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this vast territory and be enabled to successfully colonize it, the outlet to the Mississippi would be practically closed to our commerce. The only course to be followed in such case, would be its purchase from France, or an alliance, offensive and defensive, with England. France did secure Louisiana. Bonaparte perfected plans to colonize the territory. President Jefferson instructed Mr. Livingston to purchase the country for two million dollars, if it could be done without compromising our relations with England. Efforts to this end were made, and for a long time repelled, but eventually the first consul found it would be impracticable to hold the country; besides, France would run great danger of losing her West India possessions. Mr. Monroe was dispatched to Paris to assist Mr. Livingston, and fully empowered to make the purchase.. France was on the eve of war with England, and no time was to be lost if she expected to receive any compensation in the transaction. A convention was called and definite treaty arrangements entered into by which Louisiana was ceded to the United States, on the payment of a gross sum amounting to about fifteen million dollars. The United States was to pay certain claims of its citizens against France, for property seized and destroyed on the high seas, amounting in all to some three million seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The ports of Louisiana were to be open to French vessels for a term of twelve years, on paying the same duties as were required of American vessels. The ceded country was to be admitted into the Union as soon as the Constitution permitted. More than one million square miles and a population of ninety thousand souls, including slaves, were thus secured to the United States on the most reasonable terms. The purchase of Louisiana received any. thing but favorable consideration from the federalists, of whom but one member in the Senate voted for the treaty. It was claimed no evidence existed of a treaty of cession from Spain to France, and therefore we had no legal title to the territory. Some claimed its acquisition would prove a curse to us; others that fifteen million dollars was an enormous price to pay, but time proven the purchase to be of great advantage to the country.

Recognizing the importance of thorough and accurate knowledge of the vast extent of country acquired by the United States with their independ. ence, Mr. Jefferson, while minister to France, suggested to Ledyard, the traveler, an exploration of western North America. Nothing came of it, however. In 1792 he made a similar proposition to the American Philosophical society; and Michaux, the celebrated traveler and botanist, proceeded as far as Kentucky, when he was recalled by the French minister. In January, 1803, in a confidential message to Congress, the President recommended an appropriation for this purpose. It was granted, and he appointed Captain Meriwether Lewis, who had been his private secretary nearly two years, to the command of an expedition, with Captain Jonathan Clark, brother of General George Rogers Clark, as his second officer. Their

travels extended to the Pacific ocean on the west, and the Columbia river on the north, and the reports they sent in from time to time gave a more definite idea of our natural resources in this hitherto unexplored region than had ever been known.

It was Mr. Jefferson also, who set on foot the expedition of Lieutenant Zebulon M. Pike, the discoverer of Pike's Peak, and the explorer of the upper waters of the Mississippi.

During the session of the Congress of 1804 a republican caucus was held to nominate candidates for President and Vice President. Aaron Burr, who had served the term with Jefferson, had lost the confidence of the party that elected him, and was not to be thought of for continuance in office. The ticket was formed with Thomas Jefferson for President, and George Clinton for Vice President. The latter had been the revolutionary governor of New York, and stood high with all classes. The federalist party put in nomination Charles C. Pinckney, who had been their nominee for the second place on the ticket at the preceding election, and Rufus King. An amendment to the Constitution had been adopted some time previously, providing that the President and Vice President be separately voted for to prevent the order of office being changed in case of an election by the House being again required. The result was decided in the electoral college, which gave Thomas Jefferson one hundred and sixty-two votes for President, against fourteen cast for Charles C. Pinckney. George Clinton was elected Vice President by a like vote. The federalists had fought with the rage of despair, and as a power in the nation they were henceforth to be almost a nullity. The second inauguration of Mr. Jefferson as President took place March 4, 1805, he being at the time in the sixty-second year of his age. Some changes took place in the cabinet. Mr. Lincoln, the attorney-general, resigned, and was eventually succeeded by John Breckenridge, of Kentucky.

this vast territory and be enabled to successfully colonize it, the outlet to the Mississippi would be practically closed to our commerce. The only course to be followed in such case, would be its purchase from France, or an alliance, offensive and defensive, with England. France did secure Louisiana. Bonaparte perfected plans to colonize the territory. President Jefferson instructed Mr. Livingston to purchase the country for two million dollars, if it could be done without compromising our relations with England. Efforts to this end were made, and for a long time repelled, but eventually the first consul found it would be impracticable to hold the country ; besides, France would run great danger of losing her West India possessions. Mr. Monroe was dispatched to Paris to assist Mr. Livingston, and fully empow. ered to make the purchase. France was on the eve of war with England, and no time was to be lost if she expected to receive any compensation in the transaction. A convention was called and definite treaty arrangements entered into by which Louisiana was ceded to the United States, on the payment of a gross sum amounting to about fifteen million dollars. The United States was to pay certain claims of its citizens against France, for property seized and destroyed on the high seas, amounting in all to some three million seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The ports of Louisiana were to be open to French vessels for a term of twelve years, on paying the same duties as were required of American vessels. The ceded country was to be admitted into the Union as soon as the Constitution permitted. More than one million square miles and a population of ninety thousand souls, including slaves, were thus secured to the United States on the most reasonable terms. The purchase of Louisiana received any . thing but favorable consideration from the federalists, of whom but one member in the Senate voted for the treaty. It was claimed no evidence existed of a treaty of cession from Spain to France, and therefore we had no legal title to the territory. Some claimed its acquisition would prove a curse to us; others that fifteen million dollars was an enormous price to pay, but time proven the purchase to be of great advantage to the country.

