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CREATION writer observes, "that none of the ancient philo-1 beings, called angels, we have express intimation sophers had the smallest idea of its being possible in Scripture (see the article ANGEL.) But the to produce a substance out of nothing, or that limits of the creation we must not pretend to do even the power of the Deity himself could work fine. How far the regions of space extend, or without any materials to work upon. Hence how they are filled, we know not. How the some of them, among whom was Aristotle, as- planetary worlds, the sun, and the fixed stars are serted that the world was eternal, both as to its occupied, we do not pretend to have ascertained matter and form. Others, though they believed We are even ignorant how wide a diversity of that the gods had given the world its form, yet forms, what an infinity of living animated beings imagined the materials whereof it is composed to may inhabit our own globe. So confined is our have been eternal. Indeed, the opinions of the knowledge of creation, yet so grand, so awful ancients, who had not the benefit of revelation, that part which our narrow understandings can were on this head so confused and contradictory, i comprehend. that nothing of any consequence can be deduced "Concerning the periods of time at which the from them. · The free-thinkers of our own and Deity executed his several works, it cannot be of former ages have denied the possibility of cre- pretended that mankind have had opportunities ation, as being a contradiction to reason; and of of receiving very particular information. Many consequence have taken the opportunity from have been the conjectures, and curious the fanthence to discredit revelation. On the other hand, cies of learned men, respecting it; but, after all, many defenders of the sacred writings have as we must be indebted to the sacred writings for serted that creation out of nothing, so far from the best information.” Different copies, indeni, being a contradiction to reason, is not only pro- give different dates. The Hebrew copy of the bable, but demonstrably certain. Nay, some have Bible, which we Christians, for good reasons, congone so far as to say, that from the very inspec- sider as the most authentic, dates the creation of tion of the visible system of Nature, we are able the world 3944 years before the Christian erz to infer that it was once in a state of non-exist- The Samaritan Bible, again, fixes the era of the ence." We cannot, however, here enter into the creation 4305 years before the birth of Christ. multiplicity of the arguments on both sides ; it is And the Greek translation, known by the name enough for us to know what God has been pleased of the Septuagint version of the Bible, gives to reveal, both concerning himself and the works 5370 as the number of the years which interof his hands. Men, and other animals that in- vened between these two periods. By comparing habit the earth and the seas; all the immense va- the various dates in the sacred writings, examin rieties of herbs and plants of which the vegetable ing how these have come to disagree, and to be kingdom consists; the globe of the earth; and the diversified in different copies ; endeavouring to expanse of the ocean, these we know to have been reconcile the most authentic profane with sacred produced by his power. Besides the terrestrial chronology, some ingenious men have formed world, which we inhabit, we see many other ma- schemes of chronology plausible, indeed, but not terial bodies disposed around it in the wide extent supported by sufficient authorities, which they of space. The moon, which is in a particular would gladly persuade us to receive in preference manner connected with our earth, and even de to any of those above mentioned. Usher makes pendent upon it; the sun, and the other planets, out from the Hebrew Bible 4004 years as the with their satellites, which like the earth cir- term between the creation and the birth of Christ culate round the sun, and appear to derive from Josephus, according to Dr. Wills and Mr. Whis him light and heat; those bodies which we call ton, makes it 4658 years; and M. Perron, with fixed stars, and consider as illuminating and che- the help of the Septuagint, extends it to 5872 rishing with heat each its peculiar system of pla- years. Usher's system is the most generally renets; and the comets which at certain períods ceived. But though these different systems of surprise us with their appearance, and the na- chronology are so inconsistent, and so slenderly ture of whose connexion with the general system supported, yet the differences among them are of Nature, or with any particular system of so inconsiderable in coinparison with those which planets, we cannot pretend to have fully disco arise before us when we contemplate the chronovered; these are so many more of the Deity's logy of the Chinese, the Chaldeans, and the works, from the contemplation of which we can. Egyptians, and they agree so well with the gene not but conceive the most awful ideas of his cre- ral information of authentic history, and with the ative power.
