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ANATHEMA and related a number of visions and revelations, the mind, not only to the knowledge of divine with which they pretended to have been favoured things, but of divine things in the next life. The from above: but, when they found that this word is seldom used, but with regard to the difwould not avail

, and that the ministry of Luther ferent senses of the Scripture. The anagogical and other reformers was detrimental to their sense is when the sacred text is explained with cause, they then madly attempted to propagate regard to eternal life, the point which Christians their sentiments by force of arms. Munzer and should have in view; for example, the rest of the his associates, in the year 1525, put themselves at sabbath, in the anagogical sense, signifies the rethe head of a numerous army, and declared war pose of everlasting happiness. against all laws, governments, and magistrates of ANALOGY OF FAITH, is the proportion every kind, under the chimerical pretext, that that the doctrines of the Gospel bear to each other, Christ himself was now to take the reins of all or the close connection between the truths of regovernment into his hands : but this seditious vealed religion, Rom. xü. 6. This is considered as crowd was routed and dispersed by the elector of a grand rule for understandizg the true sense of Saxony and other princes, and Munzer, their Scripture. It is evident that the Almighty doth leader, put to death.

not act without a design in the system of Chris. Many of his followers, however, survived, and tianity, any more than he does in the works of propagated their opinions through Germany, nature. Now this design must be uniform; for Switzerland, and Holland. In 1533, a party of as in the system of the universe every part is prothem settled at Munster, under two leaders of the portioned to the whole, and made subservient to names of Matthias and Bockholdt. Having it, so in the system of the Gospel all the various made themselves masters of the city, they deposed truths, doctrines, declarations, precepts, and prothe magistrates, confiscated the estates of such as mises, must correspond with and tend to the end had escaped, and deposited the wealth in a public designed. For instance, supposing the glory of treasury for common use. They made prepara- God in the salvation of man by free grace be the tions for the defence of the city; invited the grand design; then, whatever doctrine, assertion Anabaptists in the Low Countries to assemble at or hypothesis, agree not with this, is to be con. Munster, which they called Mount Sion, that sidered as false. --Great care, however, must be from thence they might reduce all the nations of taken, in making use of this method, that the inte the earth under their dominion. Matthias was quirer previously understand the whole scheme soon cut off by the bishop of Munster's army, and and that he harbour not a predilection only for a was succeeded by Bockholdt, who was proclaimed part; without attention to this, we shall be liable ly a special designation of heaven, as the pretended to error. If we come to the Scriptures with any king of Sion, and invested with legislative powers preconceived opinions, and are more desirous to like those of Moses. The city of Munster, how- put that sense upon the text which quadrates ever, was taken, after a long siege, and Bockholdt with our sentiments, rather than the truth, it bepunished with death.

comes then the analogy of our faith, rather than It must be acknowledged that the true rise of that of the whole system. This was the source the insurrections of this period ought not to be of the error of the Jews, in our Saviour's time. attributed to religious opinions. The first insur- They searched the Scriptures; but, such were gents groaned under severe oppressions, and took their favourite opinions, that they could not, or up arms in defence of their civil liberties; and of would not, discover that the sacred volume testithese commotions the Anabaptists seem rather to fied of Christ. And the reason was evident ; for have availed themselves, than to have been the their great rule of interpretation was, what they prime movers. That a great part were Anabap-might call the analogy of faith, i.e. the system tists seems indisputable; at the same time, it ap of the Pharisean scribes the doctrine then in vogue

, pears from history, that a great part also were and in the profound veneration of which they Roman Catholics, and a still greater part of those had been educated. Perhaps there is hardly any who had scarcely any religious principles at all. sect but what has inore or less been guilty in this Indeed, when we read of the vast numbers that respect. It may, however, be of use to the serious were concerned in these insurrections, of whom it and candid inquirer; for, as some texts may seem is reported that 100,000 fell by the sword, it ap- to contradict each other, and difficulties present pears reasonable to conclude that they were not themselves, by keeping the analogy of faith in all Anabaptists.

