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This I*--"*** k of tie dog tribe,—bat is larger and more ascrccq aoi ■^arcc'ar dura die generality of dogs. His ccsjz: is a sort of pale grey. The wolf belongs to almost all the temperate and cold parts of the world. They were formerly very common in England, and were so destrucave that about eleven hundred years ago Edgar, one of oar Saxon kings, determined to destroy them, and allowed the tribute which had been usually paid in money, to be paid by numbers of wolves* heads, which had the effect of nearly putting an end to the whole race. Historians, however, tell us, that these animals were troublesome in Scotland some years after this; and that Sir Edward Cameron of Lochiel, killed with his own hand the last wolf in the island about 160 years ago. The wolf, when pressed by hunger, is a most fierce and formidable creature; and will then attack even the buffalo, and other large and powerful animals.

The wolf is a deadly enemy to the sheepfolds: whole droves of them will sometimes descend from the mountains, and dig the earth from under the doors, and enter with the most dreadful ferocity, and destroy every sheep in the fold.

The wolf is a most outrageous thief; and, like other thieves, it is said that he is at the bottom a coward, and dreadfully suspicious. He imagines every thing that he sees is intended for a trap to take him. It is said, that if a deer is tied to a post to be milked, he dares not ap

Iiroach lest it should be placed there to entrap him; »ut when the animal is set at liberty, he will then pursue and devour it. The wolf is so strong that he can carry 1838.] NATURAL HISTORY. 421

away a sheep in his mouth, and run off with it. His sense of smelling is particularly strong, which enables him to pursue his prey at a great distance.

Although the wolf is of so savage a disposition, yet, when taken young, it may be tamed; and many instances are recorded to shew what they may be taught by care and good management. They are not, however, to be trusted; for some of them which have been brought up in the house, and have had the run of the poultry yard for a long time without doing any injury,—have, all on a sudden, shown the natural fierceness of their disposition, and destroyed every thing within their reach.

The skin of the wolf is of value, and makes a warm and durable fur covering; his flesh is good for nothing, and is considered so bad, that it is said no animal will eat it.—Chiefly from Bingley's Animal Biography.

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THE FOX.

The fox is of the dog tribe also; he inhabits nearly all parts of the world, and is of so wild and fierce a nature, that it is no easy matter to take him. He is considered one of the most cunning and crafty of the beasts of prey, and this he shows in his manner of providing himself with his food out of the lambs, geese, hens, and any kind of birds, which he can bring into his den. He usually makes his burrow in a wood or thicket, and likes to be within reach of a farm-yard or a sheep-fold, where he can lay his plots for the purpose of plunder. He goes to work very quietly and slyly; and, when he has got his prize, he will carry it to his den, and lay it up there, and then go back for a further supply, which he conVol. xvm. B b

ceals in the same manner; and this robbery he continues until he is disturbed, or till the day-light would discover his depredations. He takes hares, rabbits, and game of different kinds; and, when those are not to be had, he will seize almost any kind of bird or animal that he can get hold of. When pressed by hunger, he will eat roots or insects. Mr. Bingley says, "that the foxes near the sea-coast will eat crabs, shrimps, or shell-fish. In France and Italy, these animals do incredible mischief, by feeding on grapes, of which they are excessively fond." He is said, too, to be so fond of honey that he will attack bee-hives, where, however, he sometimes meets with so rough a reception, that he is obliged to retire, and roll himself on the ground to destroy the bees that are stinging him. The fox lies concealed in his hole during the greater part of the day; and, like other robbers, pursues his work in the night.— The same.

WAKES AND FAIRS.

