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CONTRIBUTORS.

Among the Contributors to this Volume of the Annual Cyclopædia" are the following :

Oscar Fay Adams,

Author of " A Dictionary of American Authors," etc. COOLEY, THOMAS MCINTYRE, Dodgsox, CHARLES LUTWIDGE, EBERS, GEORG Moritz, JOHNSTON, RICHARD MALCOLM, Payx, JAMES, PERRY, WILLIAM STEVENS,

and other articles. Francis Bellamy.

BELLAMY, EDWARD. Marcus Benjamin, Ph. D.,

Editor of United States National Museum. ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, HALL, JAMES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NEW YORK STATE, ROGERS, WILLIAM AUGUSTUS,

and other articles. J. H. A. Bone,

of the “Cleveland Plain-Dealer."
OHIO.
John Henry Boner,

of the ** Standard Dictionary” staff.
ALABAMA,
ARIZONA,
IDAHO.
NEW MEXICO,
NORTH CAROLINA,
MISSISSIPPI,
MISSOURI,

and other articles.
Arthur E. Bostwick, Ph. D.,

Librarian of the Brooklyn Library.
LIQUEFIED AIR,
Physics,

TELEGRAPHY, WIRELESS.
Thomas Campbell-Copeland,

Author of the ** American Colonial Handbook."
SAMPsox, William THOMAS,
SHAFTER, WILLIAM Rufus,

UNITED STATES MILITARY RECORD.
Mrs. Helen C. Candee.

SETTLEMENTS, SOCIAL. James P. Carey,

Formerly Financial Editor of the “ Journal of Com.

merce."
FINANCIAL REVIEW OF 1898.
John Denison Champlin,

Editor of "Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings."
FINE ARTS IN 1898.
Hon. Benjamin F. Clayton,

Ex-President of the Farmers' Congress.
FARMERS' CONGRESS.

Charles Henry Cochrane,

Author of "The Wonders of Modern Mechanism."
LIGHTHOUSES,
REFRIGERATING AND ICE-MAKING,

STEEL BUILDINGS.
Mrs. Bessie Nicholls Croffut.

LITERATURE, AMERICAN, IN 1898,
LITERATURE, BRITISH, IN 1898,

RESERVATIONS, INDIAN.
Mrs. Fredericka B. Gilchrist.

PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH.
Rev. William Elliot Griffis, D. D.,

Formerly Professor of Physics in the University of

Tokio.
JAPAN,

KOREA.
George J. Hagar,

Associate Editor of the “Columbian Cyclopædia."
GIFTS AND BEQUESTS,

OBITUARIES, AMERICAN. Rev. Moses Harvey,

Author of "Text-book of Newfoundland History."
NEWFOUNDLAND.
Elwood Haynes.

GAS, NATURAL.
J. Castell Hopkins,

Author of "Encyclopædia of Canada."
British COLUMBIA,
Canada, DOMINION OF,
MANITOBA,
New BRUNSWICK,
ONTARIO,
QU'EBEC,
YUKON DISTRICT,

and other Canadian articles. Frank Huntington,

of the “Standard Dictionary” statf.
AFGHANISTAN,
ARGENTINE REPUBLIC,
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY,
BELGIUM
BRAZIL,
CAPE COLONY,
DENMARK,
EGYPT,
FRANCE,
GERMANY,
HAWAII,
INDIA,
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS,
TURKEY,

and other articles. W. Alleyne Ireland,

Author of “Demerara."
WEST INDIES.

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English journalist and author.

KITCHENER, Sir HORATIO HERBERT,

Col. Charles Ledyard Norton,

Author of “Midshipman Jack."

DEWEY, GEORGE,

and other articles.

Hugh J. O'Brien,

Journalist.

ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.

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facing 772

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CHRISTOPHER COLON AUGUR WORTA BAGLEY CASSIUS M. BARNES, THOMAS FRANCIS BAYARD EDWARD BELLAMY WILLIAM BLACK DON CARLOS BUELL . ALLEY D. CANDLER . Sir WilliAM CROOKES FASNY LILY GIPSY DAVENPORT (TSHMAN K. Davis . William R. Day GEORG MORITZ EBERS Carrix FAIRBANK FREDERICK B. FANCHER WILLIAM PIERCE FRYE HENRY T. GAGE THEODORE THURSTON GEER GEORGE GRAY. JAMES HALL JOns Har ETHAS ALLEN HITCHCOCK JOSEPH F, JOHNSTON DANIEL W. Jones SIR HORATIO HERBERT KITCHENER ARCHIBALD LIVERSIDGE GEORGE E. LOUNSBURY LLOYD LOWNDES