view, he will the more easily resolve those difficulIt is but justice to observe also, that the Bapties, and collect the true sense of the sacred oratists in England and Holland are to be considered cles. What "the aphorisms of Hippocrates are in a different light from those above mentioned: to a physician, the axioms in geometry to a mathey profess an equal aversion to all principles of thematician, the adjudged cases in law to a counrebellion on the one hand, and to enthusiasm on sellor, or the maxims of war to a general, such is the other. See Robertson's Hist. of Charles V.; the analogy of faith to a Christian.” Of the Enc. Brit. vol. i. p. 644; and articles Baptists analogy of religion to the constitution and course and MENNONITES.

of nature, we must refer our readers to Bishop ANACHORETS, or ANCHORITES, a sort of Butler's excellent treatise on that subject. monks in the primitive church, who retired from ANATHEMA, imports whatever is set apart, the society of mankind into some desert, with a separated, or divided; but is most usually meant view to avoid the temptations of the world, and to to express the cutting off of a person from the be more at leisure for prayer, meditation, &c. communion of the faithful. It was practised in Such were Paul, Anthony, and Hilarion, the the primitive church against notorious offenders first founders of monastic life in Egypt and Pa- Several councils also have pronounced anathelestine.

mas against such as they thought corrupted the ANAGOGICAL, signifies mysterious, trans- purity of the faith. Anathema Maranatha, menporting: and is used to express whatever elevatestioned by Paul, (1 Cor. xiv. 22) imports that he


ANGELS who loves not the Lord Jesus will be accursed at tion, and we dare not indulge a spirit of conjechis coming. Anathema signifies a thing devoted ture. It is our happiness to know tnat they to destruction, and Maranatha is a Syriac word, are all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister signifying the Lord comes. It is probable in this to them who are heirs of salvation. passage there is an allusion to the form of the As to the nature of these beings, we are told that Jews, whe, when unable to intlict so great a they are spirits; but whether pure spirits, divested of punishment as the crime deserved, devoted the all matter, or united to some thin bodies, or corpoculprit to the immediate vindictive retribution of real vehicles, has been a controversy of long standdisine vengeance, both in this life and in a future ing; the more general opinion is, that they are substate.

stances entirely spiritual, though they can at any AYDRONA, a term used for that part in time assume bodies, and appear in human shape, churches which was destined for the men. An- Gen, xviii. xix, and xxxü. Matt. xxviii. Luke i. ciently, it was the custom for the men and women &c. The Scriptures represent them asendued with to have separate apartments in places of Worship, extraordinary wisdom and power, 2 Sam. xiv. 20. where they performed their devotions asunder, Ps. ciii. 20; holy and regular in their inclinations; which method is still religiously observed in the zealous in their employ, and completely happy in Greek church.

their minds, Job xxxviii. 7. Heb. i. 7. 'Matt. ANGEL, a spiritual intelligent substance, the xviii. 10. Their number seems to be great, Ps. first in rank and dignity among created beings. Ixviii

. 17. Heb. xii. 22; and perhaps have disThe word angel (2778205) is Greek, and signifies tinct orders, Col. i. 16, 17. 1 Pet. iii. 22. 1 Thes. a messenger. The Hebrew word 7a8bas signi-jiv. 16. Dan. x. 13. They are delighted with the fies the same. Angels, therefore, in 'the proper grand scheme of redemption, and the conversion signification of the word, do not import the na- of sinners to God, Luke ii. 12. 1 Pet. i. 12. Luke ture of any being, but only the office to which xv. 10. They not only worship God, and exethey are appointed, especia!ly by way of message cute his commands at large, but are attendant on or intercourse between God and his creatures. the saints of God while here below, Ps. xci. 11, Hence the word is used differently in various 12. Heb. i. 13. Luke xvi. 22. Some conjecture ports of the Scripture, and significs, 1. Human that every good man has his particular guardian mesengers, or agents for others. 2 Sam. ii. 5. ange!, Mati. xviii. 10. Acts xii. 15; but this is " David sert messengers (Heb. angels) to Jabesh easier to be supposed than to be proved; nor is Gilead.” Prov. xü. 17. Mark 1. 2.' James ü. it a matter of consequence to know. "What 25.–2. Officers of the churches, whether pro- need we dispute," says Henry, "whether every phets or onlinary ministers, Hag. i. 13. Rev. i. particular saint has a guardian angel, when we 9.-3. Jesus Christ