Recognizing the importance of thorough and accurate knowledge of the vast extent of country acquired by the United States with their independ. ence, Mr. Jefferson, while minister to France, suggested to Ledyard, the traveler, an exploration of western North America. Nothing came of it, however. In 1792 he made a similar proposition to the American Philosophical society; and Michaux, the celebrated traveler and botanist, proceeded as far as Kentucky, when he was recalled by the French minister. In January, 1803, in a confidential message to Congress, the President recommended an appropriation for this purpose. It was granted, and he appointed Captain Meriwether Lewis, who had been his private secretary nearly two years, to the command of an expedition, with Captain Jonathan Clark, brother of General George Rogers Clark, as his second officer. Their

travels extended to the Pacific ocean on the west, and the Columbia river on the north, and the reports they sent in from time to time gave a more definite idea of our natural resources in this hitherto unexplored region than had ever been known. It was Mr. Jefferson also, who set on foot the expedition of Lieutenant Zebulon M. Pike, the discoverer of Pike's Peak, and the explorer of the upper waters of the Mississippi.

During the session of the Congress of 1804 a republican caucus was held to nominate candidates for President and Vice President. Aaron Burr, who had served the term with Jefferson, had lost the confidence of the party that elected him, and was not to be thought of for continuance in office. The ticket was formed with Thomas Jefferson for President, and George Clinton for Vice President. The latter had been the revolutionary governor of New York, and stood high with all classes. The federalist party put in nomination Charles C. Pinckney, who had been their nominee for the second place on the ticket at the preceding election, and Rufus King. An amendment to the Constitution had been adopted some time previously, providing that the President and Vice President be separately voted for to prevent the order of office being changed in case of an election by the House being again required. The result was decided in the electoral college, which gave Thomas Jefferson one hundred and sixty-two votes for President, against fourteen cast for Charles C. Pinckney. George Clinton was elected Vice President by a like vote. The federalists had fought with the rage of despair, and as a power in the nation they were henceforth to be almost a nullity. The second inauguration of Mr. Jefferson as President took place March 4, 1805, he being at the time in the sixty-second year of his age. Some changes took place in the cabinet. Mr. Lincoln, the attorney-general, resigned, and was eventually succeeded by Jolin Breckenridge, of Kentucky.

CHAPTER VII.

SECOND TERM AS PRESIDENT-BURR'S CONSPIRACY.

MA

ANY important measures were carried into effect during the first year

of Mr. Jefferson's second administration which it is not possible in this connection even to mention. Suffice it to say that the war with Tripoli and Algiers was brought to a successful issue, not, however, without the loss of many brave men. Friendly relations were established with France, and England began to show signs of hostility, which, however, did not culminate until the declaration of war in 1812. By his refusal to appoint John Randolph, of Roanoke, minister to England, an office for which that gentleman's ungovernable temper and lack of self-control particularly unfitted him, Jefferson incurred Randolph's future opposition and undying hatred. The President's recommendation to Congress that two million dollars be appropriated for the purpose, if practicable, of purchasing from Spain the territory of Florida, received its concurrence, and that sum was voted. Miranda, who had schemed in England and France with the intent to invade the Spanish possessions in South America, had failed in his object. but with no interference from the government had enlisted the sympathies of two gentlemen of New York, William J. Smith and Samuel J. Ogden, who fitted out a vessel for the purpose of such expedition, which not proving a success Miranda made another attempt in 1812, was captured and carried to Spain, where he died some four years later. Measures were instituted for the trial of Ogden and Smith for violation of the neutrality laws, but it appearing they had been given the tacit countenance of leading men in the government, the matter was dropped.

In the autumn of 1805 was developed the conspiracy of Aaron Burr to take forcible possession of the territory of Louisiana, and found a western empire. He had lost the confidence of his party, was under indictment in the states of New York and New Jersey for murder in the killing of Alex. ander Hamilton in a duel, and was rendered desperate by failure in the

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