PAGE
521 ! ROBERT MilliGAN MCLANE
522 | ELWELL STEPHEN OTIS
608 LLEWELLYN Powers
523 WILLIAM A. POYNTER
523 FREDERICK W. PUTNAM
584. CHARLES TODD QUINTARD
527 WHITELAW REID
288 DE FOREST RICHARDS

35 FRANK WEST ROLLINS
535 Don MATIAS ROMERO

THEODORE ROOSEVELT facing 772 WILLIAM STARKE ROSECRANS

590 WILLIAM THOMAS SAMPSON
539 JOSEPH DRAPER SAYPES
513 WINFIELD SCOTT SCHLEY.

WILLIAM Rufus SHAFTER
92 LESLIE M. Suaw

613 CHARLES EMORY SMITH facing 772 EDWARD C. Smith

545 WILLIAM E. STANLEY
729 | WILLIAM A. STOxE.
730 John R. TANNER

3 CHARLES S. THOMAS
21 FOSTER M. VOORHEES
358 GEORGE EDWIN WARING .

44 DAVID AMES WELLS
210 EDWARD NOYES WESTCOTT,
420 | FRANCES ELIZABETH WILLARD

PAGE 555 616 415 472

24

562 facing 772

839 483 567 492 568 690 722 692 697 338 730 820 351 618 325 135 487 576 577 579 580

facing 772

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FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS.
COLORED Plates-

MAP OF ASIA
MAP OF Egypt.
MAP OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
MAP OF PUERTO Rico

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PACE

.

SITE OF C'RANXOG ON THE (LYDE
PREHISTORIC IMPLEMENTS
PREHISTORIC LADDER
PREHISTORIC (CANOE.
MUSEUM IN LA PLATA
PALACE OF CONGRESS, LA PAZ, BOLIVIA
PORT OF PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL
GOVERNMENT BUILDING, VICTORIA .
CHINESE TEMPLE
FISHING AT STANLEY FALLS
STANLEY Pool .
HOUSE IN WHICH ADMIRAL DEWEY WAS BORN
A ROYAL RESIDENCE IN UGANDA
A NATIVE OF SOMALILAND
Quito, ECUADOR
THE NILE AT KUARTOU'N
DIAGRAM OF THE OMAHA EXPOSITION
THE GRAND CANAL AT NIGHT, OMAHA Expo-

SITION.
EXHIBITION OF LIFE-SAVING SERVICE
PRISON OF CAPT. DREYFUS
GEOLOGICAL LOCATION OF GAS SUPPLY

PAGE 13 | ILAWARDEN CASTLE .

304 14 VILLAGE OF SAYPAN, LADRONE ISLANDS 361 11 A STEEL LIGHTHOUSE

362 14 DEWAR'S APPARATUS

303 19 FREEZING A RUBBER BALL

364 85 EXPLODING A SPONGE

364 86 BURNING STEEL IN Liquid OXYGEN

365 88 ANTANANARIVO, MADAGASCAR .

414 123 NEW MEXICO'S CAPITOL

490 138 A STREET IN ILOILO

626 139 DIAGRAM OF PRISMS

631 221 A CANTILEVER TRUSS

708 231 WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY (four illustrations) 714-716 232 THE “ MAINE " PASSING MORRO CASTLE, HA234 VANA.

738 238 | MORRO CASTLE, SANTIAGO

755 250 CUBAN TROOPS MARCHING INTO SIBONEY

759 EL CANEY AFTER THE BATTLE

761 252 WRECK OF THE · CRISTOBAL COLON

763 256 WRECK OF THE “OQU'ENDO".

764 276 A IlosPITAL TENT

769 287 | L'NITED STATES POSSESSIONS (map).

773

THE

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA.

