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of age, beautiful in character as she was in personal appearance, surrounded by suitors for her hand and her not inconsiderable fortune. With a cultivated talent for music, her charms were irresistible to Jefferson, and she was no less attracted by the noble manhood of her suitor, coupled with his intellectual attainments. Their marriage took place January 1, 1772, and after the festivities that followed, the young couple set out upon the long and tedious journey to Monticello.
Less than a year after marriage their eldest daughter, Martha, was born, and two years later Jane, who died when eighteen months of age. Then followed four others, of whom Maria only survived. The health of Mrs. Jefferson had been visibly declining previous to the birth of her last child, and caused Mr. Jefferson much anxiety. This it was that prevented his acceptance of a mission to France in the early part of the war of the revolution. Mrs. Jefferson died September 6, 1782, leaving three children, one an infant, to the care of her husband. Mr. Jefferson was prostrated with grief, and it was weeks before he regained his self-control. Two years later, during his absence in Europe, occurred the death of his infant child, Lucy, After the death of his wife he devoted much care and attention to the edu. cation of his daughters, with whom he constantly corresponded during his frequent absences from home. These letters are filled with fatherly solicitude and love, and were written to encourage them in study and improvement. When at home he made them his daily companions, and while entering into their childish joys and sorrows, led them to habits of thought that tended to the development of their mental capacities, and the acquirement of knowledge that proved a source of enjoyment during life.
In the fall of 1780 Mr. Jefferson returned from his mission to France, and was called to President Washington's cabinet. He spent a few weeks at Monticello, and while there had the pleasure to see his eldest daughter, Martha, married to Thomas Mann Randolph, a son of Randolph of Tuckahoe, and a young man of ability, possessed of an exceptionally good education, obtained at the University of Edinburg. He was a man of wealth, fine figure and commanding appearance, and afterward served in the legis. lature and as governor of the state. Maria Jefferson was married on the 13th of October, 1797, to John Wayles Eppes, her second cousin. She became the mother of several children, and died April 17, 1804. Her death was a severe affliction to her father.
In his habits Mr. Jefferson was methodical. He was always an early riser, and seldom, indeed, was any one who called to see him on business obliged to await his coming. In his connection of nearly twenty years as overseer, Captain Edmund Bacon says he but twice saw him idle in his room, and on both these occasions he was suffering from illness. He was a close and indefatigable student. Seldom was he without a book or pen in his hand when in his room. His daughter, Mrs. Randolph, was very
like him. These two would sit for hours, he engaged in reading and study; she at her work. In temper he was quiet and evenly balanced. A careful watch was always kept over himself, and when anything went amiss it was taken as a matter that was unavoidable and not worth worrying over. His domestic relations were particularly pleasant. The early death of his wife, whom he almost idolized, was a great shock to him. On her death-bed she was much disquieted over the .thought that another might take her place who would not be a mother to her children. Mr. Jefferson clasped her hand in his own, and solemnly promised never again to marry. This promise he sacredly kept, though he might at any time have married well.
The home at Shadwell was destroyed by fire February 1, 1770, his small but cherished library being consumed at the time, the servants setting greater value on his fiddle, which was carefully preserved. Although much interested in music, his books were treasures he could ill spare, and no time was lost in replacing them. Some time previously he had begun building at Monticello, and fortunately the house was in condition for occupancy at the time Shadwell was burned.
Monticello, the home of Thomas Jefferson, is situated on the summit of a little mountain, forming part of the southwest range of the Alleghanies, and commands an extensive view of the country, except to the northeast and southwest, this being the direction of the range. Twenty miles distant to the south is seen the Blue ridge, the course being visible many miles to the northeast, until it seems to terminate in the distance. The mountain on which is situated the residence, is in the form of a sugarloaf. A road winds around its side to the summit.
On the very top the forest trees were removed, and ten acres of ground leveled, the remainder being left in its rugged state, except on the south, where a spot was cleared for a kitchen garden. The house is a long building of moderate height, with a Grecian portico in front and an octagonal tower. aration of ground for a garden was attended with much labor. It was arranged in terraces, the rock being blasted for the walls, and then covered with soil. In this garden were grown many and choice varieties of vegetables and fruit. Mr. Jefferson took much pride in his farm and garden. While in Washington, each season he procured plants, cuttings, and seeds from the greenhouse of Mr. Maine, besides receiving many from foreign countries. Professor Tucker, in his Life of Jefferson, says: “The entrance from the portico was into a saloon decorated on either side with horns of elk, moose, and deer, Mexican antiquities, Indian dresses, weapons, and ornaments, together with three or four pieces of statuary. At the farther end of this hall were glass folding doors, which opened into an octagonal drawing-room, and through the windows at the farther or west end was seen a lawn of about two acres, skirted with forest trees, both native and
exotic. It had a neat parquet floor, the work of slaves, and the walls were covered with paintings, a great portion of which were portraits of eminent statesmen and philosophers. To the right were the dining-room and other apartments; to the left a suit of rooms appropriated to his own use. These consisted of a library, bed-room, dressing-room and a small apartment containing a work bench and a large assortment of tools, where he used to seek exercise for his body and recreation for his mind. In his library one saw in every direction philosophical and mathematical instruments, mineralogical specimens and the like, which indicated the varied intellectual tastes and pursuits of the proprietor.