appearances of nature and of society, that they Matter, however, whatever the varieties of may be considered as nearly fixing the true form under which it is made to appear, the rela- period of the creation of the earth.” Uncertain, tive disposition of its parts, or the motions com- however, as we may be as to the exact time of municated to it, is but an inferior part of the the creation, we may profitably apply ourseles works of creation. We believe ourselves to be to the contemplation of this immense fabric. In animated with a much higher principle than deed, the beautiful and multiform works around brute matter; in viewing the manners and eco- us must strike the mind of every beholder with nomy of the lower animals, we can scarce avoid wonder and admiration, unless he be enveloped acknowledging even them to consist of something in ignorance, and chained down to the earth with more than various molifications of matter and sensuality. These works every way proclaim motion. The other planetary bodies, which seem the wisdom, the power, and the goodness of the to be in circumstances nearly analogous to those Creator. Creation is a book which the nices of our earth, are surely, as well as it, destined for philosopher may study with the deepest attention the habitations of rational, intelligent beings. Unlike the works of art, the more it is examined, The existence of intelligences of an higher or the more it opens to us sources of admiration on der than man, though intinitely below the Deity, its great Author; the more it calls for our inspre appears extremely probable. Of these spiritual |tion, and the more it demands our praise. Here
CRISPITES mery thing is adjusted in the exactest order; all munion of the saints, and the life everlasting, answering the wisest ends, and acting according From all which it may be gathered, that though to the appointed laws of Deity. Here the Chris- this creed may be said to be that of the apostles, tian is led into the most delightful field of con- in regard to the doctrines contained therein, yet lemplation. To him every pebble becomes a it cannot be referred to them as the authors of it. preacher, and every atom a step by which he as- Its great antiquity, however, may be inferred cends to his Creaior. Placed in this beautiful from hence, that the whole form, as it now temple, and looking around on all its various stands in the English liturgy, is to be found in parts, he cannot help joining with the Psalmist in the works of St. Ambrose and Ruffinus ; the saving, “O Lord, how manifold are thy works; former of whom flourished in the third, and the in wisdom hast thou made them all!" See Eter- latter in the fourth century. The primitive NITY of God,
Christians did not publicly recite the creerl, exSee Ray and Blackmore on the Creation ; cept at baptisms, which, unless in cases of necesart. Creation. Enc. Brit.; Derham's Astro and sity, were only at Easter and Whitsuntide. The Physico-theology; Herrey's Meditation ; La constant repeating of it was not introduced into Pluche's Nature Displayed; Sturm's Reflec- the church till the end of the fifth century; about tions on the Works of God.
which time Peter Gnaphius, bishop of Antioch, CREDULITY, the belief of any proposition prescribed the recital of it every time divine serwithout sufficient evidence of its truth. vice was performed. See King's History of the
CREED, a form of words in which the ar- Apostles Creed ; and Barrow's Exposition of it, ticles of faith are comprehended. See Confes in his Works, vol. ii.
