Εικόνες σελίδας

the negotiation; not that he meant to stop here, APPEND. but that, being thus far agreed, they might the III. more easily go farther, descend to particulars, and render their scheme more perfect by degrees [t].

The violent measures of the court of Rome against that part of the Gallican church which refused to admit the constitution Unigenitus as an ecclesiastical law, made the Archbishop imagine that it would be no difficult matter to bring this opposition to an open rupture, and to engage the persons concerned in it to throw off the Papał yoke, which seemed to be borne with impatience in France. The despotic bull of Clement XI. dated August 28. 1718. and which begins with the words, Pastoralis officii, was a formal act of excommunication, thundered out against all the Anti-constitutionists, as the opposers of the bull Unigenitus were called ; and it exasperated the doctors of the Sorbonne in the highest degree. It is to this that the Archbishop alludes, when he says, in his letter to Mr Beauvoir, dated the 230 of January 1718 [u], " At present he (the Pope) " has put them out of his communion. We have " withdrawn ourselves from his; both are out of o communion with him, and I think it is not ma. «terial on which side the breach lies.” But the wished-for separation from the Court of Rome, notwithstanding all the provocations of its pontif, was still far off. Though, on numberless occa. sions, the French divines shewed very little respect for the papal authority, yet the renouncing it al. together was a step which required deep deliber. ation, and which, however inclined they might be to it, they could not make, if they were not seconded by the state. But from the state they were not likely to have any countenance. The

regent [1] Ibid. id. [w] See the letters subjoined, No X,

[ocr errors]


APPEND. regent of France was governed by the Abbé Du ill. Bois, and the Abbé Du Bois was aspiring eagerly

after a Cardinal's cap. This circumstance (not more unimportant than many secret connexions and trivial views that daily influence the course of public events, the transactions of government, and the fate of nations) was sufficient to stop the Sorbonne and its doctors in the midst of their career; and, in effect, it contributed greatly to stop the correspondence of which I have been now giving an account, and to nip the project of union in the bud. The correspondence between the Archbishop and the two doctors of the Sorbonne had been carried on with a high degree of secrecy. This secrecy was prudent, as neither of the corresponding parties was authorized by the civil powers to negotiate an union between the two churches [y]; and, on Dr Wake's part, it was partly owing to his having nobody that he could trust with what he did. He was satisfied (as he says in a letter to Mr Beauvoir) “ that most of the high-church

bishops and clergy would readily come into such “ a design ; but these (adds his Grace) are not “ men either to be confided in, or made use of, by “ me (a]."

The correspondence, however, was divulged ; and the project of union engrossed the whole con

versation [y] Dr Wake seems to have been sensible of the impropriety of carrying on a negotiation of this nature without the approbation and countenance of government. I have always “ (says he, in his letter to Mr Beauvoir, which the reader will “ find at the end of this Appendix, No XI.) took it for granted, that no step should be taken towards an union, but with “ the knowledge, approbation, and even by the authority of “ civil powers.---All, therefore, that has passed hitherto, stands “ clear of any exception as to the civil magistrate. It is only “ a consultation, in order to find out a way how an union might “ be made, if a fit occasion should hereafter be offered."

[%] See the letters subjoined, No IX.

versation of the city of Paris. Lord Stanhope and APPEND.
Lord Stair were congratulated thereupon by some III.
great personages in the royal palace. The Duke
Regent himself, and Abbé Du Bois, minister of
foreign affairs, and Mr Joli de Fleury, the attorney-
general, gave the line at first, appeared to favour
the correspondence and the project, and let things
run on to certain lengths. But the Jesuits and
Constitutioners sounded the alarm, and overturned
the whole scheme, by spreading a report, that
Cardinal De Noailles, and his friends the Jansen-
ists, were upon the point of making a coalition
with the heretics. Hereupon the regent was in-
timidated, and Du Bois had an opportunity of ap-
pearing a meritorious candidate for a place in the
sacred college. Dr Piers Girardin was sent for to
court, was severely reprimanded by Du Bois, and
strictly charged, upon pain of being sent to the
Bastile, to give up all the letters he had received
from the Archbishop of Canterbury, as also a copy
of all his own. The doctor was forced to obey;
and all the letters were immediately sent to Rome,
“as so many trophies (says a certain author) gain-
6 ed from the enemies of the church [a]." The
Archbishop's letters were greatly admired, as strie
king proofs both of his catholic benevolence and
extensive abilities.