, Mal. iii. 1. Is. Ixiii. 9.- are sure he has a guard of angels about him?" 4. Some add the dispensations of God's provi- They will gather the elect in the last day, attend dence, either beneficial or calamitous, Gen. xxiv. the final judgment, Matt. xxv. 31. Rev. xiv. 18. 7. Ps. xxxiv. 7. Acts xü. 23. 1 Sam. xiv. 14; but Matt. xiv. 39; and live for ever in the world of I must confess, that, though I do not at all see the glory, Luke xx. 36. impropriety of considering the providences of Although the angels were originally created God as his angels or messengers for good or for perfect, yet they were mutable: some of them evil, yet the passages generally adduced under sinned, and kept not their first estate; and so, this head do not prove to me that the providences of the most blessed and glorious, became the most of God are meani in distinction from created an- vile and miserable of all God's creatures. They gels.-5. Created intelligences, both good and were expelled the regions of light, and with hea. head. Heb. i. 14. Jude vi. ; the subject of the pre- ven lost their heavenly disposition, and fell into sent article.--As to the time when the angels a settled rancour against God, and malice against were created, much has been said by the learned. men. What their offence was is difficult to deSore wonder that Moses, in his account of the termine, the Scripture being silent about it. Some creation, should pass over this in silence. Others think envy, others unbeliel; but most suppose it suppose that he did this because of the proneness was pride. As to the time of their fall, we are of the Gentile world, and even the Jews, to idola- certain it could not be before the sixth day of the try: but a better reason has been assigned by creation, because on that day it is said, "God saw others, viz. that this first history was purposely every thing that he had made, and behold it was and principally written for information concerning very good;" but that it was not long after, is very the visible world; the invisible, of which we probable, as it must have preceded the fall of our know but in part, heing reserved for a better life. first parents. The number of the fallen angelo Some think that the idea of God's not creating seems to be great, and, like the holy angels, perthem before this world was made, is very con- baps, have various orders among them, Matt. tracteu. To suppose, say they, that no creatures xii. 24. Eph. ii

. 2. vi. 12. Col. i. 15. Rev. xii. whatever, neither angels nor other worlds, hall 7. Their constant employ is not only doing evil been created previous to the creation of our themselves, but endeavouring by all arts to seduce workel, is to suppose that a Being of infinite and pervert mankind, 1 Pet. v. 8. Job. i. 6. It MIXIT, wisdom, and goolness, had remained is supposed they will be restrained during the itally inactive from all etcrnity, and had per- millennium, Rev. xx.2; but afterwards again, for mtus the infinity of space to continue a perfect a short time, deceive the nations, Rev. xx. 8; and varuun till within those 6006) years; that such then be finally punished, Matt. xxv. 41. The an idea only tends to discredit revelation, instead authors who have written on this subject have of serving it. On the other hand it is alleged, been very numerous; we shall only refer to a that they must have been created within the six few: Reynolds's Inquiryinto the Sluie and Eca days; because it is said, that within this space nomy of the Angelical World ; Cuckoortk'o In Gust made heaven and earth, and all things that tellectual System ; Doddridge's Lech p. 10. leot. are therein. It is, however, a needlese sperula- 210 10 214; Milton's Paradise Lost, Bp. Nero


ADOPTION ADIAPHORISTS, a name given in the six- | adoption is an act of God's free grace, whereby teenth century to the moderate Lutherans who we are received into the number, and have a adhered to the sentiments of Melancthon; and right to all the privileges of the sons of God. 3. afterwards to those who subscribed the Interim Glorious, is that in which the saints, being raised of Charles V. (See INTERIM.] The word is of from the dead, are at the last day solemnly owned Greek origin (asszpopos,) and signifies indiffer- to be the children of God, and enter into the full ence or lukewarmness.

