16. A man paid $112 for a horse, $235 for a chaise, and $41 for a harness ; what did he pay for all ? 17. A gardener has 231 apple trees, 124 pear trees, 322 peach trees, and 200 cherry trees; how many trees has he ? 18. Add together 205, 342, 120, and 212. 19. Add together 134, 213, 401, and 141. 20. What is the sum of 1231, 3214, and 4323 ? 21. What is the sum of 5100, 1424, and 2432 ? 7. To add when the amount of any column is ten or more 22. A man bought 4 farms. The first contained 345 acres, the second 244 acres, the third 346 acres, and the fourth 638 acres; how many acres were there in the 4 farms ? OPERATION. 345 We find the sum of the units to be 23, or 244 2 tens and 3 units. We write the 3 units 346 under the column of units, and add the 2 tens 638 to the tens in the next column, making 17 tens, Sum, 1573 or 1 hundred and 7 tens. The 7 tens are writ ten in the place of tens, and the 1 hundred, added to the hundreds in the example, giving 15 hundreds, or 1 thousand and 5 hundreds; and when these figures are written in their respective places, the example is solved. 8. In the same manner add the numbers in the following short columns ; also add across the page, as suggested by the signs. 23. 4236 + 3648 + 7264 + 8324 + 3663 + 2547 27. 2356 + 1427 + 3240 + 5124 + 6312 + 2436 24 31. 4235 + 1063 + 2714 + 3026 + 8124 + 3654 381 298 284 511 27 871 4820 54 2846 61 4102 3714 41. A grain-dealer bought 375 bushels of wheat of A, 564 bushels of B, 2346 bushels of C, and 897 bushels of D; bushels of wheat did he buy? 42. I paid $3464 for a farm, $4875 for a house, $15625 for a mill, and $3875 for 30 shares of the Boston and Maine Railroad stock; how much did I pay for all this property ? 43. How many are 63 + 79 + 144 + 28 ? Ans. 314. 44. How many are 469 +8742 + 92748 + 869 ? how many SUBTRACTION. 9. BY SUBTRACTION we take a less number from a greater number to find their difference. The greater number is called the MINUEND; the less number, the SUBTRAHEND; the difference, the REMAINDER. 10. To subtract when no figure in the subtrahend is larger than the figure over it. Ex. 1. From 748 take 236. OPERATION. Minuend, 748 Subtrahend, 236 Taking 6 from 8 leaves 2, 3 from 4 leaves 1, and 2 from 7 leaves 5; thereRemainder, 512 fore, the remainder is 512. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. From 7658 5703 8287 68295 84695 Take 3427 4301 3144 36241 32442 Ans. 4231 9. 11. From 87426 70827 3547 7643 35784 Take 45105 40326 2136 2431 13251 OPERATION. 12. A farmer bought a farm for $3625, and sold it for $4986 ; how much did he gain ? Ans. $1361. 13. In 1860 the population of Maine was 628276, and that of New Hamsphire was 326072; how many more peo ple were there in Maine than in New Hampshire ? 11. To subtract when any figure in the subtrahend is greater than the figure over it. 14. From 982 take 137. As we cannot take 7 units from 2 units, Min. 982 one of the tens is put with the two units, makSub. 137 ing 12 units; and then 7 units from 12 units Rein. 845 leave 5 units. Now as one of the 8 tens has been put with the 2 units, only 7 tens remain in the minuend, and 3 tens from 7 tens leave 4 tens; and, finally, 1 hundred from 9 hundreds leaves 8 hundreds ; therefore, the entire remainder is 845. 12. In the same manner solve the following examples, taking each lower number from the one over it in each example ; also subtract in the manner indicated by the signs. 6379 3245 8268 7614 8078 5384 15. 2184 1528 3427 2817 2635 - 1748 7683 3846 9463 4879 5009 2743 16. 