Under the house and terraces were the cisterns, cellar, kitchen, ice houses and rooms for other purposes.
The servants' rooms were on one side. No slave quarters were placed in the rear of the mansion, as was usually the case on such plantations. Everything was arranged with the same system as that employed in his house, and in his political and other pursuits. The surroundings of Monticello were in keeping with the tastes of its master, nothing incongruous or out of place.
HIS VIEWS ON SLAVERY-PECUNIARY TROUBLES-ILLNESS AND DEATH.
N the President's message, on the assembling of Congress, the 1st of
December, 1806, he called attention to the clause in the Constitution relative to the slave trade, which provided that no prohibitory measures should go into effect previous to 1808. He recommended that action be taken looking to the prohibition of the slave trade to American citizens, although the time to elapse before such law could take effect would be two years, and sug. gested that early action would prevent the organization of expeditions for the capture of slaves just prerious to the expiration of the constitutional limitation.
Abstractly, and in its moral effect on the country at large, he believed slavery was an evil.
vil. The system had been forced on the colonies while they were yet weak, and the need of labor was pressing in every branch of industry. The people had become accustomed to the institution, and its abolishment would in great measure curtail the comforts of life. They had come to believe that the same right of ownership existed in human beings as in the lower animals, and they were regarded as so much stock capable of adding to ease and wealth. England had early refused to restrict the slave trade, which had brought fortunes to many of her subjects, and when the colonies had gained their independence, the constitution that was adopted prevented any interference with the traffic until the year 1808. Mr. Jefferson was opposed to slavery on all grounds, and desired its abolition. In his early life, soon after he entered the legislature of Virginia, he introduced a resolution providing for the emancipation of slaves. Most of his associates were owners of human chattels, and were not possessed of his belief in the equal rights of man, and as a natural consequence the resolution was lost. Notwithstanding this, he asserted that the time would yet come when slavery would cease to exist; it might be after many years, and it might be through great convulsions. Gradual emancipation was the
course he thought advisable; emancipation of all persons born in slavery after a certain date. This to be followed by a certain degree of education, which being attained, the freedmen should be colonized, not in this country, but where they would not come into association or conflict with Americans, He believed the two races could never live in peace under the same govern. ment. The island of St. Domingo he thought a suitable place for their colonization, as in that island were many of their own color; this being inexpedient, he favored Liberia in preference to any portion of the South American continent, where they would be brought into closer relationship with us. He was opposed to the agitation of the slave question in other than slave states, believing the people would see the evil of the institution and provide for its ultimate abolition ; that outside agitation was opposed to the spirit and intent of the Constitution. In all things he believed in the sovereignty of individual states, and that to each belonged the regulation of all internal matters. When the ordinance of 1794 was adopted, he caused the insertion of a section prohibiting the holding of slaves in the Northwest Territory, then, or at any time in the future. His reasons for this, given afterward, were that to recognize slaves as property in the territory northwest of the Ohio, would result in an immense increase in the African slave trade, which was not yet prohibited, thus increasing the aggregate number of slaves in the United States.
The Missouri Compromise met his unqualified disapproval. How almost prophetic of the conflict that was to begin between the North and South in 1861, was his letter to William Short, under date April 13, 1820: “But the coincidence of a marked principle, moral and political, with a geographical line, once conceived, I feared would never more be obliterated from the mind; that it would be recurring on every occasion and renewing irritations, until it would kindle such mutual and mortal hatred, as to render separation preferable to eternal discord. I have been among the most sanguine in believing that our union would be of long duration. I now doubt it much, and see the event at no great distance, and the direct consequence on this question; not by the line which has been so confidenty counted on—the laws of nature control this—but by the Potomac, Ohio, Missouri, or more probably the Mississippi upwards to our northern boundary.” It would appear that while he favored the emancipation and expatriation of slaves, even to him the path was not clear; with his close and careful study of the question for years, he was no nearer its solution than in the beginning. It remained for the solid argument of war to determine the equal rights of all men to freedom and impartial justice.
It would seem almost an anomaly that Mr. Jefferson, who had so early in life formed opinions so decidedly against the continuation of slavery, and who in his later life still held to his early principles, did not at his death manumit all slaves held by him. By a codicil to his will he provided