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hear are in circulation, but which we are convinced every good, and every rational member of the community must despise.

His

In Mr Whitbread the nation has lost a most indefatigable and faithful labourer in behalf of all its best interests. He was ever ready to afford aid to the oppressed-to combat for principle-to stand in the gap with a strong arm, to throw back power in its aggressions on weakness. death is a great public calamity: it is a serious loss of the moral strength of England: it is a sad and disheartening inroad made on the security of our country-on what has chiefly upheld its glory, and prevented it from internal decay and foreign violence. His removal from Parliament at this time seems an almost irreparable loss.

Few circumstances have occasioned more animated, or more general regret than the death of Mr Whitbread, whose friends were nearly as numerous as his acquaintances, and whose admirers comprised all society. His genius and acquirements qualified him for any situation in the state, and he probably might have obtained the highest from any Administration; but he was alike indifferent to titles and employment. The honour he sought was to promote the liberty and the happiness of the whole human race, without restriction to sect or country, though an ardent mind sometimes incited him to go further than many other estimable persons conceived he ought. A politician, so animated, naturally had many opponents; but, to the credit of the country, as well as of the individual, he has not left an enemy. His motives are fairly appreciated, his exalted genius is admired, and his benevolence, which comprized the universe, is regarded by all.

Mr Whitbread was born in the year 1758, and was the only son of the third daughter of Earl Cornwallis. After having passed through Eton

and Oxford with distinguished credit, he was sent by his father to make the tour of Europe under Mr Coxe, celebrated for his publications on Switzerland and Russia. The advantages of such an opportunity were not lost; and Mr Whitbread then stored his mind with that vast and comprehensive magazine of knowledge which he has since so happily and usefully applied. Entering on the political stage when the drama was supported by the first characters that ever graced the annals of Britain, he was yet distinguished for a firmness of mind, a purity of purpose, a brilliancy of thought, and a comprehensive energy of expression. From his first entrance into public life, he warmly attached himself to the late Mr Fox, and was a zealous supporter of that distinguished statesman. On his death he became the real leader of the party, to whom he dictated his opinions, without implicity adopting their views or supporting their measures, when, as was frequently the case, they were opposed to his own. His life may be said to be before his countrymen: for though they witnessed only his exertions in the Senate, they will be well aware how many of his private hours must have been consumed in informing himself upon every question of general policy, or even private interest, that came before the House: for upon almost all these he was a constant speaker: and however others may have differed from him in their views of the various matters upon which he interested himself, none could charge him with ignorance of his subject, insincerity in the opinions which he adopted, or the want of a manly eloquence and undaunted courage in the enforcement of them. He was the ready advocate of the aggrieved and persecuted of every nation, who thought proper to lay their complaints before the British Parliament-the active investigator of corruption, malversation, and neglect in

all

all our own public offices at home; so that the extent of his utility is to be contemplated, not only with a view to the good which he performed, but to the evil also, which he prevented.

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As an orator, Mr Whitbread's talents were highly estimated. The character of his eloquence was bold, nervous, and decisive; pregnant with idea, it wasted nothing in expression; and disdained the weakness of verbiage, when it bore the strength of argument. It convinced with seriousness-it delighted with raillery-it surprised with comprehensive variety -it illustrated with the happiness of allusion-it moved in strength-it captivated in playfulness. He was thought by many to be more powerful in attack than in defence; but so prompt in his observations, that it will be long before his party will find any one to fill his place.

His private life, however amiable, was merged in the superior importance of his public avocations.He died in his 57th year, leaving Lady Elizabeth, his wife (sister to Earl Grey) with two sons and two daughters, to lament a loss great to society, and to them irreparable. The elder son, nearly of age, will inherit the landed estates, full £20,000 per annum. The eldest daughter was married, a short time since, to the brother of the Earl of Waldegrave. A considerable property in the funds, and the large capital in the extensive brewery, from whence the fortune of the family was derived, are expected to be apportioned as an ample provision for the junior children. Sir George Grey, brother to the Earl, was married to Miss Whitbread.

The two sons of the deceased left town for Scotland a few days before this mournful catastrophe. Lady Elizabeth, with her unmarried daughter, were at home, and instantly became distracted spectators of the afflicting scene.

