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S.

S.

£ d.

£ d. 4. Divide 24 16 6 by 36

0 13 91 5. Divide 128

90 by
42

3 1 2 6. Divide 269 12 4 by 56

4 16 3; 7. Divide 248 10 8 by 64

3 17 8 8. Divide 65 14 0 by 72

0 18 3 9. Divide 5. 10 3 by 81

0 1 41 10. Divide 115 100 by 90

1 5 8 11. Divide 136 16 6 by 108

1 5 4 12. Divide 202 13 6 by 121

1 13 6 13. Divide 34 4 O by 144

0 4 9 3. When the divisor is large, and not a composite num her, you may divide by the whole divisor at once, after man ner of long division, as follows, viz.

EXAMPLES.
1. Divide 1281. 13s. 3d. by 47.

£ s. d. £ s. d.
47)128 13 3(2 14 9 quotient.

94

34 pounds remaining. Multiply by 20 and add in the 13s. produces 693 shillings, which divided by 47, gnat

47

[14s. in the quotient.
223
188

35 shillings remaining. Multiply by

12 and add in the 3d. produces 423 pence, which, divided as above

423 [gives 9d. in the quotient. £ d.

d. 2. Divide 113 13 4 by 31

Ans. 3 13 4 3. Divide 85 6 3 by 75

1 2 9 4. Divide 315 3 101 by 365

0 17 31 5. Divide 132 0 8 by 68

1 18 10 6. Divide 740 16 8 by 100

78 7. Divide 888 18 10 by 95

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£ s.

Examples of Weights, Measures, fc. 1. Divide 14 cwt. Iqr. 8 lb. of sugar equally among 8inen,

C.

qr.
8)14 1 8 0

lb. oz.

1 3 4 8 Quotient.

8

14 1 8 0 Proof. 2. Divide 6 T. 11 cwt. 3 qrs. 19 lb. by 4.

Ans. 1 T. 12 cwt. 3 qrs. 25 lb. 12 oz. 3. Divide 14 cwt. 1 qr. 12 lb. by 5.

Ans. 2 cwt. 3 qrs. 13 lb. 9 oz. 9 dr.t. 4. Divide 16 lb. 13 oz. 10 dr. by 6. Ans. 2 lb. 12 oz. 15 dr.

5. Divide 56 lb. 6 oz. 17 pwt. of silver into 9 equal parts.

Ans. ; ib. 3 oz. 8 pwt. 13 grs. + 6. Divide 26 lb. 1 oz. 5-st. by 24.

Ans. I ib. 1 oz. 1 pwt. I gr. 7. Divide 9 hhds. 28 gals. 2 qts. by 12.

Ans. Ohhd. 49 gals. 2 qts. 1 pt. 8. Divide 163 bu, 1 pk. O qts. by 35.

Ans. 4 bu. 3 pks. 2 qts. 9. Divide 17 lea. 1 m. 4 fur. 21 po. by 21.

Ans. 2 m. 4 fur. 1 po. 10. Divide 43 yds. 1 qr. 1 na. by 11.

Ans. 3 yds. 3 qrs. 3 na. 11. Divide 97 E. E. 4 qrs. 1 na. by 5.

Ans. 19 yds. 2 qrs. 3 na.ti 12. Divide 45 gallons of brandy equally among 141 guldiers.

Ans. i gill apiece. 13. Bought a dozen of silver spoons, which together weighed 3 lb. 2 oz. 13 pwt. 12 grs, how much silver did each spoon contain?

Ans. 3 oz. 4 pwt. 11 gr. 14. Bought 17 cwt. 3 qrs. 19 lb. of sugar, and sold out one third of it; how much remains unsold ?

Ans, 11 cut. 3 qrs. 22 lb. 15. From a piece of cloth containing 64 yards 2 na. a tailor was ordered to make 9 soldiers' coats, which took onc third of the whole piece; low many yards did each coat contain ?

Ans. 2 yds, 1 gr. 2 na,

PRACTICAL QUESTIONS. 1. If 9 yards of cloth cost 41. 3s. 7;d. what is that per yard ? £ d.

qr. 7 2

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2. If 11 tons of hay cost 231. Os. 21. what is that per tun?

Ans. £2 ls. 10d. 3. If 12 gallons of brandy cost 41. 15s.6d. what is that per gallon?

Ans. 7s. lld. 2qrs. 4. If 84 lbs. of cheese cost 11. 16s. 9d. what is that per pound?