possession of that inheritance provided for them. ADMIRATION is that passion of the mind kom. viii. 19, 23. Adoption is a word taken which is excited by the discovery of any great from the civil law, and was much in use anong excellence in an object. It has by some writers the Romans in the Apostles' time; when it was a been used as synonymous with surprise and custom for persons who had no children of their wonder; but it is evident they are not the same. own, and were possessed of an estate, to prevent Surprise refers to something unexpected; wonder, its being divided or descending to strangers, to to something great or strange; but admiration in- make choice of such as were agreeable to them, cludes the idea of high esteem or respect. Thus, and beloved by them, whom they took into this we say we admire a man's excellencies; but we political relation of children; obliging them to do not say that we are surprised at them. We take their name upon them, and to pay respect wonder at an extraordinary object or event, but to them as though they were their natural pawe do not always admire it.

rents, and engaging to deal with them as though ADMONITION denotes a hint or advice they had been so; and accordingly to give them a given to another, whereby we reprove him for his right to their estates, as an inheritance. This fault, or remind him of his duty. Admonition new relation, founded in a mutual consent, is a was a part of the discipline much used in the an- bond of affection; and the privilege arising from cient church; it was the first act or step towards thence is, that he, who is in this sense father, the punishment or expulsion of delinquents. In takes care of and provides for the person whom case of private offences, it was performed accord- he adopts, as though he were his son by nature; ing to evangelical rule, privately; in case of pub- and therefore civilians call it an act of legilimalic offence, openly before the church. If either tion, imitating nature, or supplying the place of it. of these sufficed for the recovery of the fallen It is easy, then, to conceive the propriety of the person, all further proceedings, in a way of cen- term as used by the apostle, in reference to this sure, ceased; if they did not, recourse was had to act, though it must be confessed there is some excommunication.— Tit. iii. 10. 1 Thess. v. 14. difference between civil and spiritual adoption. Eph. vi. 1.

Civil adoption was allowed of and provided for 'ADONAI, Hebrew '17%, a title of the Su- the relief and comfort of those who had no chilpreme Being in the Scriptures, rendered in En- dren; but in spiritual adoption this reason does glish by the word Lord. The original comes not appear. The Almighty was under no oblifrom Aden, a base, pillar, or supporter; and it is gation to do this; for he had innumerable spirits not a little remarkable that the etymology of our whom he had created, besides his own Son, who vernacular Lord is precisely similar, it being a had all the perfections of the divine nature, who contraction of the old Saxon laford, or hlafford, was the object of his delight, and who is styled from laef, to support or sustain, the same root the heir of all things, Heb. i. 3. When men from which also comes the English word loaf. adopt, it is on account of some excellency in the The Hebrew Jehovah is likewise translated persons who are adopted: thus Pharaoh's daughLord in our Bibles, and this is known by its ter adopted Moses because he was exceeding fair, being printed in capital letters, whereas in the Acts vii. 20, 21; and Mordecai adopted Esther other case the common small character is employ- because she was his uncle's daughter, and exed. The Jews, from excessive reverence, never ceeding fair, Est. ii. 7; but man has nothing in pronounce the name JEHOVAH when they meet him that merits this divine act, Ezek. xvi. 5. In with it in reading the Hebrew Scriptures, but civil adoption, though the name of a son be given, invariably substitute Adonai, which has the same the nature of a son may not: this relation may vowel points. But there is no law forbidding the not necessarily be attended with any change of enunciation of the name JEHOVAH; nor does it disposition or temper. But in the spiritual adopappear to have been scrupled by the ancient tion we are made partakers of the divine nature, Jews.-B.

and a temper or disposition given us becoming ADONISTS, a party among divines and the relationship we bear. Jer. ii. 19. critics, who maintain that the Hebrow points or. Much has been said as to the time of adoption. dinarily annexed to the consonants of the word Some place it before regeneration, because it is Jehovah are not the natural points belonging to supposed we must be in the family before we can that word, nor express the true pronounciation be partakers of the blessings of it. But it is diffiof it; but are the vowel points belonging to the cult to conceive of one before the other; for al. words Adonai and Elohim, applied to the con- though adoption may seem to precede regenerasonants of the ineffable name Jehovah, lo warn tion in order of nature, yet not of time; they may the readers, that instead of the word Jehovah, be distinguished, but cannot be separated. which the Jews were forbid to pronounce, and many as received him, to them gave he power to the true pronunciation of which had been long become the sons of God, even to them that beunknown to them, they are always to read Ado lieve on his name." John i. 12. There is no nai. They are opposed to Jehorists, of whom adoption, says the great Charnock, without rethe principal are Drusius, Capellus, Buxtorf, generation. “Adoption,” says the same author, Alling, and Reland.

