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Boat-chocks. Blocks of wood shaped to receive the bottoms of boats, when

hoisted in.

Bolsters. Rounded blocks of wood filling the angle between the trestle-tree and the mast, to prevent chafing of the rigging against the former. Bolts. Pieces of iron or other metal used in fastening parts of the ship

aperture.

together. Booby-hatch. A small hatchway, or the covering or companion of such an Boom-iron. Iron rings secured to one yard or spar, to support another spar, which passes through the iron. Such are the studding-sail boom-irons on the lower and top-sail yards.

Bowsprit-bed. The part of the stem on which the bowsprit rests. Bread-room. The store-rooms in which are kept the ship's allowance of hardbread, etc. Usually situated in the after orlop.

Break of Forecastle. Where the rise of the forecastle towards the waist of the ship, ends. Commonly used to define the after side of a top-gallant forecastle.

Break of Poop. Where the rise of the poop towards the waist, ends. Com

monly used in speaking of the forward end of the poop.

Breast-hooks. Knees, or an assemblage of timbers, set in the bows of ships and secured on either side to the timbers of the bow.

Bridle-ports. The ship's forward gun-ports. Through these ports are led the

bridles of tow-lines or warps.

Bridge. A light structure extending across the ship above the spar-deck, to

afford the officer of the deck or lookout a place for observation. Bucklers. Shutters used in closing hawse-pipes (hawse-bucklers), or filling the circular opening of half-ports when there is no gun in the port (port

bucklers)

Bulk-heads. Partitions that divide off different parts of the ship.
Bulwarks. The sides of the ship above the upper deck.

Bumpkin. A projection of wood or iron from the bow or quarter, to give

proper angle for the lead of the fore-tack or main-brace.

Cabin. The quarters of the commanding officer of a ship. On the gun-deck of

a ship with flush spar-deck, or under the poop (poop-cabin) of a singledeeked vessel or one having a poop in addition to a covered gun-deck. In the latter case the gun-deck cabin is usually occupied by a flag officer. Cable-tier. Formerly platforms on which the ship's cables were coiled. At present understood to mean light platforms in the wings where spare rigging is stowed.

Cant-frames. Frames, forward and aft, which are not at right angles to the central fore and aft line of the vessel.

Cap. A joint fitted over the heads of masts to support the next higher mast, which passes through a hole in the cap.

Cap-shore. A stout upright which supports the forward edge of the lower cap. Capstan. A barrel of wood or metal that revolves horizontally on a spindle; is used with capstan-bars or moved round by steam to raise heavy weights, weigh anchor, etc.

Carlings (28). Short timbers running fore and aft, connecting the beams. Cat-head. An iron or wooden projection from the ship's bow to raise the anchor clear of the water.

Caulking. Filling the seams of a ship with oakum or cotton.

Cavil. A large wooden cleat used for belaying.

Ceiling. Portions of the inside planking of a ship.

Chains (see Channels). Chain chests. Lockers in the channels for the storage of wash-deck gear.

Chain-lockers. Receptacles for the chain cables of the ship, usually forward

of the main-mast in the main-hold.

Chain-pipes. Iron linings of the holes through which the cables are led in passing from one deck to another.

Chain-plates. Iron plates for securing lower dead-eyes to ship's side.
Channels. Ledges of plank projecting from the side to give additional spread

to the lower shrouds.

Chess-trees. Pieces of timber bolted in the top-sides, with sheaves for fore and main sheets, after guys, etc. Those for the fore and main sheets are known also as fore and main sheet "chocks.”

Cleats. Pieces of wood with projecting arms, used for belaying ropes.
Coaming. A raised boundary to hatchways, to keep water from getting

down, etc.

Cockpit. A space below the after hatchway under the berth-deck; usually the forward end of the after passage.

Compressor. In its simplest form, an iron lever fitted below each chain-pipe. The chain is controlled, when running out, by being jammed between the compressor arm and edge of the chain-pipe. Counter. The rounding of the stern over the run. Cross-trees. Thwartship timbers, supported by the bibbs and trestle trees to Sustain the frame of the top, constitute the lower cross-trees. Top-mast cross-trees resting on the top-mast_trestle-trees, extend the top-gallant shrouds.

