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" the English and Gallican church. But, till the APPEND. “ time comes that the state will enter into such as “ work, all the rest is mere speculation. It may " amuse a few contemplative men of learning and “ probity who see the errors of the church, and “ groan under the tyranny of the court of Rome.

It may dispose them secretly to wish well to us,

and think charitably of us; but still they must “ call themselves Catholics, and us Heretics; and, " to all outward appearance, say Mass, and act so " as they have been wont to do. If, under the " shelter of Gallican privileges, they can now and " then serve the state by speaking big in the Sor. bonne, they will do it heartily : but that is all, “ if I am not greatly mistaken.”. .

Soon after this the Archbishop received Du Pin's Commonitorium, or advice, relating to the method of re-uniting the English and Gallican churches; of the contents of which it will not be improper to give here a compendious account, as it was read in the Sorbonne, and was approved of there, and as the concessions it contains, though not sufficient to satisfy a true Protestant, are yet such as one would not expect from a very zealous Papist. Dr Du Pin, after some reflections, in a tedious preface, on the Reformation, and the present state of the church of England, reduces the controversy between the two churches to three heads, viz, Articles of Faith,-- Rules and Ceremonies of Ecclesiastical Discipline,--and Moral Doctrine, or rules of practice; and these he treats, by entering into an examination of the XXXIX articles of the church of England. The first five of these articles he approves. With regard to the Vlth, which affirms that the Scripture contains all things necessary to salvation, he expresses himself thus: " This we will readily grant, provided that you “ do not entirely exclude Tradition, which doth “ not exhibit new articles of faith, but confirms

" and


APPEND. " and illustrates those which are contained in the

“ Sacred Writings, and places about them new
“ guards to defend them against gainsayers (i),”
&c. The doctor thinks that the Apocryphal Books
will not occasion much difficulty. He is, indeed,
of opinion, that “they ought to be deemed Ca-
nonical, as those books concerning which there
“ were doubts for some time;" yet, since they are
not in the first, or Jewish Canon, he will allow them
to be called Deutero-Canonical. He consents to the
Xth article, which relates to Free-will, provided
by the word Power be understood what school di-
vinęs call Potenţia proxima, or a direct and imme-
diate power, since, without a remote power of doing
good works, sin could not be imputed..

With respect to the XIth article, which contains the doctrine of Justification, Dr Du Pin expresses thus the sentiments of his brethren : “ We do “ not deny that it is by faith alone that we are “ justified, but we maintain that faith, charity, " and good works, are necessary to salvation ; " and this is acknowledged in the following i.e. “ the XIIth) article (k)."

Concerning the Xhulth article, the doctor observeș, “ that there will be no dispute, since “ many divines of both communions embrace the “ doctrine contained in that article," (viz. that works done before the grace of Christ are not pleasing to God, and have the nature of sin). He indeed thinks " it very harsh to say, that all those

[7] The original words are : Hoc lubentèr admittimus, modò non excludatur Traditio, quæ Articulos Fidei novos non exhibit, sed confirmat & explicat ea, qua in Sacris Literis habentur ; ac adversus aliter sapientes munit eos novis cautionibus, ita ut non nova dicantur, sed antiqua novè.

[k] Tle original words are : Fide solâ in Christum nos justificari, quod Articulo XImo exponitur, non inficiamur ; sed fide, charitate, et adjunctis bonis operibus, quæ omninò necessaria sunt ad salutem, ut articulo sequenti agnoscitur.

" actions


" actions are sinful which have not the grace of APREND. “ Christ for their source ;" but he considers this we rather as a matter of theological discussion than as a term of fraternal communion (1).

On the XIVth article, relating to the works of Supererogation (undoubtedly one of the most ab. surd and pernicious doctrines of the Romish church), Dr Du Pin obseryes, that “ works of " Supererogation mean only works conducive to " salvation, which are not matter of strict precept, but of counsel only ; that the word, being 6 new, may be rejected, provided it be owned " that the faithful do some such works."

