Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση
[blocks in formation]

due to the chief lords.

ACCE'DAS AD CURIAM, in law, a writ lying where the man has received, or fears, false judgment in an inferior court. It is issued by the chancery, and directed to the sheriff.

ACCELERATE, Lat. accelero (of ad and celero, to hasten), to quicken motion; to add to natural progression. In mechanics, accelerated motion is that in which the velocity is continually increasing, from the continued action of the force. Uniformly accelerated motion is that in which the velocity increases equally in equal times; e. g. a new impression being made upon a falling body at every instant, by the continued action of gravity, and the effect of the former still remaining, the velocity continually and uniformly increases. Accelerated motion is the opposite of retarded motion.

about 3' 56" sooner each day. This apparent acceleration is owing to the motion of the earth in its orbit, which is at the rate of 59′ 8′′ a day. Therefore, to find the acceleration we have this proportion -360° 59′ 8′′:: 24h: 3'56" nearly. In physiology and pathology, the term is ap plied to an increased activity of the functions, but particularly of the circulation and respiration.

ACCELERATION, from accelerate (q. v.), the act of increasing velocity; the state of being quickened in motion; the opposite of retardation. The acceleration of the moon is her increase of mean motion from the sun, compared with the diurnal motion of the earth, being about 10" in a hundred years. This arises from the action of the sun upon the moon, combined with the variation of the eccentricity of the earth's orbit. The acceleration of a planet is when the real diurnal motion exceeds the mean diurnal motion; and vice versa, a planet is said to be retarded when the mean diurnal motion exceeds the real diurnal motion. These inequalities of a planet's motions arise from the change in the distance of the planet from the sun. The diurnal acceleration, as applied to the fixed stars, is the time by which they, in one revolution, anticipate the mean diurnal revolution of the sun; that is, a star rises or sets

ACCENDENTES, or ACCE'NSORES, from accendo, to brighten (canus, white). In the Romish church, a lower rank of ministers whose business it is to trim the candles and tapers.-Lat.

ACCE'NDONES, or ACCE'DON E3, from accendo, to kindle. In Roman antiquities, officers in the gladiatorial schools, whose business it was to animate the combatants during the fight.-Lat.

Ac'CENT, Lat. accentus, from ad and cano, to sing. In a general sense, a tone or manner of speaking peculiar to some country, or province, e. g. the Scotch accent, &c. 2. In elocution, a particular force or stress of the voice in pronouncing certain syllables of words, which distinguish them from the others.

Accent is of two kinds, primary and secondary, as in as'pira'tion. In pronouncing this word, we observe that the first and third syllables are distinguished: the third by a full sound, which constitutes the primary accent; the first by a degree of force in the voice which is less than that of the primary accent, but evidently greater than that which falls on the second or fourth syllables. When the full accent falls on a vowel, that vowel has its long sound, as in vocal; but when it falls on an articulation or consonant, the preceding vowel is short, as in hab'it. Accent alone regulates English verse.Webster.

3. A mark or character used in writing, to direct the stress of the voice in pronunciation. We have three kinds of accents; the acute ('), the grave (), and the circumflex (or "). The first shows that the voice is to be raised; the second that it is to be depressed; and the third, that the vowel is to be uttered with an undulating sound, between high and low. 4. In music, a certain modulation or warbling of the sounds, for the purpose of variety of expression. The principal accent falls on the first note in the bar, but the third place in common time requires also an accent.

ACCENTOR, from accent, (q. v.) In the old music, one of the three singers in parts, or the person who sung the predominant part in a trio.

ACCEPTANCE, from accept, (q. v.) 1. The receiving of a bill of exchange in such a way as to bind the acceptor to make pay

The

ment of the same. This must be by express words; and to charge the drawer with costs in case of non-payment the acceptance must be in writing, under, across, or on the back of the bill. Anything tending to show that the party means to make himself liable for the amount of the bill (as the signature of the initials, or making other marks upon the bill, or even keeping the bill longer than usual), is, in law, an acceptance. common mode of acceptance is to write the word "accepted," and subscribe the name.2 In mercantile language, a bill of exchange accepted; e. g. "I took his acceptance in payment."-3. In common law, the tacitly agreeing to some act done by another, which might have been defeated without such acceptance; e. g. a bishop's taking rent reserved on a lease made by his predecessor, is an acceptance of the terms of the lease, and bars him from bringing the writ cui in vita. 4. In the Romish church, the receiving of the pope's constitutions.

