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Let the pupil add small sums, which do not amount to ten of any order, till it can be done quickly, and with a full understanding of the process.
In the next process let the coins be used to illustrate.
If 25 cents be added to 16 cents, how many cents are there?
Let 2 dimes be laid on the table, and 5 cents placed at the right of them. Under the 2 dimes place 1 dime, and under the 5 cents place 6 cents. Let the pupil then add the 6 to the 5, and the answer will be 11 cents. Eleven cents are 1 dime and 1 cent. Let him leave 1 cent under the column of cents, and substitute 1 dime for the 10 cents. Let him place this dime with the 1 dime, and add the 2, and his answer will be 4 dimes 1 cent. Ask how many cents in 4 dimes 1 cent, and the answer will be 41 cents. Thus his answer will be either 4 dimes 1 cent, or 41 cents.
If the pupil thus sees the principle once illustrated, by a visible process, the method will be much more readily understood and remembered. Let the following sum also be done by the coins.
Add $1,36 to $2,97.
Let the teacher dictate such simple sums until the pro. cess of writing and adding is well understood, and can be done with rapidity and accuracy.
Note to Teachers.
It is very desirable that pupils should be required to write their figures with accuracy and neatness, and learn to place them in strait lines, both perpendicular and hori. zontal. Also that they learn to add by calculation, and not by counting, as young scholars are very apt to do. If a teacher will but be thorough, at the commencement, in these respects, much time and labor will be saved.
Mary has 4 apples, James 5, and Henry 7, how many have all together?
One boy has 6 marbles, another 4, and another 9, how many have all together?
A man gave 9 cents to one boy, 8 to another, and 11 to another, how many did he give to all ? 10 and 11 and 9 are how many
? 12 and 7 and 4 are how many ? 4 and 5 and 7 are how many ?
One man owns 6 horses, another 8, and another 9, how many have they all ?
In a school, 10 study history, 11 geography, and 15 grammar, how many scholars in the whole ?
One house has 10 windows, another 7, and another 12, how many are there in all ?
James lent one boy 8 cents, another 6, and another 17, how many did he lend them all ?
If a lady pays 7 dollars for a veil, 9 dollars for a dress, and 3 dollars for a necklace, what amount does she spend?
6 and 9 and 18 are how many 10 and 5 and 7 are how many
? 8 and 11 and 14 are how many ?
Let the pupil be taught to add, using the signs. Thus the last sum.
8+11+14 = 33.
RULE FOR SIMPLE ADDITION.
Place units of the same order in the same column, and draw a line under. Add each column separately, beginning at the right hand. Place the units of the amount, under the column to which they belong, and carry the tens to the next higher order.
Add 2694 and 3259 and 6438.
Placing units of the same order in the same column, they stand thus :
What is the rule for simple addition ?
Let the pupil at first learn to add in this manner. 8 units added to 9, are 17, and 4 are 21 units, which is 1 of the unit order, to be written under that order, and 2 of the order of tens, to be carried to that order. 2 tens carried to 3 tens, are 5, and 5 are 10, and 9 are 19 tens; which is 9 of the order of tens, to be written under that order, and 1 of the order of hundreds, to be carried to that order. Thus through all the orders.
Add the following numbers, and let the pupil use the above method.
What is the method of adding the first example?"
Exercises for placing figures in right periods and orders.
Let the pupil now learn to place units of the same order in the same column, by the following examples.
Let the teacher dictate the following. The pupils should be required previously to attempt writing them, while studying their lesson.
1. One million, four hundred and sixty thousands, and two.
Twenty-four millions, six hundred and one.
Three hundred and sixty thousands, four hundred and six.
Ninety-four millions, five hundred and seventy-eight thousands, three hundred and forty-one.
Six millions, seven thousands, and forty-three.
Two hundred and six thousands, five hundred and fortytwo.
One million, one thousand, and one.
Nine hundred and ninety millions, nine hundred and ninety-nine.
Eighty-eight thousands, eight hundred and eightyeight.
Ninety-nine millions, seven hundred and sixty-five thousands.
3. Two hundred and six millions, five thousands, four hun. dred and one.
Fifty-six millions, four hundred thousands, five hundred and six.
Three billions, ninety-nine thousands, and four.
Five hundred millions, thirty thousands, four hundred and forty.
Seven millions, six hundred and fifty-four thousands, three hundred and seventeen.
4. Four millions, four hundred and thirty-two thousands, one hundred and seventy-six.
Forty-nine thousands, and three.
Nineteen millions, seven hundred and sixty-five thou. sands, nine hundred and eighty-four.
Five hundred and ninety-one.
Seven hundred and sixty-three thousands, nine hundred and forty-three. Ninety-nine millions, nine thousands and ninety.
5. Four hundred and four.
Five millions, six hundred and forty-three thousands, two hundred and seventeen.
One million, and two.
Four millions, five hundred and seventy-six thousand three hundred and eighty-four.
Forty-four millions, three hundred and twenty-one thou. sands, seven hundred and four.
6. One hundred millions, one thousand, and ten.
Nine billions, eight hundred thousands, nine hundred and forty.
Four hundred and eighty-eight millions, nine hundreds, and five thousands.
Eighty-eight millions, seven hundred and seventy-seven thousands, and nine. Nine hundred and ninety-nine. .
7. Ninety-nine millions, eight thousands, and four.
Five hundred and eighty-seven millions, six hundred and forty-nine thousands.
Twenty-eight thousands, eight hundred and ninety. nine.
Four hundred thousands, eight hundred and seven.
8. Seven hundred millions, ninety-nine thousands, and seventy-nine.
Fifty-five thousands, seven hundred and forty-four. Nine millions, eight hundred thousands, eight hundreds.