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Thucydides, are commonly set. In Latin, any two of the following :--Cicero, Phil. i.-vi.; Virgil, Æn. i.-vi.; Tacitus, Annals i.-iv. The history contained in the Greek and Latin authors read is also a distinct subject; and Logic. The exact list can always be obtained more than a year beforehand ; •so that a candidate intending to enter in October might be preparing for the First Year Examination of the following October. And this would be a very wise thing to do, both with a view to getting the work done in time, and also obtaining an Admission Scholarship.
Some suggestions as to useful editions of the authors to be read will be found at the conclusion of the next section.
The Final Examination for Honours in Classics may perhaps be considered to be the most important in the whole University Curriculum. Honours obtained here are substantial; evidence to all the world both of ability and industry.
A comparison of the list of subjects with that for the First Year Examination will show that the two examinations are somewhat similar in character. The chief differences are (1) that the quantity required for the Final is much greater; (2) that whereas poetical authors predominate in the First Year Examination, historians and philosophers predominate in the Final Examination. As in the First Year Examination, there are certain pass subjects; viz., Gospel of S. John and the Acts, Paley's Evidences of Christianity, and Paley's Natural Theology (omitting chapters xix.-xxii.). Among the Honour subjects, the quantity of Aristotle, Æschylus, Sophocles, Herodotus, Thucydides, Livy and Virgil will be found to be considerably increased, while Plato and Butler, and possibly Demosthenes, appear as entirely new subjects. The Greek and Roman History required is proportionately increased; and Logic of a more advanced kind is expected. Greek and Latin Composition of various kinds is also required.
A very brief consideration of the list of subjects will convince anyone that the work cannot satisfactorily be got through in a year; while even a good scholar would find quite sufficient material for two years of study. It is greatly to be regretted that two years are so seldom bestowed upon the work: too often an attempt is made to crowd it into four, or even three terms.
Every man has his own way of working, and it is impossible to give more than a few general principles, which each must apply so far as they seem to suit his own case. But the following hints may possibly be useful.
1. Steady and regular work is imperative. Slackness at one time, to be compensated (it never really is compensated) by working at high pressure at another, is ruinous.
2. Work must be systematic. One Greek and one Latin author should be read simultaneously, and finished, if possible, before another pair is begun. Aristotle should always be on hand, together with a certain amount of history, philosophy, and composition. Read what you like least first every day.
3. Over-work and under-work are alike to be avoided. From seven to nine hours a day is a very good average ; i.e., five or six hours in addition to lectures. When there are no lectures to include, eight hours of reading will be ample; and they should all come between 8 A.M. and midnight. It is a good plan to jot down each day how many hours' work one has done ; for it is possible to drop down to about four hours a day without knowing it. Of course there should be some holidays entirely free from work.
4. The art of taking notes is not an easy one. (1) Never write notes out a second time: they should be taken down once for all in lecture. It may take two hours to write out the notes of an
hour's lecture. (2) Beware of taking too voluminous notes. Some men fill so many note-books that they have not time to read them. (3) Above all, beware of making paper a substitute for brains, and fancying that what is in your note-book is in your head.
5. Dilettante reading is fatal. Keep closely to the list of subjects until the examination is over. Then you can have the delight of devouring what books you please. A library at all like the following may satisfy for two years or more a candidate for Classical Honours. Æschylus.—The whole. Paley.
6s. Cambridge. Aristophanes.-Acharnians. Paley. 48. 6d. Bell. Birds. Green.
28. 6d. Cambridge. Plutus. A. Sidgwick. ls. 6d. Rivington. Aristotle.-Ethics. Rogers.
4s. 6d. Rivington. Grant.
32s. Longmans. (Translation). Williams. 7s. 6d. Longmans. Demosthenes.—De Coronâ. Holmes.
5s. Rivington. Herodotus.—(Translation and notes). Rawlinson. 48s. Murray. Homer.-Odyssey i.---xii. Merry.