ACCEPTER, or ACCEPTOR, in mercantile affairs, the person who accepts a bill of exchange.

e. g. the money in a man's pocket. (2.) Such properties in any subject as are not essential to it, e. g. whiteness to paper. (3.) In opposition to substance, all qualities whatever are called accidents, e. g. sweetness, softness, &c.-2. In grammar, something belonging to a word in composition, but not essential to it, e. g. gender, number, &c.-3. In heraldry, a point or mark not essential to a coat of arms.

ACCEPTILATION, among civilians, the discharging of a debt without receiving payment: compounded of acceptum, something received, and latio, from fero, to take away.

ACCESSION, from access, a coming to. 1. In law, the property acquired in accessories is acquired by the right of accession, e. g. the calf of a cow becomes the property of the owner of the cow. 2. In medicine, the commencement of a disease; applied chiefly to fevers having paroxysms or exacerbations.

ACCESSORY, or ACCESSARY, Lat. accessorius (from accedo, to add to), something that accedes-not principal; aiding in certain acts or effects in a secondary manner; e.g. accessory sounds in music. 1. In law, one who is guilty of a felony, not by committing the offence in person, or as a principal, but by advising or commanding another to commit the crime, or by concealing the offender after the crime is committed. There may be accessories in all felonies, but not in treason.-2. In anatomy, the accessory nerves (par accessorium), a pair of nerves of the neck, which, arising from the spinal marrow in the vertebræ of the neck, enter the cranium of the great foramen of the occipital bone, and then passing out again with the par vagum, are distributed into the muscles of the neck and shoulders.-Accessorius lumbalis, the sacro-lumbalis. -3. In painting and sculpture, those parts of a design which are added merely for ornament.

ACCIDENT, from Lat. accidens, falling (ad and cado, to fall). 1. In logic, (1.) Whatever does not essentially belong to a thing,

4. Per accidens denotes what does not follow from the nature of a thing, but from some accidental qualities of it; it stands opposed to per se, which denotes the nature or essence of a thing; e. g. "fire burns per se, but a piece of iron burns per accidens."

ACCIDENTAL, Lat. accidentalis, happening unexpectedly. In physics, the term is applied to that effect which proceeds from a cause occurring by accident, without being subject to general laws or regular returns. In this sense accidental is opposed to constant; e. g. the sun's variation of altitude is the constant cause of heat in summer and cold in winter; but thunder, wind, rain, snow, &c., are accidental causes.-2. In perspective, that point in the horizontal line where the projections of all lines parallel among themselves meet the perspective plane, is called the accidental point.-3. In opties, those colours which depend upon the affects of the eye, in contradistinction to those which belong to the light itself, are termed accidental colours. 4. In music, the term accidental is applied to such sharps, flats, and naturals, as do not occur in the clef, and which imply some change of key or modulation different from that in which the piece began. ACCIPENSER. See ACIPENSER.

ACCIPITRES, from accipiter, a hawk (from ad and capio, to seize), that order of birds of prey which are distinguished by their hooked beaks and talons. They form two families, the diurnal and the nocturnal : the vulture and hawk are examples of the first, and the owl of the second.

ACCIPITRINA, hawkweed (accipiter, a hawk).

ACCIPITRINE, rapacious; belonging to the order of accipitres.

ACCLAMATION, Lat. acclamatio (from ad and clamo, to cry out), anciently, a formula of words, uttered with vehemence, somewhat resembling a song, sometimes accompanied with applause given by the hands, and usually in approbation of some individual or performance. The acclamations were ecclesiastical, military, nuptial, theatrical, &c.: they were musical and rhythmical. At first, the acclamations of the Roman theatres were confused shouts; but in process of time they assumed a regular form, and were performed by a band instructed for that purpose. When Nero played in the theatre, he had in

с

attendance an acclamation band of 5000 soldiers to chant his praise, which the spectators were obliged to repeat in chorus. Acclamations, at first practised in the theatre, passed to the senate, and at length into the acts of councils and the ordinary assemblies of the church. Sermons were applauded with hands and feet, by leaping up and down, and shout-strings made of German silver.-Crabb.