“is not a mere relation: the privilege and the ADOPTION, an act whereby any person re- image of the sons of God go together. A state opives another into his family, owns him for his of adoption is never without a separation froin son, and appoints him his heir. 2. Spiritual | defilement.” 2 Cor. vi. 17. 18. The new name



AERIANS In adoption is never given till the new creature | affection is inflicted a wound the most painful be formed "As many as are led by the Spirit and incurable that human nature knows. The of God, they are the sons of God.” Rom. viii. 14. infidelity of the woman is aggravated by cruelty Yet these are to be distinguished. Regeneration, to her children, who are generally involved in as a physical act, gives us a likeness to God in their parent's shame, and always made unhappy our nature; adoption, as a legal act, gives us a by their quarrel. The marriage vow is witnessed right to an inheritance. Regeneration makes us before God, and accompanied with circumstances formally his sons, by conveying a principle, 1 of solemnity and religion which approach to the Pet. i. 23; adoption makes us relatively his sons, nature of an oath. The married oflender, thereby conveying a power, John i. 12. By the one fore, incurs a crime little short of perjury, and the we are instated in the divine affection; by the seduction of a married woman is little less than other we are partakers of the divine nature." subornation of perjury. But the strongest apo

See Ridgley's and Gill's Body of Div. art. logy for adultery is, the prior transgression of the Adoption; Charnock's Works, vol. ii. p. 32—72; other party; and so far, indeed, as the bad effects Flarel's Works, vol. ii. p. 601; Brown's System of adultery are anticipated by the conduct of the of Nat. and Rev. Religion, p. 443; Witsii husband or wife who offends first, the guilt of the Econ. Fæd. p. 165.

second offender is extenuated. But this can never ADORATION, the act of rendering divine amount to a justification, unless it could be shown honours, including in it reverence, esteem, and that the obligation of the marriage vow depends love: this is called supreme, or absolute. The upon the condition of reciprocal fidelity: a conword is compounded of ad, "to," and os, oris, struction which appears founded neither in expe“mouth:" and literally signifies to apply the diency, nor in the terms of the vow, nor in the hand to the mouth, “to kiss the hand;" this be- design of the legislature, which prescribed the ing, in the eastern countries, one of the great marriage rite. To consider the offence upon the marks of respect and submission. See Job xxxi. footing of prorocation, therefore, can by no means 21, 27. The attitude of adoration, however, we vindicate retaliation. “ Thou shalt not commit find has not been confined to this mode; standing, adultery," it must ever be remembered, was an kneeling, uncovering the head, prostration, bow- interdict delivered by God himself. This crime ing, litting up the eyes to heaven, or sometimes has been punished in almost all ages and nations. fixing them upon the earth with the body bend- By the Jewish law it was punished with death in ing forwaru ; sitting with the under parts of the both parties, where either the woman was marthighs resting on the heels, have all been used, as ried, or both. Among the Egyptians, adultery expressive of veneration and esteem. Whatever in the man was punished by a thousand lashes be the form, however, it must be remembered, with rods, and in the woman by the loss of her that adoration, as an act of worship, is due to God nose. The Greeks put out the eyes of the adulalone, Matt. iv. 10. Acts x. 25, 26. Rev. xix. 10. terers. Among the Romans, it was punished by There is, 2. what may be called adoration human, banishment, cutting off the ears