CREED, ATHANASIAN, a formulary or The most ancient form of ereeds is that which confession of faith, long supposed to have been goes under the name of the Apostles' Creed (see drawn up by Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, below); besides this, there are several other an- in the fourth century, to justify himself against cient forms and scattered remains of creeds to be the calumnies of his Arian enemies; but it is now met with in the primitive records of the church; generally allowed not to have been his. Dr. Wa. as,-1. The form of apostolical doctrine collected terland 'ascribes it to Hilary, bishop of Arles. by Origen.—2. A fragment of a creed preservel This creed obtained in France about A. D. 850, by Tertullian.-3. A remnant of a creed in the and was received in Spain and Germany about works of Cyprian.4. A creed composed by 180 years later. As to our own country, we have Gregory Thaumaturgris for the use of his own clear proofs of its being sung alternately in our church.-5. The creed of Lucian, the martyr. churches, in the tenth century. It was in common 6. The creed of the apostolical constitutions. use in some parts of Italy in 960, and was receive Besides these scattered remains of the ancient ed at Rome about 1014. As to the Greek and creus, there are extant some perfect forms, as Oriental churches, it has been questioned whether those of Jerusalem, Cesarea, Antioch, &c. they have ever received it, though some writers
CREED, APOSTLES', is a formula or sum- are of a contrary persuasion. The episcopal mary of the Christian faith, drawn up, according churches of America have rejected it. As to the to Ruffinus, by the apostles themselves; who, matter of it, it is given as a summary of the true during their stay at Jerusalem, soon after our orthodox faith. Unhappily, however, it has proved Lord's ascension, agreed upon this creed as a rule a fruitful source of unprofitable controversy. See of faith. Baronius and others conjecture that Dr. Waterland's Critical History of it. they did not compose it till the second year of CREED, NICENE, a formulary of Christian Claudius, a little before their dispersion; but faith; so called, because it is a paraphrase of that there are many reasons which induce us to ques- creed which was made at the first general council tion whether the apostles composed any such of Nice. This latter was drawn up by the second creed. For, 1. Neither St. Luke, nor any other general council of Constantinople, A. D. 3381; writer before the fifth century, make any men- and therefore might be more properly styled the tion of an assembly of the apostles for composing Constantinopolitan creed. The creed was cara creed.--2. The fathers of the first three centu- ried by a majority, and admitted into the church ries, in disputing against the heretics, endeavour as a barrier against Arius and his followers. to prove that the doctrine contained in this creed The three creeds above mentioned are used in was the same which the apostles taught; but the public offices of the church of England, and they never pretend that the apostles composed it. subscription to them is required of all the esta. 3. If the apostles had made this creed, it would have blished clergy. Subscription to these was also been the same in all churches and in all ages; and required of the dissenting teachers by the Toleraall authors would have cited it after the saine man- tion Act; but from which they are now relieved by ner. But the case is quite otherwise. In the se- 19 Geo. III. cond and third ages of the church there were as CRIME, a voluntary breach of any known many creeds as authors; and the same author sets law. Faults result from human weakness, being down the creed after a different manner in seve- transgressions of the rules of duty. Crimes proral places of his works; which is an evidence, ceed from the wickedness of the heart, being acthat there was not, at that time, any creed reput- tions against the rules of nature. Sce Punisie ed to be the apostles'. In the fourth century, MENT and Sin. Ruffinus compares together the three ancient CRISPITES, those who adopt the sentiments ereeds of the churches of Aquileia, Rome, and of Dr. Crisp, a divine of the seventeenth century, the East, which differ very considerably. Be. He was fond, it is said, of expressions which sides, these creeds differed not only in the terms alarm, and paradoxes which astonish; and perand expressions, but even in the articles, some plexed himself much about the divine purposes. o which were omitted in one or other of them; / He did not distinguish as be ought, between such as those of the descent into hell, the com-| God's secret will in his decrees, and his revealed
CROISADE will in his covenant and promises. The root of | Here the pope himself, as well as Peter, hahis error seems to be this:-he viewed the union rangued the people, representing the dismal situabetween Christ and the believer to be of such a tion of their brethren in the East, and the indig. kind as actually to make a Saviour of the sinner, nity offered to the Christian name in allowing the and a sinner of the Saviour. He speaks as if holy city to remain in the hands of the infidels
. God considered the sinner as doing and suffering These speeches were so agreeable to those who what Christ did and suffered ; and Christ as hav- heard them, that the whole multitude suddenly ing committed their sins, and as being actually and violently declared for the war, and solemnly guilty of them. See books under articles Anti-devoted themselves to perform this service, which NOMIANs and NeONOMIANS. Crisp's Sermons, they believed so meritorious in the sight of God. edited by Dr. Gill; Bogue and Bennetl's His But though Italy seemed to have embraced the tory of Dissenters, vol. i. p. 400.