4s. 6d. Oxford. Plato.
(Translation). Davies and Vaughan. 4s. 6d. Macmillan. Sophocles.-0. T., 0. C., Ant. Campbell. 16s. Oxford. Ajax. Jebb.
3s. 6d. Rivington. Trachiniae. Campbell and Abbott. 2s. Oxford. Thucydides.-i., ii. Bigg.
6s. Rivington. vi., vii. Frost.
58. Macmillan. Cicero.-Philippics. King.
10s. 6d. Oxford. Horace.—Macleane and Long (abridged) 6s. 6d. Bell. Livy.-i. Seadey.
8s. 6d. Oxford. Tacitus.-Annals. Frost.
15s. Bell. (Translation). Church and Broadribb. 7s.6d. Macmillan. Virgil.-Æn. i.-iv. Shepherd..
5s. 6d. Bell. Æn. v.--xii. Nettleshipand Wagner. 5s. 6d. Bell. The Whole. Kennedy.
10s. 6d. Longmans. History.-Greece. Curtius ; Grote ; Thirlwall.
Rome. Ihne; Merivale ; Mommsen. gic.- Prolegomena Logica. Mansel. 10s. 6d. Hammans.
Of course it is not supposed that a candidate for Classical Honours must procure all these books, or nearly all of them. In many cases he will bring from school editions as good as those mentioned above, or at least sufficiently good for his purpose. A large number of the books here recommended, together with many others that will be very useful, may be borrowed from the University Library, which is open twice a week during term for the use of students, who are allowed to take books away from Durham during the Vacations. This privilege is of the greatest value: a student may thus obtain the use of a large number of works (books of reference, dictionaries, encyclopedias, costly editions, &c.) which it would be almost impossible for him to procure for himself.
The following suggestions to those who desire to obtain
Honours in Mathematics will, we hope, be found useful.
In the first place, as to the time occupied in studying this course, the advice given at page 38 to Classical Students is equally applicable to Mathematical ones. It is not necessary to take more than two years, but it is extremely desirable to do so.
There will be three examinations, (1) at Entrance, (2) at the end of the First Year, and (3) the Final Examination for the Degree.
All students before coming into residence are required to pass in the elementary subjects mentioned at page 32. But it is obviously important that those who aim at Mathematical Honours should have, over and above these, a sound knowledge of the earlier subjects of their course. Depth rather than breadth of knowledge should be sought after. If the foundations be well laid, progress is afterwards steady and uniform. But a student who comes with an uncertain and hazy impression of his work, is in a worse position for real success than he who is absolutely ignorant. The latter will at any rata not have to waste valuable time in getting rid of his faulty and erroneous notions, and in unlearning what he fancied he knew. We therefore suggest that Euclid and the early portions of Algebra and Trigonometry should be mastered ; and, if possible, some knowledge of Geometrical and Analytical Conics should be attained.
As a means of testing this knowledge, it is very desirable that all such students should endeavour to obtain an Entrance Scholarship. Even if they are unsuccessful, they will still have become somewhat experienced as to the style of the examination that awaits them at the end of a year. The Mathematical subjects in which candidates for scholarships are examined are very nearly the same as those appointed for the end of the first year, the chief exception being Newton's Principia, Sections I., II., III.
A list of books suggested for the study of the various subjects will be found at the end of this section. It may happen that the student has used other treatises, which are nearly or quite as good as those contained in this list. And in many instances there will be no need whatever to replace these text books by the corresponding ones in the list. At the same time, some uniformity in the text books in use is decidedly of advantage for the common study of any subject. And those which are suggested in this catalogue will, we think, be found to be most adapted to the wants of our students. It would be well therefore, as far as possible, to make the Mathematical library to include the treatises here specified.
The First Year's Examination should not be delayed beyond the beginning of the fourth term. A scholar may not defer this examination, and any other student cannot wisely do so. A year affords quite sufficient time to master all the