, noses, and by or paying homage or respect to persons of great sewing the adulterers in sack, and throwing rank and dignity. This has been performed by them into the sea ; scourging, burning, &c. In howing, bending the knee, falling on the face. Spain and Poland they were almost as severe. The practice of adoration may be said to be still The Saxons formerly burnt the adulteress, and sub-istint in England, in the ceremony of kiss- over her ashes erected a gibbet, whereon the ing the king's or queen's hand, and in serving adulterer was hanged. King Edmund, in this them at table, both being performed kneeling on kingdom, ordered adultery to be punished in the one knee. There is also, 3. adoration relative, sa ve manner as homicide. Canute ordered the which consists in worship paid to an object as be- man to be banished, and the women to have her longing to or representative of another. In this nose and ears cut off. Modern punishments in sense the Romanists profess to adore the cross, different nations, do not seem to be so severe. In not simply or immediately, but in respect of Jesus Britain it is reckoned a spiritual offence, and is Christ, whom they suppose to be on it. This is cognizable by the spiritual courts, where it is pun. generally, however, considered by Protestants as ished by fine and penance. Sce Paley's Mora. coming little short of idolatry. See IDOLATRY. and Political Philosophy, p. 309. vol. i, 12th

ADULTERY, an unlawful commerce be- edition. tween one married person and another, or between AERIANS, the name of a sect which arose in a married and unmarried person.—2. It is also the fourth century, under the reign of Constanused in Scripture for idolatry, or departing from the tine, so called from Aerius, a presbyter of Sebas. true Gol, Jer. iii. 9.–3. Also for any species of tia in Pontus, their founder. The errors laid to impurity or crime against the virtue of chastity, the charge of Aerius by Epiphanius are, 1. That Matt. v. 28.-4. It is also used in ecclesiastical a presbyter or elder differs not in order and degree writers for a person's invading or intruding into from a bishop, but he who is a presbyter is called a bishopric during the former bishop's life.-5. a bishop. 2. That there is properly speaking no The word is also used in ancient customs for the passover remaining to be observed or celebrated punishment or fine imposed for that offence, or among Christians. 3. That fasts ought not to be the privilege of prosecuting for it. Although fixed to certain and stated annual days and sozituliery is prohibited by the law of God, yet some lemnities. 4. That prayers ought not to be offered have endeavoured to explain away the moral tur- for the dead. It must be accountelstange, that pitude of it; but it is evident, observes Paley, that, these doctrines should, with orthodox Christians, on the part of the man who solicits the chastity ever be adduced as evidence of heresy. And, of a married woman, it certainly includes the accordingly, the reader will find in the works of crime of seduction, and is attended with mischief Mr. John Glas, vol. iv, an able attempt to vindistill more extensive and complicated : it creates a cate the character of Aerius from the opprobrium new sufferer, the injured husband, upon whose usually cast upon it by ecclesiastical writers.-B.


AFFLICTION AETIANS, those who maintained that the very zealous in externals; to be always conversing Son and Holy Ghost were in all things dissimi- about ourselves, &c. These things are often lar to the Father. They received their name from found in those who are only mere professors of Aetius, one of the most zealous defenders of religion, Matt. vii. 21, 22. Arianism, who was born in Syria, and flourished Now, in order to ascertain whether our affecabout the year 336. Besides the opinions which tions are excited in a spiritual manner, we must the Aetians held in common with the Arians, inquire whether that which moves our affections they maintained that faith without works was be truly spiritual; whether our consciences be sufficient to salvation; and that no sin, how- alarmed, and our hearts impressed; whether the ever grievous, would be imputed to the faithful. judgment be enlightened, and we have a percepAetius, moreover, affirmed, that what God had tion of the moral excellency of divine things; and, concealed from the apostles, he had revealed to lastly, wbether our affections have a holy tenhim.

dency, and produce the happy effects of obedience AFFECTION, in a philosophical sense, re- to God, humility in ourselves, and justice to our fers to the manner in which we are affected by fellow-creatures. As this is a subject worthy of any thing for a continuance, whether painful or close attention, the reader may consult Lord pleasant; but in the most common sense, it may Kaimes's Elements of Criticism, vol. ii. p. 517; be defined to be a settled bent of mind towards a | Edwards on the Affections; Pike and Hayward's particular being or thing. It holds a middle place Cases of Conscience ; Walts's Use and Abuse of between disposition on the one hand, and passion the Passions ; M‘Laurin's Essays, sect. 5 and 6, on the other. It is distinguishable from disposi- where this subject is handled in a masterly mantion, which, being a branch of one's nature ori- ner. ginally, must exist before there can be any op AFFLICTION, that which causes a sensaportunity to exert it upon any particular object; tion of pain. Calamity or distress of any kind. whereas affection can never be original

