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1838.] LOAN FUNDS. 17

Once dry, they cannot be kept too cool; any temperature, short of actual frost, will be warm enough.

Carpets.—In choosing them avoid those which contain black worsted, as that colour wears away much sooner than any other colour, showing the bare white threads of the foundation. To remedy this, trace over with a broadnibbed pen and ink the thread-bare spaces which have been black, and the effect of the black worsted will be produced.—Magazine of Domestic Economy.

Dust-holes.—The Magazine of Domestic Economy, No. 28, recommends, that in the case of cottages in the country, where the dust-hole and dung-pit are most frequently combined, this manure-pit should be at the distance of some yards from the cottage, and in warm weather be covered with boards, or even with a straw hurdle, to prevent offensive smells; that where bones are kept apart for manure, sifted ashes from the fireplace should be thrown in among them, that the offensive and unwholesome smell may be prevented; and that dust-holes in houses should always be furnished with a door shutting so tightly as to prevent smells. Sufficient attention is not always paid to these precautions so essential to health. The typhus fever is stated to be very prevalent in Leeds, from the offensive smells which abound in the neighbourhood.— The above is quoted in a Morning Paper of Oct. 3, from The Leeds Intelligencer.

Stale Bread.—Put the pieces into a saucepan with some boiling water poured over them, let them simmer by the fire, till they are completely saturated, then put in salt and pepper to your taste, and a little butter. Y.

LOAN FUNDS.

It appears that the poor who have occasion to borrow small sums of money, have in general to raise it at very exorbitant interest: and that, when they are obliged to purchase any necessaries on credit, they are compelled to pay much more than the market price. We therefore recommend that there shall be a Loan Fund established in each district, and that it shall be administered according to such regulations as the commissioners shall approve. —Labourer's Friend Magazine.

VENTILATION.

A Cottage, as well as every other house, should be so built that the windows and doors, when opened, may admit a thorough draft of air. The windows should be kept open when the weather will allow of it, especially in bedrooms. Do not allow your room to remain long without fresh air passing through it after you have left your bed. The air of any room, after many persons have breathed in it, is particularly unwholesome. If the fresh air blows through it, it becomes wholesome again. Whitewash the rooms frequently: this is good for health as well as for cleanliness.—See "Ten Minutes' Advice to Labourers."

Anecdote Of King George The Third. Mr. Editor, I beg to state to you an anecdote which I believe has not transpired, and which was verbally related to my late uncle Major Willding, of Llanrhaiader Hall, Denbighshire, by a gentleman who stood behind his majesty at the theatre when Hatfield fired at him, and which is worthy of bur remembrance as an instance of strong faith and entire composure at such a critical moment. The gentleman distinctly heard the king repeat in a low voice the Collect for the eighth Sunday after Trinity, which shews the habitual piety and trust with which the mind of that beloved monarch was impressed, and which reliance on the Divine protection was his support in the midst of the many trials with which during his long and eventful reign he was visited. I am, Sir, with great respect,

your obedient servant, H. M.

The Collect for the eighth Sunday after Trinity. O God, whose never failing providence ordereth all things both in heaven and earth; we humbly beseech thee to put away from us all hurtful things, and to give us those things which be profitable for us; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF CRUELTY TO
ANIMALS.

Union Hall.John Grub, of Newington, was charged with cruelly ill-treating two dogs.

1838.] PREVENTION OF CRUELTY TO ANIMALS. 19

John Rogerson, the society's officer, deposed that he observed the defendant seated in a large cart, drawn by four dogs, racing against an omnibus, near the "Elephant and Castle;" the defendant was violently whipping two of the dogs, and, in witness's opinion, he was going at the rate of ten or eleven miles per hour. Witness, however, managed to stop the defendant, when near Newington church. The dogs were completely exhausted, and seemed half-starved. Witness never before witnessed so wanton an act of cruelty. The defendant kept constantly whipping the dogs from the time witness first saw him till he stopped him. The defendant is employed to move furniture, and the loads are exceedingly heavy, quite sufficient for a good-sized horse.

Mr. Trail cross-examined the witnesses very minutely. The evidence in support of the charge was quite satisfactory.

Mr. Trail—I fine you 17s. including costs, or 10 days' imprisonment.

Defendant paid the fine.