ACCORDION, from accord, a small musical instrument, the sounds of which are produced by the action of bellows upon

ACCOUCHEMENT, the French word for the act of parturition.

ACCOUCHEUR, the French word for a man-midwife.

ACCOUNT, Fr. conte, or AcсOMPT, Fr. compte, from Lat. computo, to reckon. In a general sense, any arithmetical computation. Account signifies more strictly, in mercantile affairs, a single entry or statement of particular debts and credits: in the plural it is used to denote the books containing such entries. A writ of account, in law, is a writ which the plaintiff brings demanding that the defendant shall render his just account, or show good cause to the contrary. This is also called an action of account. Commissioners of public accounts, are individuals who examine and report the receipts, issues, and expenditure of the public moneys. Chamber of accounts, in the old French polity, was a sovereign court answering to our exchequer.

ing "orthodox," by the waving of handkerchiefs, &c. The acclamation of the Jews was "Hosanna;" of the Greeks, Ayan Tuxn (good luck); of the Romans, Dii te nobis servent (may the Gods preserve you!). In the famous French Convention of 1792, decrees were voted by acclamation.

ACCLIMATIZE (Fr. acclimater), to accustom to the temperature of a foreign climate. ACCLI'VIS, Lat. from clivus, an ascent. In anatomy a muscle of the belly: named from the oblique ascent of its fibres.

ACCOLA'DE, from Lat. ad and collum, the neck. An ancient mode of conferring knighthood, by the king's laying his arm about the young knight's neck, and embracing him.

ACCOLLE'E, in heraldry, 1. The same with accolade. 2. Two things joined together. 3. Animals with collars or crowns about their necks. 4. Batons or swords placed saltierwise behind the shield.

ACCOMMODATION, from accommodate. In a commercial sense, a loan of money. An accommodation bill or note, in the language of bankers, means one drawn for the purpose of borrowing its amount, in contradistinction to a note or bill received in payment of goods. The term is also used of a note lent merely to accommodate the borrower, and of one given instead of a loan of money.

ACCOMPANIMENT, from Lat. ad and compagino, to join (Fr. accompagnement). Something that attends as a circumstance, or is added as ornament to the principal thing, or for symmetry; e.g. in music, the instruments which accompany the voice to make the music more full: in painting, the dogs, guns, &c. of a hunting piece, or the warlike instruments accompanying the portrait of a military character.

ACCOMPLICE, Fr. accomplice, from Lat. ad-complicatus from con and plico, to fold). An associate in crime: generally applied to such as are admitted to give evidence against their fellow-criminals. By the law of Scotland accomplices cannot be prosecuted till the principal offenders are convicted.

ACCORD, Fr. accord, agreement. In painting, the harmony which prevails among the lights and shadows of a pic ture. In law, an agreement between parties in controversy, by which satisfaction for an injury is stipulated, and which, when executed, bars a suit.

Blackstone. In music, the same with concord (G. v.). This work is derived by some from Lat. cor, cordis, the heart. In some of its applications it comes naturally from chorda.

ACCOUNT'ANT, one skilled in accounts; more generally, a person who keeps accounts; a book-keeper in a public office; e. g. an officer in the court of chancery, who receives money, and pays it to the bank, is called accountant-general.

ACCOUPLEMENT, in carpentry, a tie or brace, and sometimes the whole work when framed.

ACCRETION, Lat. accretio, increase (ad and cresco, to grow).-1. Growth by the accession of new parts.-2. The growing together of parts naturally separate; e. g. the fingers or toes. In law, property acquired in something not occupied, by its adhering to or following another thing already occupied; e. g. a legacy left to two persons, and one of them dies before the testator, the legacy devolves to the survivor by right of accretion. Alluvion is another instance of accretion.

