayer and the novel practices which have been tive. Its reservation for administration to the sick allowed to grow up in a Protestant or Latitudi- is primitive, but is not legal. narian direction during the present century, as well * 4. The ceremonial use of incense in the preas the denial of the services to which they have a scribed services of the Church is illegal. right, or that they are not often aggrieved and “5. The holy communion should not be celedriven away from their parish churches thereby." brated unless the number of persons to communi

Declarations of Bishops.—The controversy cate with the priest required by their Church is concerning ritual was referred to by most of the assured bishops in official addresses or charges, or in special * 6. Prayers for the dead should be after the communications to the clergy of their several dio- primitive model, and in entire accordance with the ceses. Many of them uttered specific instructions spirit of the Book of Common Prayer. concerning proper ritual or admonitions against ex- " 7. The observance of saints' days and holy days cese.

besides those for which a collect, epistle, and gospel The Bishop of London sent letters to the clergy were provided in the Book of Common Prayer should of his diocese informing them that any additional be limited to those in the Prayer-Book calendar. service used should conform entirely to the spirit “8. No additional services should be held in the and intention of the Prayer Book, and in all cases church without the permission of the bishop. should be submitted to his sanction; that such serv- “9. The invocation of saints is illegal. ices, when used, should be separated by a distinct “10. It is not lawful to impose any conditions on interval from the services appointed in the Prayer the baptized antecedent to their presentation for Book, and should be announced as additional; they confirmation, nor on the confirmed antecedent to should consist of psalms, lessons, and prayers taken their reception of holy coinmunion, which are not from the Prayer Book adapted for special classes, imposed by any order contained in the Book of such as services for children, or for men and women, Common Praver." or members of parochial guilds or organizations, or The bishop declared that the only right and reasthey should be intercessions for special purposes, onable course for the sake of order and in justice to such as missions, or temperance, or the like. the laity was to keep to the Prayer Book ; that the

The Bishop of Liverpool issued a circular specifi- test of reality of worship is righteousness of life in cally mentioning a number of ritualistic practices this world; and the test of the efficiency of the minnot authorized by the Prayer Book, and requesting istrations of the clergy was the moral standard of ministers to abstain from them. The practices speci- their parishioners.

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