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line of the Illinois Central Railroad, about one mile north of La Salle. This is the first shaft that has yet been sunk in the La Salle coal basin, west of the Little Vermillion. The first, or upper workable bed of coal was reached at the depth of 198 feet. The company is expecting to be able to mine and hoist not less than 100 tons per day, or 30,000 tons a year. There are at present in the La Salle coal basin, about twenty, or even more, shafts open and being opened. The number of men employed in and about these works, is about 300. The amount of coal taken out is about 600 tons per week, of which about 450 tons are sent off by the Illinois Central Railroad, while the remainder is sold at the banks for home consumption. The price for which the coal is delivered at La Salle is four dollars per ton. The price paid for mining is five cents per bushel, and about 27 bushels make up a ton. Where mining is carried on upon leased land, one cent per bushel, or twenty-five cents per ton, is paid to the land owner, as a bank-rent, or “royalty.” . The price of transportation on the railroad, from La Salle to Mendota, is 75 cents per ton; to Amboy, $1; to Dixon, $1 35; to Polo, $1 65; to Forreston, $1 75; to Freeport, $2; to Eleroy, $2 25; to Lena, $2 25; to Warren, $2 75; to Apple River, $3; to Galena, $3; to Dunleith, $3 50. As the land owners, who lease lands to practical miners, receive a “royalty” of twenty five cents per ton, for the coal taken out, the revenues thus obtained, alone yield $4,200 to the acre. The La Salle Basin, being the northern limit of the coal in this State, the market to be supplied must, for centuries to come, continue as great as the supply which can be furnished. Chicago will also af. ford a constant demand. Erie coal sells in that city at $8 per ton; while La Salle coal, adding the cost of transportation, which by canal would not exceed one dollar per ton, can be sold at $5, and even less. The Peru Coal Mining Company has been organized for some time, and intend to commence the work of sinking their shaft immediately. The Chicago and Danville Coal Mining Company. The deposit of the said company is at Danville, in Vermillion County. The Great Western Railroad, which passes through Danville, crosses this field from east to west. They have made arrangements for working these mines extensively, with a view to supply the country along the line

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of the Chicago branch of the Illinois Central Railroad, as well as the Chicago market. - - - .

The Northern Coal Mining and Transportation Company, is the name of a new association, lately formed at La Salle; their coal beds are adjacent to the lands of the La Salle Coal Mining Company; they are about to commence operations by sinking a shaft on the line of the Central Railroad, about half a mile further north. The mines in the vicinity of Morris, in Grundy County, are yielding a large amount of coal. The Kingston Coal Mines are situated in Peoria County, and the lands of that region consist of about 1180 acres. The depth at which the coal lies varies, the surface being very uneven. Its greatest depth is seventy-five feet, while in other places, even where it has been worked, it is no more than ten. It lies 108 feet above the river level.

It is divided into two unequal parts by the intervention of a thin stratum of plastic clay. . ... "

There are also extensive and valuable mines on the line of the Illinois Central Railroad, in the southern part of the State. Those at Du Quoine, and De Soto, are yielding abundance of a good quality.

The valleys of the Sangamon and Spoon Rivers also contain beds

of coal, and it is also found in Schuyler, and several other counties

lying between the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers—that district usually called the “Military Tract.” Salt Springs are found in the southern counties. Several years since they were worked quite extensively, and as some of them yielded largely, they will doubtless again come into use, as soon as it shall be deemed practicable to invest more capital in the enterprise, and when labor becomes less expensive, so as to enable the owners to work them with profit. - - With regard to this branch of industry, the reader may direct his attention to the Saline, Coal, and Manufacturing Company. This company has bought a portion of land, commencing at a point about two miles below the mouth of the Saline, on the Ohio River, (106

miles above the mouth of the latter,) in Gallatin County, Illinois, and

extending two miles along the banks of the Ohio, from the mouth of the Saline. . - - * .

The fact of the existence of salt here, was well known, even whilst

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this spot was yet Indian territory, when millions of bushels were manufactured. When it was ceded to the United States, by a treaty made with the Indians, such portions of the tract as were known to contain a salt deposit, or other minerals, were reserved from sale by the government. However, it was subsequently donated to the State of Illinois. It is supposed that some 15,000 bushels of salt can be obtained, per annum, from these Salines. The company, however, have made the production of iron their principal business. The difficulties in carrying on the salt manufacture are by no means as great here, as in Missouri, on the iron mountains, or on Lake Superior—as in those places the facilities for conveyance are not fully established. The company, with their capital of three millions, have on hand a sufficiency of fuel, and have very excellent landing and shipping places, and considering the continued and constantly increasing demand for iron, they cannot be in want of custom. The annual call for bar iron amounts to 350,000 tons, of which 250,000 are imported. The land in this section is well timbered, and furnishes a first class building material; numerous salt springs water the land. The coal veins cross. ing the land at this place are of an average thickness of 32 feet, and the coal contained in these beds is estimated at about 180 millions of tons, while the quality of coal is said to be as good as any in the whole State of Illinois. In the southern part of Illinois deposits of marble of different colors have been found. They will compare favorably with most of the imported marbles, used for ornamental purposes, and it closely resembles some varieties of Egyptian marble. Several pieces of black marble, remarkable for depth of color, and high polish, have lately come from that region. A light-colored, nearly white marble, from the vicinity of Thebes, appears to be among the best that has been met, for almost every purpose of in and out-door work. A specimen of marble conglomerate from Pike County, is one of the most beautiful ornamental rocks that has ever been met with in the West. It much resembles the “Potomac marble,” used in the pillars of the capital at Washington, and seems to be quite durable. Argentiferous Lead Ore.—There is a quantity of lead now worked by the Linden Mining Company, near Chicago, which is highly argentiferous. Three specimens of the ore, assayed by a competent

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