A

ABYSSINIA, an empire in eastern Africa, em- ley, dhurra, wheat, and sugar cane are cultivated, bracing the kingdoms of Tigre, Amhara, and Shoa, but agriculture is not much practiced. Besides with Gojam, Lasta, the Galla and Kaffa countries, hides and skins the chief exports are wax, coffee, and other dependencies. The Emperor, bearing and civet, also gold and ivory, on both of which the the title Negus Negusti (King of Kings), is Me- Negus receives a large royalty. The imports are nelek II, who, after the death of Johannes II. in cotton goods of American, British, and Indian 1889, overcame the rival claimants with the aid of manufacture, Turkey red, and French cutlery and Weapons furnished by the Italians, with whom he glass. The Maria Theresa dollar, which has been made a treaty on May 2 of that year, which was struck in Austria for the Abyssinian trade since the confirmed in the following October in a convention last century, is being supplanted by a coin bearing concluded by his plenipotentiary in Italy. The the image of Menelek, having the same nominal Italian Government proclaimed a protectorate over value, though containing a fifth less silver. the whole Ethiopian or Abyssinian Empire by vir- Count Nicholas Leontieff, who went to Abyssinia tue of this treaty, although Menelek protested that in 1893 on a Russian political mission, veiled as a the Amharic text recorded simply a treaty of alli- scientific expedition, and afterward obtained a ance and mutual protection between independent cession of an immense tract of country, called the sovereigns. The governments of Germany and Equatorial Province, lying southwest of the EmGreat Britain recognized the protectorate and con- peror Menelek's dominions and extending within ceded an Italian sphere of influence, embracing all two degrees of the equator, organized with Prince of Abyssinia and adjacent parts of Somaliland and Henri d'Orleans a chartered company for the purthe Soudan, a total area of 648,000 square miles. pose of organizing the government of this counThe line of demarcation separating the British and try in the name of the Emperor of Ethiopia. Italian spheres, as fixed in the agreements of 1891 The territory embraces a great part of the Italian and 1894, follows the Juba river up to 6° of north sphere, a great part of the sphere claimed by the latitude, and then that parallel westward to 35° of British East African protectorate, and the banks of east longitude, whence it runs northward to the the upper Nile in the Anglo-Egyptian sphere. Blue Nile. In consequence of the defeat at Adua Large quantities of arms were imported into on March 1, 1896, Italy renounced the protectorate Abyssinia by the French and Russians, whose inflover Abyssinia and evacuated the Kingdom of Tigre uence was so powerful at Menelek's court that the which had been occupied in 1895. In the treaty British Government, on the eve of the expedition of peace finally concluded at Adis Abeba on Oct. 26, for the reconquesi of the Egyptian Soudan, sent 1896, Abyssinia was recognized as an independent James Rennell Rodd as a special envoy to prevent a power and the rivers Mareb, Belesa, and Muna were possible alliance between the Abyssinians and the declared the southernmost boundaries of the Italian dervishes. The treaty concluded by him with possessions.

Menelek, at Adis Abebå, on May 14, 1897, provided The area of Abyssinia, with Gallaland, is about for the freedom of the subjects of both countries to 150,000 square miles and the population 3,500,000. come and go and engage in commerce, while forIn Somaliland the Negus claims the whole interior bidding armed bands to cross the frontier without back of the coast strip of 180 miles reserved to Italy authorization. The caravan route between Zeyla by the treaty of Adis Abeba as far south as the and Harrar, by way of Gildessa, was declared free border of British East Africa, comprising an area to the commerce of both nations. Material destined of 100,000 square miles.

for the service of the Ethiopian state was permitted The Abyssinians are a mixed race, in which Arab, to be imported through Zeyla free of duty, and Jewish, and negro types are grafted on the original arms and ammunition for the Emperor's army to north African or Berber stock. They have been have free transit, subject to the conditions of the Christians since the fourth century, belonging to Brussels act of 1890. Menelek engaged himself to the Alexandrian Church. Their religious rites in- do all in his power to prevent the passage through clude many Jewish ceremonies. The abuna, or his dominions of munitions of war for the Mahdists, ecclesiastic chief, is a Copt appointed by the Alex- whom he declared to be the enemies of his empire. andrian patriarch. The monks and priests are the The boundary between Abyssinia and British Soonly instructors, teaching a part of the children maliland was settled by Rennell Rodd with Ras grammar and poetry, religious chants and Bible Makonen at Harrar. Starting from the seashore texts. The system of government is feudal. The opposite the wells of Hadou, it follows the caravan chief industry is raising cattle, sheep, and goats. road by Abbassouen to Mount Samadou, passes Cotton, coffee, dates, and grapes grow wild, and through the summits of Saw and Egu to Moga there are extensive forests of valuable timber. Bar- Medir, thence to Eylinta Kaddo and Arran Arrhe

VOL. XXXVIII.-1 A

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