, because, The afflictions of the saints are represented, in having a special relation to a particular object, it the Scripture, as appointed, 1 Thess. iii. 3. Job cannot exist till the object have once, at least, v. 6, 7; numerous, Ps. xxxiv. 19; transient, 2 been presented. It is also distinguishable from Cor. iv. 17. Heb. x. 37; and, when sanctified, passion, which, depending on the real or ideal beneficial, 1 Pet. i. 6. Ps. cxix. 67, 71. They presence of its object, vanishes with its object; wean from the world; work submission; produce whereas affection is a lasting connexion, and, humility; excite to diligence; stir up to prayer; like other connexions, subsists even when we do and conform us to the divine image. To bear not think of the object. (See Disposition and them with patience, we should consider our own Passton.) The affections, as they respect reli- unworthiness; the design of God in sending gion, deserve in this place a little attention. They them; the promises of support under them; and may be defined to be the "vigorous and sensible the real good they are productive of. The afflicexercises of the inclination and will of the soul tions of a good man, says an elegant writer, never towards religious objects.” Whatever extremes betal without a cause, nor are sent but upon a prostoics or enthusiasts have run into, it is evident per errand. These storms are never allowed to rise that the exercise of the affections is essential to but in order to dispel some noxious vapours, and the existence of true religion. It is true, indeed, restore salubrity to the moral atmosphere. Who "that all affectionate devotion is not wise and that for the first time beheld the earth in the midst rational; but it is no less true, that all wise and of winter, bound up with frost, or drenched in tloods rational devotion must be affectionate." The of rain, or covered with snow, would have imaaffections are the springs of action : they belong gined that nature, in this dreary and torpid state, to our nature, so that with the highest percep- was working towards its own renovation in the tions of truth and religion, we should be inactive spring? Yet we by experience know that those without them. They have considerable influence vicissitudes of winter are necessary for fertilising on men, in the common concerns of life; how the earth ; and that under wintry rains and snows much more, then, should they operate in those lie concealed the seeds of those roses that are to important objects that relate to the Divine Being, blossoin in the spring; of those fruits that are to the immortality of the soul, and the happiness or ripen in the summer; and of the corn and wine misery of a future state! The religion of the which are, in harvest

, to make glad the heart of most eminent saints has always consisted in the man, It would be more agreeable to us to be exercise of holy affections. Jesus Christ himself always entertained with a fair and clear atmo affords us an example of the most lively and sphere, with cloudless skies, and perpetual sunvigorous affections; and we have every reason to shine ; yet in such climates as we have most believe that the employment of heaven consists in knowledge of the earth, were it always to remain the exercise of them. ' In addition to all which, in such a state, would refuse to yield its fruits; the Scriptures of truth teach us, that religion is and, in the midst of our imagined scenes of beauty, nothing, if it occupy not the affections, Deut. vi. the starved inhabitants would perish for want of 4 and 5. Deut. xxx. 6. Rom. xii. 11. 1 Cor. xii. food. Let us, therefore, quietly submit to Provi13. Ps. xxvii. 14.

dence. Let us conceive this life to be the winter A distinction, however, inust be made between of our existence. Now the rains must fall, and what may be merely nalural, and what is truly the winds must roar around us; but, sheltering spiritual. The affections may we excited in a ourselves under Him who is the "covert from the natural way under ordinances by a natural im- tempest,” let us wait with patience till the storms pression, Ezek. xxxiii. 32; by a natural syrn pa- of life shall terminate in an everlasting calm. Ury, or by the natural temperament of our con- Blairs Ser. vol. v. ser. 5; Vincent, Case, and stitution. It is no sign that our aflections are Addington, on Affliction ; Willison's Adicted spiritual because they are raised very high ; pro Man's Companion. duce great effects on the body; excite us to be AGAPE, or Love-Feasts, (from «yur",

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