design with ardour, Martin thought it necessary, CROISADE, or Crusade, may be applied to in order to obtain perfect success, to engage the any war undertaken on pretence of defending the greater and more warlike nations in the same cause of religion, but has been chiefly used for the enterprise. Having, therefore, exhorted Peter to expeditions of the Christians against the infidels visit the chief cities and sovereigns of Christenfor the conquest of Palestine.
dom, he summoned another council at Clermont These expeditions commenced A. D. 1096. in Auvergne. The fame of this great and pious The foundation of them was a superstitious vene- design being now universally diffused, procured ration for those places where our Saviour per- the attendance of the greatest prelates, nobles, ana formed his miracles and accomplished the work princes : and when the pope and the hermit reof man's redemption. Jerusalem had been taken newed their pathetic exhortations, the whole as and Palestine conquered by Omar. This proved sembly, as if impelled by immediate inspiration, a considerabie interruption to the pilgrims, who exclaimed with one voice, “It is the will of God!" flocked from all quarters to perform their devo- These words were deemed so much the effect of tions at the holy sepulchre. They had, however, divine impulse, that they were employed as the still been allowed this liberty, on paying a small signal of rendezvous and battle in all future extribute to the Saracen caliphs, who were not much ploits of these adventurers. Men of all ranks now inclined to molest them. But, in 1064, this city flew to arms with the utmost ardour, and a cross changed its masters. The Turks took it from was affixed to their right shoulder by all who enthe Saracens; and being much more fierce and listed in this holy enterprise. At this time Exbarbarous, the pilgrims now found they could no rope was sunk in the most profound ignorance longer perform their devotions with the same and superstition. The ecclesiastics had gained safety. An opinion was about this time also the greatest ascendency over the human mind: prevalent in Europe, which made these pilgrim- and the people, who committed the most horrid ages much more frequent than formerly: it was crimes and disorders, knew of no other expiation imagined that the 1006 years mentionci in Rev. than the observances imposed on them by their xx. were fulfilled; that Christ was soon to make spiritual pastors. But amidst the abject superhis appearance in Palestine to judge the world; stition which now prevailed, the military spirit and consequently that journeys to that country had also universally diffused itself; and, though were in the highest degree meritorious, and even not supported by art or discipiine, was hecone absolutely necessary. The multitudes of pilgrims the general passion of the nations governed by the who now flocked to Palestine, meeting with a very feudal law. All the great lords possessed the rough reception from the Turks, filled all Europe right of peace and war. They were engaged in with complaints against those infidels, who pro- continual hostilities with one another : the open faned the holy city, and derided the sacred mys-country was become a scene of outrage and dis teries of Christianity even in the place where they order : the cities, still mean and poor, were neiwere fulglled. Pope Gregory VII. had formed a ther guarded by walls nor protected by privileges, design of uniting all the princes of Christendom Every man was obliged to depend for safety on against the Mahometans; but his exorbitant en his own force, or his private alliances; and valour croachments upon the civil power of princes had was the only excellence which was held in escreaied him so many enemies, and rendered his teem, or gave one man the pre-eminence abure schemes so suspicious, that he was not able to another. When all the particular superstitions make great progress in bis undertaking. The therefore, were here united in one great object, the work was reserved for a meaner instrument. Pe ardour for private hostilities took the same directer, commonly called the Hermit