Cutwater. The forward part of a ship's bow, forming the forward edge of

the stem.

Dagger-knee. A knee which is inclined diagonally, usually to clear a port.
Davits. Cranes projecting from the ship's side to hoist boats, etc.
Deadeye. Around flattish wooden block encircled by an iron strap and

pierced with holes to receive a laniard by means of which rigging and
stays are set up taut.

Dead-wood. Timber built up on top of the keel to give solid wood for supporting the heels of cant frames.

Decks. The different platforms of ships.

Dispensary. The ship's pharmacy, usually placed on starboard side of berthdeck forward of warrant officers' rooms, may also be in or near sick-bay. Dolphin-striker. A small spar projecting downward from below the bowsprit to extend certain rigging of the head-booms and keep the latter in place. Eye-bolt. A projecting bolt of which the head is fashioned into an eye, used for hooking tackles, etc.

Fid. A bar of iron or wood which passes through a fid-hole in the heel of a mast and rests on the trestle-trees on either side.

Fife-rail. Rails placed around each mast, fitted with belaying-pins to belay ropes. Fish-davit. A movable piece of timber or iron projection, used to raise the

fluke of an anchor and place it on the bill-board.

Fishes. Pieces of wood or iron used in effecting temporary repairs with

injured masts, yards, etc.

Floor-timbers. Timbers of the frames which lie directly across the keel.
Fore and Aft. Lying in the direction of the ship's length.

Forecastle. The upper-deck of a man-of-war forward of the after part of the

fore-channels.

Fore-foot. The forward end of the keel.

Fore-hold.

The forward part of the hold, usually extending from abaft the fore passage to about midway between fore and main masts.

Fore-passage. A passageway below the berth-deck leading to the general store-room and with entrances on either side to various special store rooms, sail-room, etc.

Fore-peak. The narrow part of a vessel's hold close to the bow and under the
lowest deck, often accessible only from the general store room.
Funnel. An iron band at a mast-head around which the rigging fits.
Futtock-plates. Iron plates to which the deadeyes of the topmast rigging

and futtock-shrouds are secured.

Futtocks. Timbers of the frame between the floors and top-timbers. Gammoning. The lashing or iron strap by which the bowsprit is secured to the

stem.

Gangway. The spar deck on each side of the booms between the quarter-deck and forecastle. Also an open space through the bulwarks as a passage. way in and out of the ship.

General Store-room. Is situated below the berth-deck and at the forward end

of the fore-passage.

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Gooseneck. A bent piece of iron used to connect a boom to a mast by entering an eye-bolt or clamp, and capable of movement at the curve. Grating. An open latticed covering for hatches, etc.

Gripe. A piece bolted on forward of the stem, forming the lower end of the

cutwater.

Gun-deck A covered deck of a man-of-war carrying the whole or a portion of her battery. When the guns are carried on the upper-deck, its name as spar-deck remains unchanged.

Gun-room. Obsolete expression for the quarters of the commissioned officers. Gunwale. The covering-piece of the heads of the timbers in a small vessel, or boat.

Half-deck. That part of the gun-deck between the main and mizzen masts on each side. Hammock-nettings. Trough-shaped receptacles along the rail on either side, in which the hammocks are stowed. A net-work of ropes was formerly used for this purpose, hence the term; other nettings will be described, as used.

Hanging-knee. Knee placed vertically under a deck-beam.

Hatch. An opening in a deck, forming a passage from one deck to another,

and into the holds.

Hawse-buckler. A plate used for closing the opening of the hawse-hole. Hawse-holes. Holes in the bows of the ship through which pass the cables. Hawse-pipe. Iron lining of the hawse-holes to take the chafe of the cables. Hawse-plug. Plugs which fill the hawse-pipes to prevent the entrance of water when the cables are unbent. Usually made of canvas and stuffed, then termed "jackasses.' Head-board. Boards placed at the forward and after ends of the hammock

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nettings.