When any attempts are made towards getting rid of wakes, and feasts, and holiday fairs, it is said by some, that this is all a scheme to put down the pleasures and amusements of the poor. Now, if we thought that these things did really contribute to the happiness of the poor, we should be very sorry to see them checked; but, on the contrary, should be glad to uphold and encourage them. But, when we see how much real misery is often produced by them—when the drunkenness and extravagance, the quarrellings and fightings, bring months and often years of after misery, we consider ourselves the best friends of the poor, where we try to prevent these dangers. When the magistrates tell us that the most dreadful cases which are brought before them, are at the times of the wakes and fairs; when the miseries brought on young women may generally be dated from the same time; and when we know, that, during the days of these riotous meetings, all religious and moral restraint seems to be set aside, we cannot wonder that the best friends of the poor should wish to see an end to these annual temptations to wickedness and misery; and we cannot think that those who wish to continue them, have calmly

1838.] ON CHEWING OR SMOKING TOBACCO. 423

considered the consequences of them; or they would not have so mistaken the way to benefit their poor neighbours. Annual wakes and feasts were first instituted for religious purposes. They made a holy feast in remembrance of some departed saint; but this has become altogether forgotten, or dreadfully perverted. Some fairs were originally held for purposes of trade; but the use of those has for the most part vanished. We fear that the following description from a newspaper, is too faithful an account of the present effect of such festivities :— V.

SUNDAY WAKES. "recreations Of The Lower Orders.

"At the Beddoes Green Sunday Wake, held on the last Sabbath, no less than five pitched battles took place between the blackguards assembled there. The persons participating in these disgraceful violations of decency and humanity were thieves, poachers, and women of the worst character, amongst whom spirits were publicly sold. In the course of the day, a fight took place between two men named Green and Harper, about an infamous woman, who urged them to fight, telling Harper he was no man if he did not kill Green. They fought in the most furious manner, amidst the yells and shouts of 500 ruffians; at length Harper was thrown heavily, and appeared almost lifeless, when Green, retreating a step or two, raised his leg and kicked his fallen antagonist in the most savage manner in the stomach. The savages, notwithstanding the man's condition, called on his backers to bring him up again; but, upon his being pulled up, they perceived that life was fast ebbing; upon which the miscreants threw the dying man on the ground, leaving him to his fate, and ran away. Some persons, who had no concern in the fight, came to the poor creature's assistance, and afforded every help in their power for the few hours of his life. The woman who caused the fight ran off with the victim's clothes, but was stopped."—Worcester Journal.

ON CHEWING OR SMOKING TOBACCO.

When the fashion was so strong in England, that James I. could get no one to preach against it, his own royal hand took the pen and wrote a treatise, which he denominates "a Counterblast to tobacco." The strength of his princely antidote may be gathered from the following closing paragraph of his royal counterblast. "It is a custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the brain, and dangerous to the lungs."

Experienced people tell us that the habit of using tobacco, in any shape, will, after a time, render you emaciated and consumptive, your nerves shattered, your spirits low and moody, your throat dry and demanding stimulating drinks, your person filthy, and your habits those of a swine.

Mr. Editor,—The preceding extract is from the " Student's Guide,' by the Rev. J. Todd, of America. Do you not think it bears upon the nasty custom which has lately sprung up among ourselves of smoking cigars?

Your constant reader, J. C. W.

DEAF AND DUMB.

The following letter was sent, by the children of a Deaf and Dumb school, to a lady who has given her time and most valuable exertions for several years, to the promotion of the education of those unfortunate children, who are without the blessings of speech or of hearing. These efforts have been eminently successful, as appears from the following letter, and from the whole contents of the little volume, written and published by those children, to which volume this letter is prefixed as a dedication.

To MADAM HlPPISLEY TuCKFIELD,

Fulford Park, &c .

Dearest Madam Tuckfield,

I and my dear schoolfellows desire to put your great name in this little book, to give to you.

We all love you, because you thought about us in our young life, and built this house for us, with your many friends. We look at this beautiful place and we think of you, and we think of our ignorance, and loneliness, and unhappiness before we came here, and we say we truly love you, Madam, and your name is in our hearts and in our minds, and your face is confirmed to us.

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