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A General Meeting of this Society

was held in the Hall of the Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh, on Monday the 7th of July, which was attended by the right honourable the Lord Justice Clerk, Lord Bannatyne, Lord Hermand, honourable Baron Norton, Sir John Sinclair, Sir George Mackenzie, Sir George Stewart, Sir John MacGregor Murray, Sir A. Muir Mackenzie, and Sir A. Macdonald Lockhart, Baronets; Mr Innes of Lochalsh, M. P. General Graham Stirling, Admiral Fraser, and other respectable Members of the Society, to the number of 90. In absence of his Grace the Duke of Buccleugh, president of the Society,

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Norman Lockhart, Esq. writer to the signet

James Macnair, Esq. of Glasgow John Henry, Esq. of Corse William Cochrane, Esq. of Ladyland Alexander Robertson, Esq. of Hallcraig, Colonel honourable East India Company's service John Innes Crawford, Esq. of Bell-, field, Cleghorn-house, Lanarkshire Duncan Shaw, Esq. factor to Clanronald.

The depute-secretary submitted to the Society the proceedings of the Directors, since the general meeting in January last, and the premiums offered by them for the year 1815, per printed advertisements on the table, which had been previously published in the newspapers; besides the usual premiums for improvements in agriculture, meliorating the breed of cattle, &c. in a great variety of districts of the country, it appeared that the Society had called the attention of the proprietors of kelp shores, and others interested, to the means of improving the manufacture of kelp, by premiums for the best constructed kilns for burning that article, and for ascertaining, by chemical analysis, the component parts of kelp and barrilla, with their relative value. In reference to this matter, the Directors had circulated a report and queries, with the view of obtaining information on several points tending to increase the value of kelp, and which it was expected the experience of this season would enable the kelp-makers to furnish.

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Sir John Sinclair stated, that, in the course of last spring, he had visited Flanders, to ascertain the circumstances which enabled the farmers of that country to sell their wheat, and other grains, at a cheaper rate than we could raise them. That though our agriculture was in several respects superior to that of Flanders, yet he was convinced, in the course of his inquiries, that we might derive

several valuable hints from our Flemish brethren-that, in particular, there was reason to hope, by adopting the mode of dressing wheat practised in Flanders, we might escape the mildew-and that by cultivating winter instead of spring barley, the quality of the grain would be greatly improved, and the crop would ripen much earlier. Sir John, at same time, communicated to the Society copies of a late publication by him, entitled, "Hints regarding the agricultural state of the Netherlands, &c." in which certain implements of husbandry used there were also recommended.

The meeting voted the thanks of the Society to Sir John Sinclair, for this new proof of his attention to the interests of agriculture, and named a committee to consider the publication referred to, with power to take such steps as might appear proper for the introduction of any useful Flemish practices among the farmers of Scotland.

Upon considering a report of the standing committee on machinery, the Society, on the motion of Sir A. Muir Mackenzie, voted a premium of twenty guineas to Mr John Ruthven, Printer in Edinburgh, for a printing press invented by him, and exhibited to the meeting. Sir George Mackenzie, and Mr Graham Dalyell, explained the superiority of this printing press over the ordinary press in common use, in the regulation of the power to be applied, the neatness and facility of the operation, and its answering also the purpose of a machine for copying letters. A premium was likewise voted to Mr Alexander Mackid, mill-wright, Thurso, for his turnip cutter upon an improved construction, transmitted to the Society. The meeting named a committee of its members, resident in that part of the country, to examine a reaping-machine invented by Mr Smith, of Deanston works, Perthshire, and af

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ter having seen the machine in operation, to report to the Society.

Mr Tait stated the progress made towards an equalization of weights and measures that during the present session a bill had been introduced into Parliament, by Sir George Clerk, founded on the report of the committee of the House of Commons, of last session, on this subject-that the bill, with amendments, had been printed by order of the House, in order to its being again introduced, in as complete a state as possible, early in the next session, where there was every prospect of its being passed into a law. The Society requested Sir George Clerk to continue his laudable exertions in this business until the object in view should be accomplished.

The meeting voted the thanks of the Society to Henry Mackenzie, Esq. for the active and able assistance afforded by him in the management of the Society's business since its institution, and for his having recently, at the request of the Directors, prepared an introduction to the 4th volume of the Society's transactions about to be published, containing an abstract of its principal proceedings for the last eight years.

Lord Bannatyne stated the progress made in the compilation of a Gaelic dictionary, a particular report of which had been laid before the committee of the Society, upon this and relative objects, by the reverend Dr Macleod of Kilmarnock. His Lordship, at same time, brought in the view of the Society a book recently published by James Grant, Esq. of Corrymonny, upon the history and language of the Gael, when the thanks of the Society were voted to Mr Grant, for this learned and ingenious treatise, which it recommended to the notice of its members.