Mr Beauvoir informed the Archbishop, by a letter dated February 8. 1719. N. S. that Dr Du Pin had been summoned, by the Abbé Du Bois, to give an account of what had passed between him and Dr Wake. This step naturally suspend. ed the correspondence, though the archbishop was G4


[a] These trophies were the defeat of the moderate part of the Gallican church, and the ruin of their project to break the papal yoke and unite with the church of England. See above, note [b], p. 67. where the conclusion which the author of the Confessional has drawn from this expression is shown to be groundless.


APPEND.at a loss, at first, whether he should look upon it Ill. as favourable, or detrimental, to the projected uonion [6]. The letters which he wrote to Mr Beau.

voir and Dr Du Pin after this, express the same
sentiments which he discovered through the whole
of this transaction [c]. The letter to Du Pin,
more especially, is full of a pacific and reconciling
spirit ; and expresses the Archbishop's desire of
cultivating fraternal charity with the doctor's, and
his regret at the ill success of their endeavours to-
wards the projected union. Du Pin died before
this letter, which was retarded by some accident,
arrived at Paris [d]. Before the Archbishop had
heard of his death, he wrote to Mr Beauvoir, to
express his concern, that an account was going to
be published of what had passed between the two.
doctors and himself; and his hope, “ that they
“ would keep in generals, as the only way to re-
“ new the good design, if occasion should serve,
"and to prevent themselves trouble from the re-
65 flexions of their enemies," on account (as the
Archbishop undoubtedly means of the conces-
sions they had niade, which, though insufficient to
satisfy true protestants, were adapted to exasper-
ate bigoted papists. The prelate adds, in the con-
clusion of this letter, " I shall be glad to know
“ that your doctors still continue their good opi-
“ nion of us. For, though we need not the ap-
“ probation of men on our own account; yet I
“ cannot but wish it as a means to bring them, if

not to a perfect agreement in all things with us "(which is not presentlyto be expected),yet to such “ an union as may put an end to the odious charges

" against

[b] See his letter to Mr Beauvoir, in the pieces subjoined, No XI. dated February 5. 1718-19, 0. S. that is, February 16. 1919. N. S. ., . [c] See ibid. No XI.- XVIII. . [d] See his letter to Mr Beauvoir, No XV.

** against, and consequential aversion of, us, as he-APPEND. 6 retics and schismatics, and, in truth, make them III. “ cease to be so."

Dr Du Pin (whom the Archbishop very sincerely lamented, as the only man, after Mr Rave. chet, on whom the hopes of a reformation in France seemed to depend) left behind him an account of this famous correspondence. Some time before he died, he shewed it to Mr Beauvoir, and told him, that he intended to communicate it to a very great man (probably the regent). Mr Beauvoir observed to the doctor, that one would be led to imagine, from the manner in which this account was drawn up, that the Archbishop made the first overtures with respect to the correspondence, and was the first who intimated his desire of the union; whereas it was palpably evident that he (Dr Du Pin) had first solicited the one and the other. Du Pin acknowledged this freely and candidly, and promised to rectify it, but was prevented by death.

It does not, however, appear that Du Pin's death put a final stop to the correspondence ; for we learn by a letter from the Archbishop to Mr Beauvoir, dated August 27. 1719. that Dr Piers Girardin frequently wrote to his Grace. But the opportunity was past; the appellants from the hull Unigenitus, or the Anti-constitutionists, were divided; the Court did not smile at all upon the project, because the regent was afraid of the Spanish party and the Jesuits; and therefore the continuation of this correspondence after Du Pin's death was without effect.

Let the reader now, after having perused this historical account, judge of the appearance which Dr Wake makes in this transaction. An impartial reader will certainly draw from this whole correspondence the following conclusions: That Archbishop Wake was invited to this correspond


« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »