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the office, but both inclination and a sense of duty to his country urged him to a contrary conclusion. In fact, so early as May, he had been in consultation with Hamilton as to the preparation of a farewell address, announcing his retirement. This famous paper was published in September, 1796, and created a profound sensation. Its authorship is a vexed question, but it was probably founded upon the former address, prepared by Madison, and was elaborated and recast by Hamilton, in accordance with suggestions of Washington. Whatever hand guided the pen, it was the President who inspired the wonderful paper which, once and for all, put an end to the clamor of those who made the possibility of a monarchy their pet theme. There is no grander document in history than this simple reimpressment of political lessons, which he had so often taught, followed by the voluntary relinquishment of an office which, in spite of the noisy outcry of a minority, he might, for the asking, have again held by a unanimous electoral vote. The address was received throughout the country with the greatest veneration. It was spread upon the minutes of many state legislatures, and forever checked the howling of the opposition beagles.

On the 5th day of December, Congress convened, and Washington made his farewell address. In concluding, he said: “The situation in which I now stand for the last time, in the midst of the representatives of the people of the United States, naturally recalls the period when the administration of the present form of government commenced. I cannot omit the occasion to congratulate you and my country on the success of the experiment, nor to repeat my fervent supplications to the Supreme Ruler of the universe, and Sovereign Arbiter of nations, that his Providential care may be still extended to the United States; that the virtue and happiness of the people may be preserved, and that the government which they have instituted for the protection of their liberties may be perpetual.”

The Senate and House responded to this speech with expressions of the warmest good will and respect. In the former, there was not a dissenting vote; in the latter Mr. Giles, of Virginia, opposed the resolutions of regret at the retirement of the President, by reason of his disapproval of the foreign policy of the administration; he said he hoped the President would be happy in retirement, but he hoped he would retire. Twelve members agreed with Mr. Giles.

In February, the votes of the Presidential electors were opened, and John Adams, receiving the highest number, was elected President, while Thomas Jefferson, next in order, became Vice President. Truly an unequal yoking together of Federal and Democratic sentiment! On the 3d of March, Washington addressed a letter to the Secretary of State, making his first denial of the authenticity of the letters published in England and New York in 1777, and attributed to him. These he denounced as forgeries, and requested that his statement be placed and preserved in the archives of the

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of those seas, and the difficulties with Spain, regarding southern boundaries and the navigation of the Mississippi, were settled satisfactorily to the United States It was also during the latter part of this year, that Washington Lafayette, son of the marquis, arrived in America incognito, and was placed, first at Harvard college, later with his tutor in safe retirement, at the cost of Washington.

Congress opened in December, 1795. Washington made an address, rehearsing the principal occurrences of the past year, and congratulating that body upon the prosperity of the country. The Senate voted a cordial answer, but the House, controlled by the opposition, was evasive. On the first day of January, Washington formally received the colors of France, sent as a gift to the nation, and responded to the speech of M. Adet, with great feeling

In February, Great Britain returned, approved, the treaty of commerce, as amended by the Senate. The contract was now irrevocably completed, and the President formally proclaimed the treaty the law of the land. The House of Representatives, piqued at the making of this proclamation before the matter had been submitted to them, refused, for the time, to make provision for carrying it into effect, and demanded that the President lay before them the documents and correspondence relating to its negotiation. Washington recognized that this demand was not warranted by the constitution, and was ultra vires. Hence he determined to establish the principle for ail time, and refused to comply with the request, placing himself fairly on constitutional grounds. In the meantime public opinion had changed, meetings were held in various cities and made declarations favorable to the treaty, and, in March, 1796, the House made the appropriation necessary for its effect. During the winter Thomas Pinckney, the excellent minister to England, was recalled at his own request, and Rufus King was named in his stead. Congress adjourned in June, and the official year was over. Soon after the adjournment arose dissatisfaction with the course of Mr. James Monroe, minister to France. France had been offended at the Jay treaty, and demanded an explanation; Monroe had been furnished with ample documentary evidence, and directed to make such explanation, but for some reason he had neglected to use his papers, and America still stood in a false light, and was even menaced with war. Hence, Monroe was recalled, and Charles C. Pinckney, brother of the late minister to St. James, was named in his stead. Later, M. Adet made a formal protest against the attitude of the United States in relation to the struggle of France with England, and it became necessary to the preservation of the good understanding of the nations, that the Secretary of State of the United States should make a full and elaborate answer on the part of his government.