, a native of tion; "and all Europe," as the princess Anna Amiens, in Picardy, had made the pilgrimage to Comnena expresses it,' "torn from its foundaJerusalem; and being deeply affected with the tions, seemed ready to precipitate itself in one dangers to wich that act of piety now exposed united body upon Asia." the pilgrims, as well as with the oppression under All ranks of men now deeming the crusades which the castern Christians now laboured, form- the only road to heaven, were impatient to open ed the bold, and, in all appearance, impracticable the way with their swords to the holy city. Na design of leading into Asia, froin the farthest ex- bles, artisans, peasants, even priests, enrolled their tremities of the West, armies sufficient to subdue names; and to decline this service, was branded those potent and warlike nations that now held with the reproach of impiety or cowardice. The the holy land in slavery. He proposed his scheme nobles were moved, by the romantic spirit of the w pope Martin II., who, prudlently resolving not age, to hope for opulent establishments in the to interpose his authority till he saw a probability East, the chief seat of arts and commerce at that of success, summoned at Placentia a council of time. In pursuit of these chinerical project 4000 ecclesiastics, and 30,000 seculars. As no they sold at low prices their ancient casules and ball could be found large enough to contain such inheritances, which had now lost all value in their a multitude the assembly was held in a plain. eyes. The infirm and aged contributed w how
CROISADE erpellition by presents and money, and many of Lusignan, king of Jerusalem, in vain endeavourthem attended it in person; being determined, if ed to take Acre or Ptolemais. During these possible, to breathe their last in sight of that city transactions, Philip Augustus, king of France, where their Saviour died for them. Even women, and Richard I. king of England, joined the cruconcealing their sex under the disquise of armour, sade: by which means the Christian army conattended the camp; and often forgot their duty sisted of 300,000 fighting men; but great disputes still more, by prostituting themselves to the army. happening between the kings of France and The greatest criminals were forward in a service England, the former quitted the holy land, and which they considered as an expiation for all Richard concluded a peace with Saladin. "The crimes; and the most enormous disorders were, fourth crusade was undertaken in 1195, by the during the course of these expeditions, committed emperor Henry VI. after Saladin's death. In by men inured to wickelness, encouraged by this expedition the Christians gained several batexample, and impelled by necessity. The adven- tles against the infidels, took a great many towns, turers were at last so numerous, that their saga- and were in the way of success, when the death cious leaders became apprehensive lest the great of the emperor obliged them to quit the holy land, ness of the armament would be the cause of its own and return into Germany. The fifth crusade was disappointment. For this reason they permitted published by pope Innocent III. in 1198. Those an undisciplined multitude, computed at 300,000 engaged in it made fruitless efforts for the recomen, to go before them under the command of very of the holy land; for, though John de Neule, Peter the hermit, and Gautier or Walter, sur-who con manded the fleet equipped in Flanders, named the Moneyless, from his being a soldier of arrived at Ptolemais a little after Simon of Montfortune. These took the road towards Constan-fort, Renard of Dampierre, and others, yet the tinople through Hungary and Bulgaria ; and plague destroyed many of them, and the rest trusting that heaven, by supernatural assistance, either returnin or engaging in the petty quarrels would supply all their necessities, they made no of the Christian princes, there was nothing done; provision for subsistence in their march. They so that the sultan of Aleppo easily defeated their soon found themselves obliged to obtain by plun- troops in 1201. The sixth crusade began in der what they vainly expected from miracles; 1228; in which the Christians took the town of and the enraged inhabitants of the countries Damietta, but were forced to surrender it again. through which they passed attacked the disorder- | In 12:29, the emperor Frederic made peace with lv multitude, and slaughtered thein without re- the sultan for ten years. About 1240, Richard, sistance. The more disciplined armies followed earl of Cornwall, brother to Henry I/I, king of after; and, passing the straits of Constantinople, England, arrived at Palestine, at the head of the were mustered in ihe plains of Asia, and amount- English crusade; but finding it most advantageel in the whole to 700,000 men. The princes ous to conclude a peace, he re-imbarked, and engaged in this first crusule were, Hugo, count steered towards Italy. In 1244, the Karasmians of Vermandois, brother to Philip I. king of being driven out of Turkey by the Tartars, broke France; Robert, duke of Normandy; Robert, into Palestine, and gave the Christians a general earl of Flanders; Raimond, earl of Toulouse defeat near Gaza. The seventh crusade was and St. Giles; the celebrated Godfrey of Bouil- headed, in 1249, by St. Lewis, who took the lon, duke of Lorrain, with bis brothers Baldwin town of Damietta ; but a sickness happening in an: Eustace; Stephen, earl of Chartres and the Christian army, the king endeavoured a reBlois; Hugo, count of St. Paul; with many other treat; in which, being pursued by the intidels, bons. The general rendezvous was at ('onstan- most of his army were miserably butchered, and tinople. In this expedition, Godfrey besieged | bimself and the nobility taken prisoners. A and took the city of Vice. Jerusalem was taken truce was agreed upon for ten years, and the by the conf-derated army, and Godfrey chosen king and lords set at liberty. The eighth cruking. The Christians gained the famous battle sade, in 127., was headed by the same prince, of A.«calon against the sultan of Egypt, which who made himself master of the port and castle put an end to the first crusade, but not to the of Carthage in Africa ; but dying a short time spirit of crusuling. The rage continued for near after, he left his army in a very ill condition. tivo centuries. The second crusade, in 1114, Soon after, the king of Sicily coming up with a was headed by the emperor Conrad III, and good fleet, and joining Philip the Bold, son and Louis VII. king of France. The emperor's army successor of Lewis, the king of Tunis, after sewas either destroyed by the enemy, or perished veral engagements with the Christians, in which through the treachery of Manuel, the Greek em- he was always worsted, desired peace, which was peror; and the second army, through the unfaith. granted upon conditions advantageous to the fulness of the Christians of Syria, was forced to Christians; after which both princes embarked break up the siege of Damascus. The third to their own kingiloms. Prince Edward, of crusale, 1183, immediately followed the taking England, who arrived at Tunis at the time of of Jerusalem by Saladin, the sultan of Egypt. this treaty, sailed towards Ptolemais, where he The princes engaged in this expedition were, the landed a small body of 300 English and French, emperor Frederic Barbarossa ; I'rederic, duke of and hindered Bendochar from laying siege to Suabia, his second son ; Leopold, dluke of Aus- Ptolemais; but being obliged to return to take tria; Berthold, duke of Moravia ; Herman, mar. possession of the crown of England, this crusade quess of Baden ; the counts of Nassau, Thurin- ended without contributing any thing to the regia, Missen, and Holland ; and above sixty other covery of the holy land. In 1291, the town of princes of the empire; with the bishops of Be- Acre or Ptolemais was taken and plundered by sançon, Cambray, Munster, Osnaburg, Missen, the sultan of Egypt, and the Christians quite Pastau, Visburg, and several others. In this ex driven out of Syria. There has been no crusado pedition the emperor Frederic defeated the sultan since that period, though several popes have atof lanjum: his son Frederic, joined by Guy tempted to stir up the Christians to such an uns
CROISADES dertaking; particularly Nicholas IV. in 1292, now burst into tears. If the absurdity and wickand Clement V. in 1311.
edness of their conduct can be exceled by any Though these crusades were effects of the thing, it must be what follows. In 1:301, the most absurd superstition, they tended greatly to frenzy of crusading seized the children, who are promote the good of Europe. Multitudes, inderd, ever ready to imitate what they see their parents were destroyed. M. Voltaire computes the peo- engaged in. Their childish folly was encourple who perished in the different expeditions at aged by the inonks and schoolmasters; and theuupwards of two millions. Many there were, sands of those innocents were conducted fron however, who returned ; and these having con- the houses of their parents on the superstitious versed so long with people who lived in a much interpretation of these words : “Out of the more magnificent way than themselves, began to mouths babes and sucklir.gs hast thou pere entertain some taste for a refined and polished fected praise." Their base conductors sol a way of life.