The Doctor makes no objections to the XV, XVI, XVII, and XVIIIth articles.

His observation on the XIXth is, that to the definition of the church, the words, under lawful pastors, ought to be added ; and that though all particular churches, even that of Rome, may err, it is needless to say this in a Confession of Faith.

He consents to the decision of the XXth article, which refuses to the church the power of ordaining any thing that is contrary to the word of God; but he says, it must be taken for granted, that the church will never do this in matters which overturn essential points of faith, or, to use his own words, quæ fidei substantiam evertant.

It is in consequence of this notion that he remarks on the XX Ist article, that general councils, received by the universal church, cannot err; and that, though particular councils may, yet every private man has not a right to reject what he thinks contrary to Scripture.

[1] De Articulo XIIImo nulla lis erit, cum multi theologi in eâdem versentur sententia. Durius videtur id dici, eas omnes actiones que ex gratiâ Christi non fiunt, esse peccata. Nolim tamen de kâc re desceptari, nisi inter theologos.



APPEND. As to the important points of controversy conIII.

t ained in the XXIId article, the Doctor endeavours to mince matters as nicely as he can, to see if he can make the cable pass through the eye of the needle ; and for this purpose observes, that souls must be purged, i. e. purified from all defilement of sin, before they are admitted to celestial bliss; that the church of Rome doth not affirm this to be done by fire; that indulgences are only relaxations or remissions of temporal penalties in this life; that the Roman Catholics do not worship the cross, nor relics, nor images, nor even saints before their images, but only pay them an external respect, which is not of a religious nature; and that even this external demonstration of respect is a matter of indifference, which may be laid aside or retained without harm.

He approves of the XXIIId article ; and does not pretend to dispute about the XXIVth, which ordains the celebration of divine worship in the vulgar tongue. He, indeed, excuses the Latin and Greek churches for preserving their ancient languages; alleges, that great care has been taken that every thing be understood by translations ; but allows, that divine service may be performed in the vulgar tongue, where that is customary.

Under the XXVth article he insists, that the five Romish Sacraments be acknowledged as such, whe. ther instituted immediately by Christ or not.

He approves of the XXVIth and XXVIIth articles; and he proposes expressing that part of the XXVIIIth, that relates to Transubstantiation, (which term he is willing to omit entirely) in the following manner : “ That the Bread and Wine " are really changed into the Body and Blood of “ CHRIST, which last are truly and really recei“ ved by all, though none but the faithful partake - “ of any benefit from them.” This extends also to the XXIXth article.



Concerning the XXXth, he is for mutual tole. APPEND. ration, and would have the receiving the commu- y nion in both kinds held in different, and liberty left to each church to preserve, or change, or dispense, on certain occasions, with its customs.

He is less inclined to concessions on the XXXIst article, and maintains that the Sacrifice of Christ is not only cominemorated, but continued, in the Eucharist, and that every communicant offers him along with the priest.

He is not a warm stickler for the celibacy of the clergy, but consents so far to the XXXIId article, as to allow that priests may marry, where the laws of the church do not prohibit it.

In the XXXIIId and XXXIVth articles, he acquiesces without exception.

He suspends his judgement with respect to the XXXVth, as he never perused the homilies men. tioned therein.

As to the XXXVIth, he would not have the English ordinations pronounced null, though some of them, perhaps, are so; but thinks that, if an union be made, the English clergy ought to be continued in their offices and benefices, either by right or indulgence, sive ex jure, sive ex indula gentiâ Ecclesiæ.

He admits the XXXVIlth, so far as relates to the authority of the civil power; denies all temporal and all immediate spiritual jurisdiction of the Pope ; but alleges, that, by virtue of his primacy, which moderate (he ought to have said immoderate) Church of England men don't deny, he is bound to see that the true faith be maintained; that the canons be observed every where ; and, when any thing is done in violation of either, to provide the remedies prescribed for such disorders by the canon laws, secundum leges canonicas, ut malum resarciatur, procurare. As to the rest, he is of opinion, that every church ought to enjoy its own


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