No sooner had Congress adjourned, than the third Presidental election became the subject of discussion. Washington was solicited to again accept

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the office, but both inclination and a sense of duty to his country urged him to a contrary conclusion. In fact, so early as May, he had been in consultation with Hamilton as to the preparation of a farewell address, announcing his retirement. This famous paper was published in September, 1796, and created a profound sensation. Its authorship is a vexed question, but it was probably founded upon the former address, prepared by Madison, and was elaborated and recast by Hamilton, in accordance with suggestions of Washington. Whatever hand guided the pen, it was the President who inspired the wonderful paper which, once and for all, put an end to the clamor of those who made the possibility of a monarchy their pet theme. There is no grander document in history than this simple reimpressment of political lessons, which he had so often taught, followed by the voluntary relinquishment of an office which, in spite of the noisy outcry of a minority, he might, for the asking, have again held by a unanimous electoral vote. The address was received throughout the country with the greatest veneration. It was spread upon the minutes of many state legislatures, and forever checked the howling of the opposition beagles.

On the 5th day of December, Congress convened, and Washington made his farewell address. In concluding, he said: “The situation in which I now stand for the last time, in the midst of the representatives of the people of the United States, naturally recalls the period when the administration of the present form of government commenced. I cannot omit the occasion to congratulate you and my country on the success of the experiment, nor to repeat my fervent supplications to the Supreme Ruler of the universe, and Sovereign Arbiter of nations, that his Providential care may be still extended to the United States; that the virtue and happiness of the people may be preserved, and that the government which they have instituted for the protection of their liberties may be perpetual."

The Senate and House responded to this speech with expressions of the warmest good will and respect. In the former, there was not a dissent. ing vote; in the latter Mr. Giles, of Virginia, opposed the resolutions of regret at the retirement of the President, by reason of his disapproval of the foreign policy of the administration; he said he hoped the President would be happy in retirement, but he hoped he would retire. Twelve members agreed with Mr. Giles.

In February, the votes of the Presidential electors were opened, and John Adams, receiving the highest number, was elected President, while Thomas Jefferson, next in order, became Vice President. Truly an unequal yoking together of Federal and Democratic sentiment! On the 3d of March, Washington addressed a letter to the Secretary of State, making his first denial of the authenticity of the letters published in England and New York in 1777, and attributed to him. These he denounced as forgeries, and requested that his statement be placed and preserved in the archives of the

department. On the same day he gave a dinner to members of his cabinet, the President and Vice-President elect, and their wives, foreign ministers, etc., and on the following day gladly turned his face from the capital as a private citizen.

So ended the second term of the first President. He found the country a chaos; he left it a cosmos. He found it bankrupt and financially dishonored; he left it solvent, owing no man an unliquidated debt, and recog. nized in the money markets of the world. He found it in weakness, with a system having no coherency, and hence no power; he left it united, powerful, respected. He was, indeed, the creator of America. A man more entirely great never wore the robes of office; a man more entirely contented never gave up these robes for the plain vestments of private life.

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CHAPTER XXXI.

WASHINGTON APPOINTED COMMANDER IN CHIEF-HIS DEATH AND BURIAL.

IM

MMEDIATELY after the inauguration of John Adams, Mr. and Mrs.

Washington set out for Mount Vernon, accompanied by Miss Nellie Custis, and George W. Lafayette, with his tutor. Upon the way they were everywhere received with the greatest enthusiasm, though every effort was made to avoid the infliction of formal receptions, escorts, etc. Twenty-two years of public life, during which he had never made a journey without meeting with the acclaims of the people, had made such ovations familiar to Washington, and, while they had not ceased to be gratifying to him for the good will indicated, they had become somewhat burdensome. Finally arriving at Mount Vernon, he found his buildings sadly out of repair, and was met by the necessity of erecting a structure for the safe-keeping of his private and public papers. · His house was at once given into the possession of a small army of painters and carpenters, and, so impatient was he for the completion of the work, that he scarcely retained a habitable room for himself. The life at Mount Vernon has been before described; little need here be added. A letter, written with the playful exuberance of a school-boy upon a vacation, tells how happy he is in his freedom. It is addressed to James McHenry, Secretary of War, and is as follows: "I am indebted to you for several unacknowledged letters; but never mind that; go on as if you had answers. You are at the source of information, and can find many things to relate, while I have nothing to say that could either instruct or amuse a Secretary of War, in Philadelphia. I might tell him that I begin my diurnal course with the sun; that, if my hirelings are not in their places at that time, I send them messages of sorrow, for their indisposition; that, having put these wheels in motion, I examine the state of things further; that, the more they are probed, the deeper I find the wounds which my buildings have sustained by an absence and neglect of eight years; that, by the time I have accomplished these matters, break

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