Thus the barbarism in which part of them to the Turks, and the rest perished Europe had been so long immersed began to miserably. Hume's Hist. of England, vol. i. P: wear off soon after. The princes also who re- 292, &c. and vol. ii. p. 200; Enc. Brit.; and mained at home, found means to avail themselves Josheim's Ecc. Hist. of the frenzy of the people. By the absence of CROISIERS, a religious order, feunded in such numbers of restless and martial adventurers, honour of the invention or discovery of the cross peace was established in their doininiors. They by the enpress Helena. They were, till of late, also tvok the opportunity of annexing to their dispersed in several parts of Europe, particularly crowns many considerable fiefs, either by pur- in the Low Countries, France and Bohemia; chase, or the extinction of the heirs; and ihus those of Italy were suppressed even before the the mischiefs which must always attend feudal late revolutions. These religious follow the rule governments were considerably lesse ned. With of St. Augustine. They had in England the regard to the bad success of the crusaders, it was name of Crouched Friars. scarcely possible that any other thing could hap CROSIER, or Crozier, a shepherd's crook; pen to them. The emperors of Constantinople, a symbol of pastoral authority, consisting of a instead of assisting, did all in their power to dis- gold or silver staff, crooked at the top, carried concert their schemes: they were jealous, and not occasionally before bishops and abbots, and held in without reason, of such an inundation of barba- the band when they give the solemn benedictions, rians. . Yet, had they considered their true iri CROSS, in Scripture language, means the Lirests, they would rather have assisted them, or sufferings of Christ, Gal. vi. 14. The sufferings at least stood neuter, than enter into alliances trials
, or persecutions of the people are also called with the Turks. They followed the latter me- a cross, Matt. xvi. 24. Cross signifies also a thod, however, and were often of very great dis- gibbet, made with two pieces of wood, placed service to the western adventurers, which at last crosswise, whether they cross with right angles occasioned the loss of their city. But the worst at the top like a T, or in the middle of their enemies the crusaders had were their own inter- length like an X. The cross on which our Sanal feuds and dissentions. They neither could viour was fastened, and on which he died, was agree while marching together in arınies with a of the former kind; being thus represented by view to conquest, nor could they unite their con- old monuments, coins, and crosses. The death quests under one government after they had made of the cross was the most dreadful of all others, them. They set up three small states, one at both for the shame and pain of it; ard so scanJerusalem, another at Antioch, and another at dalous, that it was intiicted as the last mark of Edessa. These states, instead of assisting, made detestation upon the vilest of people. It was the war upon each other, and on the Greek emperors; punislıment of robbers and murderers, provided and thus became an easy prey to the common that they were slaves too; but otherwise, if they enemy. The horrid cruelties they committed, too, were free, and had the privilege of the city of must have inspired the Turks with the most in- Rome, this was then thought a prostitution of that vincible hatred against them, and made them honour, and too infamous a punishment for such resist with the greatest obstinacy. They were a one, let his criines be what they would. The such as could have been committed only by bar- form of a cross being such as has been already barians inflamed with the inost bigoted enthu- described, the body of the criminal was fastened siasm. When Jerusalem was taken, not only the to the upright piece by nailing the feet to it, and numerous garrison were put to the sword, but on the other transverse piece generally by nailthe inhabitants were massacred without mercy ing the hands on each side. Now, because these and without distinction. No age or sex was parts of the body, being the instruments of action spared, not even sucking children. According and motion, are provided by nature with a much to Voltaire, some Christians whu had been suffer-greater quantity of nerves than others have occaed by the Turks to live in that city, led the con- sion for; and because all sensation is performed querors into the most private caves, where wo- by the spirit contained in the nerves; it will folmen bad concealed themselves with their children, low, as Stanhope observes, that wherever they and not one of them was suffered to escape. abound, the sense of pain must needs in proporWhat eminently shows the enthusiasm by which tion be more quick and tender. The Jews conthese conquerors were aniinated, is, their beha- fess, indeed, that they crucified people in their viour after this terrible slaughter. They marched nation, but deny that they inflicted this punishover heaps of dead bodies towards the holy se- ment upon any one alive. They first put there pulchre; and while their hands were polluted to death, and then fastened them to the croes, with the blood of so many innocent persons, sung either by the hands or neck. But there are inanthems to the common Saviour of mankind ? disputable proofs of their crucifying men fre Nay, so far did their religious enthusiasm over- quently alive. The worshippers of Baal-peor come their fury, that these ferocious conquerors and the King of Ai were hung up alive; as were