5947 1072 8270 · 3948 2746 1834 8725 3684 7000 - 4763 5948 3609 17. 6943 2948 3749 3628 4782 2948 5402 3712 8760 18. 2487 9040 8697 4802 824 4837 948 5609 849 6948 3879 5608 3742 5907 3764 19. 4062 2983 4924 936 3298 2643 7829 6420 7869 3942 20. 6308 5380 943 784 3842 984 5709 648 8037 - 4682 9293 6354 21. 8725 3648 5643 3486 8062 4630 4592 2000 6849 6849 5468 8234 6845 7864 5986 3784 2407 3729 2698 23. Washington was born in 1732, and died in 1799 ; at what age did he die ? 24. Methuselah died at the age of 969 years, and Washington at 67; what was the difference of their ages ? { { 22. -S 9999 { 25. A merchant sold goods for $3427, and thereby gained $1224; what did the goods cost bim ? 26. In a certain battle 27345 men were engaged on one side, and 23598 on the other; how many niore were engaged on one side than on the other ? 27. The distance round the earth is about 24856 miles, and the distance through it is about 7912 miles; how much further round it than through it? 28. How many years have passed since the discovery of America in 1492 ? MULTIPLICATION. OPERATION. 13. BY MULTIPLICATION we find how many nnits there are in any number of times a given number. The number to be repeated is called the MULTIPLICAND; the number which shows how many times the multiplicand is to be taken is called the MULTIPLIER; the result of the multiplication is called the PRODUCT. The Multiplicand and Multiplier are called FACTORS. 14. To multiply by a single figure. Ex. 1. In 1 bushel there are 32 quarts ; how many quarts are there in 9 bushels ? Having set the factors as in the marMultiplicand, 32 gin, we say, 9 times 2 units are 18 units Multiplier, 9 1 ten and 8 units ; write the 8 units Product, 288 in units' place, and then say, 9 times 3 tens are 27 tens, which, increased by the 1 ten previously obtained, make 28 tens 2 hundreds and 8 tens, and these, written in the place of hundreds and tens respectively, give the true product, 288qt. 2. 6. Multiplicand, 364 573 7243 436 3405 Multiplier, 3 4 7 Product, 1092 2292 36215 2616 23835 years ? OPERATION. 32 13. If i horse is worth $125, what are 7 horses worth ? 14. In 1 year there are 365 days; how many days are there in 3 years ? 15. If the President of the United States saves $5648 in 1 year, how much, at the same rate, will he save in 4 16. How many yards of cloth are there in 9 bales, each bale containing 625 yards ? 17. Multiply 356 by 7. 21. 3742 x 8 =? 18. Multiply 874 by 3. 22. 6536 x 6=? 19. Multiply 368 by 5. 23. 3042 X-2=? 20 Multiply 759 by 4. 24. 7608 X 9 15. To multiply by two or more-figures. 25. How many quarts are there in 49 bushels ? First multiply by 9, as though 9 Multiplicand, were the only figure in the multiMultiplier, 49 plier; then multiply by 4, and set Partial 288 the first figure of this product under Products, 128 the 4; finally, add the partial prod ucts together, and the sum will be True product, 1568 the true product. 16. In the same manner solve the following examples, multiplying each upper number by the one under it in each example; also multiply in the manner indicated by the signs. 345 x 24 { { 504 X 32 7063 X 25 26. 37 X 56 56 x 45 62 X 74 S 432 X 243 524 X 325 27. 540 X 367 724 X 36 464 X 426 842 X 304 4326 X 28 6304 X 56 28. 3068 X 384 325 X 32 542 X 72 247 x 265 5648 X 59 4008 X 63 5308 X 872 364 X 38 3604 X 75 2046 X 635 3564 X 48 9604 X 49 6350 x 358 30. 2435 X 84 376 X 84 4635 x 496 | 5642 X 67 4768 X 95 3465 X 386 31. 325 X 84 347 x 46 7308 X 947 32. If a steamboat sails 288 miles per day, how far will she sail in 27 days ? 29. |