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ARVARD COLLEGE LIORARY

GIFT CF
SILA AND COMPANY

DEC. 26, 1923

COPYRIGHT, 1906,
By B. F. JOHNSON PUBLISHING CO.

All rights reserved.

OS 8-H. P.

PREFACE

The common school course in arithmetic, which is offered in this book, together with the Primary Book of the same 'series, is intended to fit pupils for the high school or for the affairs of life. The Practical Book is designed to cover the subject-matter usually given in the grammar grades of the best public schools. In most schools this work will be taken in the fifth, sixth, and seventh school years. The plan of the book allows, however, such modifications in arranging the work by grades as the needs of different schools may require.

Every subject is so presented as to be readily mastered by pupils of the age and grade for which it is intended. The subjects embraced in the Primary are first reviewed and extended without duplicating. In a later chapter the fundamental operations are again reviewed and compared in such a manner as to give pupils a thorough working knowledge of these operations, and to impress upon them the advantages of a uniform scale as found in the decimal system.

The book contains a very large number of problems, both oral and written, which are for the most part new. These have been selected and graded with great care. It will be noted that apart from the mathematical calculations involved in them, the controlling factor in their selection has been a desire to arouse the interest and hold the attention of the pupil. This has been done by basing problems on facts with which the pupil is familiar or which appeal to him as worthy of investigation.

The various groups of “Related Problems are intended to stimulate the study of the national resources and business life

of this country. In this way arithmetic is not only brought into proper contact with the chief phases of business and industrial life, but becomes an important factor in giving a clear quantitative interpretation to the numerous topics which have been made centers of special study in these groups.

The illustrations which accompany certain written exercises are used for the purpose of making the problems in these exercises more concrete, and, therefore, more easily comprehended by the pupil. Only those illustrations, however, have been admitted which are suggestive of some mathematical principle or which bear directly upon the proper interpretation of problems.

The chapters on Short Methods and The Equation have many features that will appeal to progressive teachers. By avoiding all technicalities in the treatment of the equation, the many advantages arising from its use in the solution of problems have been placed within the mental reach of pupils of the grade in which this subject is presented. Ratio and Proportion are also treated in a simple and practical way, and are used to give pupils another method of solving certain problems.

The chapters on the Solution of Problems contain many helpful suggestions. Great care has been taken to lead pupils to grasp clearly the conditions of problems, - to find out first what is given in a problem and what is to be found, and then to plan an outline of the work which will yield the required result. The illustrative solutions are intended not only to exhibit the best methods of dealing with different classes of problems, but to give the best arrangement of the actual work.

For criticisms and suggestions made during the preparation and publication of the manuscript of this book, the authors desire to acknowledge their indebtedness to Dr. James K. Powers of the B. F. Johnson Publishing Co.

JOHN M. COLAW, MONTEREY, VIRGINIA.
FRANK W. DUKE, HOLLINS, VIRGINIA.

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