Helm. Strictly, the bar by means of which the rudder is moved from side to side. Usually understood to mean the rudder, tiller, and wheel, or the whole of the steering arrangement.

Hold. The interior part of ship in which the stores or cargo, etc., are stowed. In a man-of-war if there are two holds the forward one is called the forehold and the after one, whatever its position, the main hold.

Horse-block. A small raised platform abreast the mizzen-mast, for the use of
the officer of the deck when the ship is not supplied with a bridge.
Hounds. A projection on a mast for the trestle-trees to rest upon.
Hull. The main body of the ship.

Inboard. In the interior of the ship, as distinguished from outboard.
Keelson. A timber in the interior of the ship bolted on over the keel and

floor timbers.

Knight-heads. Strong uprights on each side of the upper part of the stem to strengthen the bow and support the bowsprit.

Ledges (29). Light beams, parallel to the deck-beams butting on the clamps

and carlings.

Life-rails, Consist of stanchions heeled on the gunwale or planksheer with chain running from stanchion to stanchion. Pipe may be substituted for chain. Light-boxes. Frames in which are set the side-lights of a vessel when under Limbers. Gutters on each side of the keelson to allow the water to pass into the pump-well. Limber-boards, the covering of the limbers. Life-buoy. An apparatus for the assistance of those who may fall overboard. Locker. A drawer or chest that may be closed with a lock.

way.

Shot-locker, a

compartment in the hold for storing shot; chain-locker, a similar compartment for the chain-cables.

Magazine. The store-room for the ship's powder.

Main-hold. That portion of the hold which extends from a short distance for

ward of the main-mast to the break of the orlop-deck. Manger. Part of the deck divided off forward to prevent any water from running aft that may enter through the hawse-holes.

Manger-board. A plank running across the deck a short distance abaft the the hawse-pipes, the after boundary of the manger.

Mast-coat. A canvas-covering fitted around the mast and over the wedges to prevent leakage around the mast.

Naval-pipe. Same as chain-pipe.

Oakum. Old rope picked to pieces, like hemp, used in caulking.

Orlop-deck. Usually a half-deck extending aft from the main-hold, a distance depending greatly upon the shape of the after body.

Outboard. On the outside of the ship, in contradistinction to inboard. Partners. The framing around a mast-hole, to take the direct strain of the mast and mast-wedges.

Pawl. An iron arm on a capstan to keep it from recoiling.

Pin-rail. A railing on each side of the ship abreast of the masts, fitted with belaying pins for securing ropes.

Pay. To pay a seam is to pour hot pitch and tar into it after it has been

caulked.

Poop. A deck raised above the after part of the spar-deck, reaching forward to the mizzen-mast.

Port. An opening cut in the side of the ship through which a gun may be

discharged.

Port. The left side of a ship looking forward, as distinguished from starboard. Pump-well. The part of the bilge upon which the suction of the pump acts Quarter-deck. Usually that part of the spar-deck which extends from the

directly.

stern to the main-mast.

Quarter-gallery. Projections from the quarters of a vessel.

Rake. The inclination of a mast, etc., from a perpendicular direction to the

keel.

Riding-bitts. The bitts around which the ship's cables are taken.
Ring-bolts. Eye-bolts having a ring through the eye of the bolt.
Rudder. The instrument by which a ship is steered.
Run. The narrowing of the after part of the ship.

Sail-room. Storage-room for spare sails, hammocks, and sail-maker's stores. In modern ships usually opens into the after-passage; some vessels have forward sail rooms in fore-passage.

Sampson-knee. A heavy timber forward of the riding-bitts which serves to

strengthen the latter.

Shell-room. Storage room for explosive projectiles.

Shore. A post or timber used as a temporary support.
Sick-bay. The hospital of the ship, usually situated forward on the berth-

deck.

Scuppers. Holes cut through the waterways and side to allow water to run off the decks.

Scuttle. A small circular aperture in a deck not intended for the passage of persons, through which powder, etc., may be passed from one deck to another.