James Reynolds was convicted upon the complaint of Mr. Thomas, for cruelly ill-treating his horse with the butt-end of his whip, in the Kent road, on the 2nd inst. Fined 10*.

Joseph Stevens was also convicted of cruelly ill-treating his horse, by beating it with the butt-end of a heavy whip on the nose and about the head. Fined 10s.

William Underwood, a postilion, was convicted of cruelly ill-treating his horse, on the Dover road. The defendant was drunk at the time. Fined 10s.

Bow-street.—Jeremiah Bowley, a carman, was convicted of cruelly ill-treating a horse, by beating it with the butt-end of his whip, and causing another horse to drag it along the ground, after it had fallen from the effects of his brutal treatment. Committed for 14 days, with hard labour.

Guildhall.—Frederick Edwards, driver of a cab, was convicted of cruelly flogging his horse in Cheapside. Fined 10s. and costs. Morning Herald.

FRUITS OF GAMING.

My Dear Friend,—I have read with much pleasure your paper on gaming and its evils. For old acquaintance sake, I give you the particulars of a horrid case, from the love of play, which accidentally came to my notice, four years back.

"I was standing one day in my butcher's shop, in the

town of , when a boy about six or seven years old

entered, very poorly clad. He looked thin, pallid, and pinched—his whole appearance betraying want. As he approached the butcher's wife, he held a penny in his hand, and asked for a pennyworth of bullock's liver. My feelings being excited, I could not help exclaiming, ' Is it possible we have people so poor as to send for a pennyworth of bullock's liver for their own eating?' The answer I received was, ' Yes, Sir, that liver is for as genteel a looking man as you may see in a hundred. He has four children, and a wife in a bad state of health, and also about to be confined; in short, they are in the greatest possible distress.'

"Now, half-pay officers, you know, are not rich; but, taking out half-a-crown, and having made the necessary inquiries, I soon found myself at the door of the family in question; and having knocked at it, a tall, thin, genteellooking man appeared. He was about six feet high, and so slender, that he looked as if ' misery had worn him to the bone.' Still, he eyed me with so lofty and inquiring a glance, that it somewhat appalled my purpose. However, finding it necessary to explain the object of my visit with as much caution as I could command, I told him, that, having understood that himself and family were in temporary difficulties—I had called to offer my poor services. With an expression of thankfulness he asked me to walk in: I found his wife, as had been told me, in miserable health, and, as well as the children, pale and emaciated. They had no comforts in the house; no bed, no table, no chairs. The poor gentleman apologized for his want of furniture, by saying that a tradesman had supplied him with it on his acceptance of a bill at six months' date; but that afterwards he had put in an execution, and taken away every thing.

1838.] SURGICAL HINTS. 21

"When I pressed him to explain the cause of his distress, and how I could assist him, he answered me thus— 'I am ashamed to acknowledge it, but I must candidly confess that my own conduct has brought myself and family to what you see. About two years since, I had a house in London, and possessed £20,000; but I was tempted to gamble, and in a short time I lost it all.'"

Letter in the Northampton Herald.

SURGICAL HINTS.

In cases of accident, such as cuts, bruises, broken limbs, &c. the sufferer's pains are often increased, or his life sacrificed, by the ignorance of those by whom he is surrounded, even though they are anxious to do all the good in their power. Sometimes a great crowd assembles round the patient, each person having some remedy or some plan of his own: so that whilst they are debating about what should be done, the poor man is every moment suffering injury from the loss of blood or other cause, and is kept from that quietness which is particularly needful, and from a proper circulation of air, by the crowd which presses around him. And, after he is conveyed to his chamber, the room is often filled with a number of people, sufficient to make the air unwholesome, and alarming the sufferer by their looks and their fears, and their conversation, when he ought to be kept as quiet and calm as possible.

Then, when there is a wound from a cut, every body seems to have a balsam or an oil, or an ointment, and, by the improper use of these, a slight cut or wound of any kind is often converted into a dangerous sore.

If a wound appears to be of a serious nature, a surgeon should be immediately sent for. But, the sufferer must be attended to, before the surgeon can arrive. If the wound is a cut from a knife or other sharp instrument, and the bleeding is severe, it is necessary that this should be stopped, or the patient may lose his life from the loss of blood. If no dirt or other matter has got into the wound, the best method, at first, is to endeavour to close the wound with the fingers, and thus to prevent the loss

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