Ans. 5 d. 5. Bought 48 pairs of stockings for 11l. 2s. how much a pair do they stand me in?

Ans. 4s. 7 d. 6. If a reckoning of 5l. 8s. 10 d. be paid equally among persons, what do they pay apiece ?

Ans. 8s. 4 d. 7. A piece of cloth containing 24 yards, cost 181. 6.s. what did it cost per yard ?

Ans. 15s. 3d 8. If a hogshead of wine cost 331. 12s. what is it a gal. lon?

Ans. 10s. 8d. 9. If 1 cwt. of sugar cost 31. 10s, what is it per pound!

Ans. 7.d. 10. If a man spend 711. 14s. 6d. a ycar, what is tha' per calendar month ?

Ans. £5 19s. 6 d. 11. The Prince of Wales' salary is 150,0001. a year what is that a day?

Ans. £410 19s. .2d. 12. A privateer takes a prize worth 12465 dollars, of which the owner takes one half, the officers one fourth, and the remainder is equally divided among the sailors, who are 125 ir number; how much is each sailor's part? Ans. $24 93 cts.

13. Three merchants A, B, and C, have a ship in com pany. A bath , B , and C ), and they receive for freigh 2281. 16s. 8d. It is required to divide it among the own ers according to their respective shares.

Ans. A's share £143 Os. 5d. B's share £57 4s. 2d ("'s share £28 123. ld.

11. A privateer having taken a prize worth $6850, it i

divided into one hundred shares; of which the captain is to have 11; 2 lieutenants, each 5; 12 midsipmen, each ? ; and the remainder is to be divided equally among the sailors, who are 105 in number.

Ans. Captain's share $753 50 cts. ; lieutenant's, $342 50 cts.; a midshipman's, $137, and a sailor's, $35 88.

REDUCTION, TEACHES bring or change numbers from one name to another, without altering their value.

Reduction is either Descending or Ascending.

Descending, is when great names are brought into small, as pounds into shillings, days into hours, &c.—This is done by Multiplication.

Ascending, is when small names are brought into great, is shillings into pounds, hours into days, &c. This is perormed by Division.

REDUCTION DESCENDING. RULE.—Multiply the highest denomination given by so many of the next less as make one of that greater, and thus continue till you lave brought it down as low as your question requires.

Proof. Change the order of the question, and divide your last voduct by the last multiplier, and so on.

EXAMPLES.
1. In 251. 15s. 9d. 2qrs. how many farthings ?

£
25 15 9 2 Proof.
20

4)24758 Ans. 24759.

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d. qros.

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24758 farthings. Note. In multiplying by 20, I added in the 15s.—by 1% he 9d.-and by 4 the 2qrs. which must always be done in like cases. 2. In 311. 11s. 10d. Iqr. how many farthings ?

Ans. 30329.

3. In 461, 5s. 11d. 3qrs. how many farthings?

Ans. 44441. 4. In 611. 12s. how many shillings, pence, and farthing !

Ans. 1232s. 14784d. 59136grs. 5. In 841. how many shillings and pence?

Ans, 1680s. 201600 6. In 18s. 9d. how many pence and farthings?

Ans. 225d. 900grs. 7. In 3121. 8s. 5d. low many half-pence? Ans. 149962. 8. In 846 dollars, at Os. each, how many farthings?

Ans. 2436 13. 9. In 41 guineas, at 28s. each, how many pence?

Ans. 13776. 10. In 59 pistoles, at 22s. how many shillings, penco and farthings?

Ans. 1298s. 15576d. 62304 qrs. 11. In 37 half-johannes, at 48s. how many shillings, six pences, and three-pences ?

Ans. 1776s. 3552 six-pences, 7104 three-pences. 12. In 121 French crowns, at 6s. 8d. cach, how many pence and farthings?

Ans. 96801. 38720qrs.

REDUCTION ASCENDING. Rule.-Divide the lowest denomination given, by so many of thiu name as make one of the next higher, and so on through all the do nominations, as far as your question requires. Proor. Multiply inversely by the several divisors.

EXAMPLES. 1. In 224765 farthings, how many pence, shillings and pounds?

Farthings in a penny=4)224765
Pence in a shilling =12)56191 1 qr.
Shillings in a pound = 20)468|2 7d.

£234 2s. 7d. Iqr.

Ans. 56191d. 4682s. 2341. Note. The remainder is always of the same name as the dividend. 2. Bring 30329 farthings into pounds.

Ans. £31 11s. 10d. Iqr:

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