The meeting voted its thanks to the Society of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, London, for commu

nicating to this Society a complete set of the transactions of that respectable institution.

Mr Alexander Campbell having laid before the Society the plan of a work entitled "Albyn's Anthology," designed to connect the national music, particularly that of the Highlands, with historical events, the Society, after hearing the honourable Baron Norton, Sir A. Muir Mackenzie, and Mr Graham Dalyell, resolved to encourage the work, by voting thirty guineas to Mr Campbell, towards defraying the expences that may be incurred in making the collection.

The meeting was gratified to find that the establishment of parish, or savings-banks, to which the Society had some time ago called the attention of the country, by a published report, had been very generally adopted, and promised the most beneficial results, particularly to the industrious and labouring classes of the community.

Walter Scott, Esq. in an eloquent address to the Society, called its attention to the late glorious battles in Flanders, in which he described the principal features of these memorable achievements--the share which the Scottish and Highland regiments had in them, and suggested the propriety of the Society's marking its sense of the distinguished gallantry and exploits of their countrymen on this occasion. Mr Scott proposed resolu tions upon the subject, which having been seconded by Lord Bannatyne, and impressively spoken to by the Lord Justice Clerk, the preses, other members, the Society unanimously adopted the resolutions, and named a committee to have them carried into effect.

and

All other matters having been referred to the Directors, the thanks of the meeting were voted to the preses, for his conduct in the chair, and his attention to the interests of the Society.

Plan

Plan for a Canal from LEITH, to join the NEW MONKLAND CANAL, published in 1791.

much of the public attention, the following plan, which appeared in the Glasgow papers April 1791, may be read with interest, and may even give useful hints. It is preserved in the Statistical Account of New Monkland. Yours, &c. M.

TO THE EDITOR.

SIR,

AS the junction of Edinburgh and
Glasgow, by a canal, occupies so

Estimate of the Revenue arising from a Small Canal from Leith into Edinburgh, and from thence to Glasgow, by joining the Monkland Canal.

To 100,000 tons of coal from the west country to the city of
Edinburgh, Leith, and the intermediate country, at Is. 6d.
per ton, (the total consumption is about 160,000 tons,)
To 8000 tons of pig-iron from Muirkirk, Clyde, Cleland,
and Cleugh works, at 3s. per ton,

To 6000 tons of grain and meal, at 8s. per ton, which is half
the price now given along the Shotts road for cartage of a
ton,

Lime from West Lothian to the middle ward of Lanarkshire,
for agriculture, and for Cleland and Clyde iron-works, at least
20,000 tons per annum, at 1s. per ton,
Coal to Glasgow, and for exportation from Clyde, 20,000 ton,
at 1s. per ton. The coal sold at Glasgow is 140,000 tons
a-year, and the exportation increasing, as vessels are now
detained there wanting to be loaded with coal,
4000 tons of Lancashire iron-ore yearly, for the Cleland and
Cleugh iron-works, at 1s. per ton from Glasgow,
2000 tons of iron-stone to the iron-works in the west, from the
adjacent mines, at 6d. per ton,

9000 passengers may be supposed to go along the Canal from
Edinburgh to Glasgow, and from Glasgow to Edinburgh,
and to the intermediate country, as 3000 went last year
along the Great Canal; therefore stating their toll to the
Canal at 1s. each, is

The number of tons of goods, wines, &c. from Leith to Edinburgh, and from Edinburgh to Leith, for want of time, cannot yet be ascertained, but is immense, and supposed to be yearly Considerably above 50,000 tons, which might be brought up into the city by a canal for 8d. per ton, which now pays on an average 2s. 6d. per ton land carriage, and 4s. for wines.

Stone for building, and lime from Lord Morton's, at 1s. per ton, the quantity cannot be ascertained till the July 1810.

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1200 0 0

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2400 0 0

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builders make calculations, but would be very considerable.

Iron-stone from Mr Houston of Calderhall's to Carron, at 1s. per ton; but as the iron-stone is of a superior quality, and will be wrought and carried at a cheaper rate than the Carron Company is now supplied, the consumption, in all probability, would turn out very great.

Foreign wood for building, flax, yarn, bar-iron, pitch, tallow, soap, seeds, Scots manufactures from the

east

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