ACCROCHE (Anglice, accroach), in heraldry, denotes that one thing is hooked in another. Fr. croc.

ACCRUED, in heraldry, a full blown tree. ACCUMULATION, from cumulus, a heap. A collecting together. In law, the concurrence of several titles to the same. thing, or of several proofs to make out one fact. In universities, the accumulation of degrees means the taking of several of them together, or at shorter intervals than the rules allow.

ACCUSATION, Lat. ad-cusatio (from causa, blame, &c.) In law, a declaration charging

[blocks in formation]

ACEPHALI, from axigahos, headless. In history, a party in the reign of James I. who acknowledged no government, civil

or ecclesiastical.

ACEPHALIA, from axegaλos, without head. In medicine, that variety of partial agenesia which consists in absence or imperfection of the head.

ACEPH'ALA, from a. without, and xgain, head. 1. A class of mollusca, having no apparent head, but merely a mouth, which is always edentated, concealed between the folds of their mantle. This mantle is generally provided with a calcareous bivalve, and sometimes multi-roux, a mouth. valve shell. All the acephala are aquatic: the oyster is an example.-2. An order of insects in some systems of entomology. ACEPH'ALA NU'DA (naked acephala), an order of mollusca, in which the shell of the ordinary acephala is replaced by a cartilaginous substance sometimes so thin as to be as flexible as a membrane. The order consists of two families, the segregata and the aggregata.

ACEPHALOBRACH'IA, from exeλos and Beaxay, that species of agenesia characterised by absence of head and arms. ACEPHALOBRACH'IUS, from axiaλos and Beaxiwy, a fœtus without head or arms.

ACEPHALOCAR'DIA, from axeçaλos and zagdia, the heart. That species of agenesia characterised by absence of head

and heart.

yaarne, that species of agenesia which consists in a defective formation of the head and superior parts of the body.

ACEPH'ALOUS, applied, 1. to animals 2. to a lusus naturæ born without head. which belong to the class acephala (q. v.);

ACEPHALOCAR'DIUS, from axeqaλos and zagdia, a fœtus without head or heart. ACEPHALOCHI'RUS, from axsaλos and Xue, a hand. A foetus born without head

or hands.

ACEPHALOCYST', Lat. acephalocystis, from ακεφαλος and κύστις, a bladder. The headless cyst: the name given by Laennec to the visceral hydatid of Linnæus. ACEPHALOGAS'TER, from axsgaλos and χαστης. the belly. A fœtus, defective of

the head, chest, and superior parts of the belly.

ACEPHALOGASTE RIA, from axeQαλos and

ACEPHALOPHORA, from axıcaλos and giga, a class of mollusca in some systems. ACEPHALOPO'DIA, from axiqaλos and ous, a foot. That species of partial age. nesia in which the head and feet are wanting or defective.

ACEPHALOPODIUS, from axsqaλes and rous, a fœtus born without head or feet. ACEPHALORA'CHIA, from axequλos and axis, the spine. That species of agenesia in which the head and vertebral column are wanting.

ACEPHALOS TOM US, from axıcaλos and An acephalous fœtus, having at its superior part an aperture resembling a mouth.

ACEPHALOTHORA'CIA, from axçaλos and weak, the chest. That species of partial agenesia which consists in the absence of head and chest.

ACEPHALOTHO'RUS, from axeQαλos and Owgag, a fœtus born without head and

chest.

ACEPHALUS, from axsçaλos, headless. An obsolete name of the tænia or tapeworm, which was supposed to have no head. As an adjective, the Lat. form of acephalous, (q. v.) Also a verse defective in the beginning.

ACER, the generic name of the mapletree; class octandria, order monogynia; name, from acer, sharp, sour; Celtic, ac,

on account hardness of the wood,

which was employed in fabricating spears,
pikes, &c. There are 24 species, two of
which are natives of Britain-the syca-
more (A. pseu'do-pla'tanus), and the com-
mon maple (4 campestre). The wood of
sycamore is chiefly used in turnery.

of the liquid amber.
ACER virginianum odoratum, an old name

orchis; a hardy perennial belonging to ACERAS, the generic name of the manBritain: class gynandria, order monandria. There is only one species, the A. anthropophora, which inhabits dry or clayey pastures. Name from a, without, and zegas, a horn; in allusion to the absence of the spur from the lip, which is found in the orchis proper.