Sheathing. Usually understood to mean a covering of copper, felt, etc., placed over a portion of the ship's surface to protect it. Copper sheathing covers the immersed part of a ship to protect it from marine growth. Spar-deck. The upper deck of a ship-of-war.

Spirketing. The inside planking of a ship extending from the lower edges of

the gun-ports to the waterways.

Spirit-room. A name formerly given to the paymaster's store-room in the afterpart of the after-hold, reserved for stowage of spirits The name applies at present to the paymaster's store-room for dry provisions. Stanchions. Uprights placed under deck-beams to support them in the centre,

also called pillars.

Starboard. The right side of a ship looking forward, as distinguished from

port.

Steerage. The quarters of junior officers and clerks, situated outside the ward-room on either side of the deck, the space between the two steeragerooms being known as the steerage-country.

Stem. The forward boundary of a ship, the continuation of the keel to the height of the deck.

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Steps of Mast. Places into which the lower ends or heels of lower masts are secured or stepped. The fore and main masts are stepped at present in iron steps fitted over the main keelson, with flanges to the sister-keelsons. The mizzen-mast step is a piece of timber secured to the orlop or berth deck beams.

Thwart.
Tiller.

Stern. The after-part of the ship.

Stern-post. The after-boundary of the ship, a continuation of the keel, tenoned
into the latter and secured to it in addition by composition plates.
Sweep-pieces. Ledges of wood hinged to the inner edges of gun-ports to give
additional facility in training the guns.

Taffrail. The rail around a ship's stern.

Tenon. The end of one piece of wood diminished and cut with shoulders to fit in a hole of another piece, called a mortise.

Thole-pin. Pins fitted in the gunwale of a boat, to be used with a rope ring or

grommet as a rowlock.

A cross-piece in a boat, used as a seat by the oarsmen.

A bar of wood or iron which fits into the rudder-head and by which the steering is effected. (See Helm.) Top. A platform at the

eyes of the lower rigging, supported by the trestletrees and cross-trees; the top-mast rigging sets up at each side of the

top.

Top-gallant Forecastle. A deck raised over the forward end of the spar-deck
extending from the bows nearly or quite to the fore-mast.
Top-rim. The forward edge of a top, rounded to prevent chafe.
Transom. A beam extending across the after part of the ship.
Tree-nail. Pin of hard wood used as a fastening in the place of a metallic

bolt.

Trestle-trees. Fore and aft pieces on each side of a mast resting on the hounds to support the rigging, cross-trees, etc.

Truck. A small wooden cap on a flag-staff or mast-head with holes or sheaves
for halliards. A mast-head truck is also fitted to receive the spindle of
the lightning-rod.

Ward-room. The quarters of the commissioned officers of a ship, usually
occupying the after-part of the berth-deck. The rooms on the starboard
side occupied by the line officers, those on the port side by the staff
officers-the intervening space is styled the ward-room country.
Warping-chock. A block of wood, or metal casting, scored to receive a tow-
line. Bridle-ports are fitted with such chocks, which can be removed
when not in use.
Warrant-Officers' Rooms. Usually on the berth-deck, two on each side, for-
ward of the steerage. The boatswain and gunner occupy the starboard,
the carpenter and sail-maker the port rooms.

Waterways. Pieces of timber placed over the tops of the beams and secured

to the beams and ship's side, filling the angle between the beams and the
inside of the frame-timbers.

Wheel. A wheel to the axle of which, called the barrel, are connected the

tiller- or wheel-ropes by which the rudder is moved in steering. Weigh. To weigh anything is to raise it-to weigh anchor.

Whiskers. Small spars projecting on either side of the bowsprit from the bees, extending the jib and flying-jib guys.

Wings of the Hold. That part of the hold or orlop which is nearest to the

side.

Wythe. An iron fixture on the end of a mast or boom, bearing a ring through
which another mast or boom is rigged out. Pronounced with.
Yoke. A cross-piece of timber or metal fitted on the rudder-head when a tiller

cannot be used.

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