A'CERATE, in chemistry, a salt formed with the aceric acid and a base.

Taste combining acidity and astringency ACERB, Lat. acerbus, from acer, sharp. or roughness; e. g. that of an unripe sloe. ACERIC ACID is obtained from juice of the maple tree (acer).

[blocks in formation]

ACESTE, a species of papilio or butterfly, with subdentated wings, found in India. ACES'TIS, a factitious chrysocolla made of Cyprian verdigris, urine, and nitre.

ACETAB'ULUM, Lat. from acetum, vinegar. (Among the Romans the acetabulum was a cruse or saucer in which vinegar was held for table use. 1. In anatomy, a cavity of a bone formed for receiving the head of another bone, and thus named from its cup-like shape. It is used especially for the os innominatum, which receives the head of the thigh bone. 2. In botany, (1.) used in the sense of cotyledon, (q. v.) (2.) The trivial name of a species of peziza, the cup peziza. (3.) A species of lichen."3. The lobes or cotyledons of the placenta in ruminating animals, have been called acetabula.4. The name has been given to the mouths of the uterine veins terminating in the placenta.

66

A'CETARY, Lat. acetaria, from acetum, vinegar. 1. A salad.-2. An acid pulp, found in some fruits, especially the pear, round the core.

A'CETATE, Lat. acetas, any salt formed by the union of acetic acid with a salifiable base, e.g. acetate of potash (called also regenerated tartar, essential salt of wine, &c.) The acetates are all characterised by their solubility in water; by the pungent smell of vinegar which they exhale on the affusion of sulphuric acid; by their yielding, on distillation, pyroacetic spirit.

ACE'TIC, from acer, sour. The acetic acid is vinegar (acetum), in a very dilute and impure state. It is the product of

ACETIFICATION, from acetum, vinegar, and facio, to make. The operation of making vinegar.

ACETIMETER, or ACETOMETER, from acetum, vinegar, and μsrgov, a measure. An instrument to ascertain the strength of vinegar.

A'CETITE, a neutral salt formed by the acetous acid, with a salifiable base, e. g. acetite of copper, &c. See ACETOUS ACID.

ACETONE, the new chemical name of pyroacetic spirit.

ACETO'SA, the trivial name of the herb garden sorrel (rumer acetosa). It is a hardy native perennial. Name from aceto, to be sour.

ACETOSELLA, the trivial name of the herb sheep's sorrel (rumex acetosella). It is a hardy native perennial. Name from acetosa.

ACETOUS, of or pertaining to vinegar (acetum).

ACETOUS ACID, chemists formerly supposed that there was a difference between the acetic and the acetous acids; the salts of the former were therefore called acetates, and those of the latter acetites. The distinction is without foundation; the acids are one and the same.

ACHAN, from axavns, large. In medicine, a species of herpes.

ACHA'NIA, a genus of West Indian shrubs, containing three species. Class monadelphia, order polyandria. Name from axavia (from a priv. and xarvw), as the corolla does not open. ACHARIS'TON, from αχαριστος, able. A name of various antidotes and collyria.

invalu

ACHATES, the agate, so called from the river Achates, in which it was first found. The word agate is a corruption of achate (αχατης).

ACHATINA, a genus of land shells, chiefly found in Africa, where the animals which inhabit them are used as food. They are the largest of land shells, and constitute the first and typical genus of achatina. The subgenera are the achatina (proper), cochlicopa, chacrospira, leucostoma, and achatinella.

ACHATINE, a subtypical group of helicidæ, or snails, representing in their own family the zoophagus tribe. Besides the achatina, which is the first and typical genus, there are other four genera of this group-the bulimus, clausilia, helicina, and cyclostoma.

ACHATINELLA, a subgenus of achatina.

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »