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ALBIGENSES " love,") feasts of charity among the ancient nature, or by virtue of his unction, as any part Christians, when liberal contributions were made of the mysteries he was to reveal; for, considering by the rich to the poor. St. Chrysostom gives him as God, he could not be ignorant of any thing. the following account of this feast, which he de AGNUS DEI, in the church of Rome, a cake rives from the apostolic practice. He says,- of wax, stamped with the figure of a lamb sup"The first Christians had all things in common, porting the banner of the cross. The name liteas we real in the Acts of the Apostles; but when rally signifies “Lamb of God." These cakes, that equality of possessions ceased, as it did even being consecrated by the pope with great so-, in the apostles' time, the Agape or love-feast was lemnity, and distributed among the people, are substituted in the room of it. Upon certain days, supposed to have great virtues. They cover them after partaking of the Lord's Supper, they met at with a piece of stuff cut in the form of a heart, a common feast; the rich bringing provisions, and and carry them very devoutly in their processions, the poor, who had nothing, being invited." It The Romish priests and religious derive considewas always attended with receiving the holy sa-rable pecuniary advantage from selling them to crament; but there is some difference between some, and presenting them to others. the ancient and molern interpreters as to the AGONISTICI, a name given by Donatus to circumstance of time; viz. whether this feast was such of his disciples as he sent to fairs, markets, hell before or after the communion. St. Chry- and other public places, to propagate his doctrine. sostom is of the latter opinion; the learned Dr. They were called Agonistici from the Greek Cave of the former. These love-feasts, during "combat,” because they were sent, as it were, to the first three centuries, were held in the church fight and sublue the people to their opinions. See without scandal or oflence; but in after-times DONATIST. the heathens began to tax them with impurity. AGONYCLITÆ, a sect of Christians in the This gave occasion to a reformation of these seventh century, who prayed always standing, as Agape. The kiss of charity, with which the thinking it unlawful to kneel. ceremony used to end, was no longer given be AGYNIANI, a sect which appeared about tween different sexes; and it was expressly for- 694. They condemned all use of flesh and marbilden to have any beds or couches for the conve- riage as not instituted by God, but introduced at niency of those who should be disposed to eat the instigation of the devil. more at their ease. Notwithstanding these pre ALASCANI, a sect of Anti-lutherans in the cautions, the abuses committed in them became sixteenth century, whose distinguishing tenet, so notorious, that the holding them(in churches besides their denying baptism, is said to have at least) was solemnly condemned at the council been this, that the words, “ This is my body," in of Carthage in the year 397. Attempts have been the institution of the eucharist, are not to be un. made, of late years, to revive these feasts : but in derstood of the bread, but of the whole action or a diferent manner from the primitive custom, and, celebration of the supper. perhaps, with little edification. They are, how ALBANENSES, a denomination which com. ever, not very general.
menced about the year 796. They held, with the AGAPET E, a name given to certain virgins Gnostics and Manicheans, two principles, the one and widows, who in the ancient church associated of good, and the other of evil
. They denied the thems lves with and attended on ecclesiastics, out divinity and even the humanity of Jesus Christ; of a motive of piety and charity. See Deacon- asserting that he was not truly man, did not suffer ESSES.
on the cross, die, rise agair., nor really ascend into AGENDA, among divines and philosophers, heaven. They rejected the doctrine of the resursignify the duties which a man lies under an rection, affinned that the general judgment was obligation to perform: thus we meet with the past, and that hell torments were no other than agenda of a Christian, or the duties he ought to the evils we feel and suffer in this life. They pertorn, in opposition to the credenda, or things denied free-will, did not admit original sin, and he is to believe. It is also applied to the ser never administered baptism to intants. They vice or office of the church, and to church books held that a man can give the Holy Spirit of himcompiled by public authority, prescribing the or selt, and that it is unlawful for a Christian to take der to be observed ; and amounts to the same as ritual, formulary, directory, missal, &c.
This denomination derived their name from AGENT, that which acts; opposed to patient, the place where their spiritual ruler residled. See or that which is acted upon.
MANICHEANS and CATHERIST, AGENTS, moral. See MORAL AGENT. ALBANOIS, a denomination which sprung
AGNOET Æ, (from zyvoon, "to be ignorant up in the eighth century, and renewed the greatof,) a sect which appeared about 370. They est part of the Manichean principles. They also called in question the omniscience of God; alley- maintained that the world was from eternity. See ing that he knew things past only by memory, MANICJEANS, and things future only by an uncertain prescience. ALBIGENSES, a party of reformers about There arose another sect of the same name in the Tonlouse and the Albigeois, in Languedoc, who sixth century, who followed Themistius, deacon sprung up in the twelith century, and distinguishof Alexandria. They maintained that Christed themselves by their opposition to the church of was ignorant of certain things, and particularly Rome. They were charged with many errors by of the time of the day of juilgunent. It is supposed the monks of those days; but from these charges they built their hypothesis on that passage in they are generally acquitted by the Protestants, Mark xi. 32.–Of that day and that hour who consider them only as the inventions of the knoweth no man; no, not the angels which are Roinish church to blacken their character. The in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father.” The Albiyenses grew so formidable, that the Catholics meaning of which, most probably, is, that this was agreed upon a holy league or crusade against Dot known to the Messiah himself in his human them. Pope Innocent lll. desirous to put a
AMAURITES stop to their progress, stirred up the great men of century the age of the Holy Spirit comm
mmenced, the kingdom to make war upon them. After in which the sacraments, and all external wor suffering from their persecutors, they dwindled ships were to be abolished; and that every one by little and little, till the time of the Reformation; was to be saved by the internal operation of the when such of them as were left, fell in with the Holy Spirit alonc, without any external act of reVaudois, and conformed to the doctrine of Zuin- ligion. glius, and the disciples of Geneva. The Albi ALMONER, a person employed by another, genses have been frequently confounded with the in the distribution of charity. In its primitive Waldenses; from whom it is said they differ in sense it denoted an officer in religious houses, to many respects, both as being prior to them in whom belonged the management and distribution point of time, as having their origin in a different of the alms of the house. country, and as being charged with divers here ALMS, what is given gratuitously for the resies, particularly Manicheism, from which the lief vf the poor, and in repairing the churches. Waldenses were exempt. See WALDENSES. That alms-giving is a duty is every way evident
ALEXANDRIAN MANUSCRIPT, a fa- from the variety of passages which enjoin it in mous copy of the Scriptures, in four volumes the sacred Scriptures. It is observable, however, quarto. It contains the whole Bible in Greek, what a number of excuses are made by those who including the Old and New Testament, with the are not found in the exercise of the duty; 1. A poc.ypha and some smaller pieces, but not quite That they have nothing to spare; 2. That chacomplete. It is preserved in the British Museum: rity begins at home; 3. That charity does not it was sent as a present to king Charles I, from consist in giving money, but in benevolence, Cyrillus Lucaris, patriarch of Constantinople, by love to all mankind, &c.; 4. That giving to the Sir Thomas Rowe, ambassador from England to poor is not mentioned St. Paul's description of the Grand Seignior, about the year 1628. Cyril. charity, 1 Cor. xii; 5. That they pay the poorlus brought it with him from Alexandria, where rates; 6. That they employ many poor persons, probably it was written. In a schedule annexed 7. That the poor do not suffer so much as we to it, he gives this account:- That it was written, imagine; 8. That these people, give them what as tradition informed them, by Thecla, a noble you will, will never be thankful;
9. That we are Egyptian lady, about 1300 years ago, not long liable to be imposed upon; 10. That they should after the council of Nice. But this high anti- apply to their parishes; 11. That giving money quity, and the authority of the tradition to which encourages idleness ; 12. That we have too the patriarch refers, have been disputed; nor are many objects of charity at honie. O the love of the most accurate biblical writers agreed about its money, how fruitful is it in apologies for a con age. Grabe thinks that it might have been writ- tracted mercenary spirit! In giving of alms, bow ten before the end of the fourth century; others ever, the following rules should be observed: are of opinion that it was not written till near the first, They should be given with justice ; only our end of the filth century, or somewhat later. See own, to which we have a just right, should be Dr. Woide's edition of it.
given. 2. With cheerfulness, Deut. xv. 10. 2. ALEXANDRIAN VERSION, another Cor. ix. 7. 3. With simplicity and sincerity, name for the Septuagint, a Greek translation of Rom. xii. Matt. vi. 3. 4. With compassion and the Old Testament, so called from its having been affection, Is. Iviii. 10. 1 John iii. 17. 5. Season made at the command of Ptolemy Philadelphus, ably, Gal. vi. 10. Prov. iv. 27. 6. Bountifully king of Egypt, for the use of the great library at Deut. xviii
. 11. 1 Tim. vi. 18. 7. Prudently, Alexandria. See SeeTUAGINT.-B.
according to every one's need, 1 Tim. v. 8. Acts ALKORAN. See Koran.
iv. 35. See Dr. Barrano's admirable Sermon on ALL-SUFFICIENCY OF GOD, is that Bounty to the Poor, which took him up three power or attribute of his nature whereby he is able hours and a half in preaching ; Saurin's Scr to communicate as much blessedness to his crea- vol. iv. Eng. Trans. ser. 9; Paley's Mor. Phi.. tures as he is pleased to make them capable of re-ch. 5. vol. i. ceiving. As his self-sufficiency is that whereby ALOGIANS, a sect of ancient heretics who he has enough in himself to denominate hinn denied that Jesus Christ was the Logos, and concompletely blessed, as a God of infinite perfection; sequently rejected the Gospel of St. John. The so his all-sufficiency is that by which he hath word is compounded of the privative - and aegas enough in himself to satisfy the most enlarged q. d. without logos, or word. They made their ap desires of his creatures, and to make them com- pearance toward the close of the second century. pletely blessed. We practically deny this perfec ALTAR, a kind of table or raised structure tion, when we are discontented with our present whereon the ancient sacrifices were offered. 2. condition, and desire more than God has allotted The table, in Christian churches, where the for us, Gen. iii. 5. Prov. xix. 3. Ridgley's Body Lord's Supper is administered. Altars are, doulitof Dio. ques. 17; Saurin's Ser. ser. 5. vol. i. : less, of great antiquity; some suppose they were Barron's Works, vol. ii. ser. 11.
as early as Adam; but there is no mention made ALMARICIANS, a denomination that arose of them till after the flood, when Noah built one, in the thirteenth century. They derived their and offered burnt-offerings on it. The Jews had origin from Almaric, professor of logic and the two altars in and about their temple; 1. the altar ology at Paris. His adversaries charged him with of burnt offerings; 2. the altar of incense: some having taught that every Christian was obliged also call the table for shew-bread an altar, but to believe himself a member of Jesus Christ, and improperly, Exod. xx. 2A, 25. 1 Kings xviii. 30. that without this belief none could be saved.' His Exod. xxv. xxvii. and xxx. Heb. ix. followers asserted that the power of the Father had AMAURITES, the followers of Amauri, a continued only during the Mosaic dispensation, clergyman of Bonne, in the thirteenth century. that of the Son twelve hundred years after his en He acknowledged the divine Three, to whom he trance upon earth; and that in the thirteenth attribuied the empire of the world. But, ac.
ANABAPTISTS cording to him, religion had three epochas, which | Amyrault and others his followers, among the bore a similitude to the reign of the three persons reformed in France, towards the middle of the in the Trinity. The reign of God had existed as seventeenth century. This doctrine principally long as the law of Moses. The reign of the Son consisted of the following particulars, viz. that would not always last. time would come God desires the happiness of all men, and none when the sacraments should cease, and then the are excluded by a divine decree; that none can religion of the Holy Ghost would begin, when obtain salvation without faith in Christ; that men would render a spiritual worship to the Su- God refuses to none the power of believing, preme Being. This reign Amauri thought would though he does not grant to all his assistance suereed to the Christian religion, as the Christian that they may improve this power to saving purhai sincreeded to that of Moses.
poses; and that they may perish through their AMAZEMENT, a term sometimes employ-own fault. Those who embraced this doctrine ed to express our wonder; but it is rather to be were called Universalists, though it is evident considered as a medium between wonder and they rendered grace universal in words, but par astonishment. It is manifestly borrowed from the tial in reality. See CAMERONITES. extensive and complicated intricacies of a laby ANABAPTISTS, those who maintain that rioth, in which there are endless mazes, without baptism ought always to be performed by immer the discovery of a clue. Hence an idea is con- sion. The word is compounded of avx, "
anew, veveil of more than siinple wonder; the mind is and 827TIOTAS, "a Baptist ;" signifying that those lost in wonder. See WONDER.
who have been baptized in their infancy ought to AMBITION, a desire of excelling, or at least be baptized anew. It is a word which has been of being thought to excel, our neighbours in any indiscriminately applied to Christians of very dif thing. It is generally used in a bail sense for an ferent principles and practices. The English and immoderate or illegal pursuit of power or honour. Dutch Baptists do not consider the word as at all See PeABE.
applicable to their sect; because those persons AMEDIANS, a congregation of religious in whom they baptize they consider as never having Italy; so called from their professing themselves been baptized before, although they have underamantes Deum, “lovers of God;" or rather gone what they term the ceremony of sprinkling ainali Deo, "beloved of God." They wore a in their infancy. grey habit and wooden shoes, had no breeches, and The Anabaptists of Germany, besides their girt themselves with a cord. They had twenty- notions concerning baptism, depended much upon eght convents, and were united by pope Pius V. certain ideas which they entertained concerning a partly with the Cistercian order, and partly with perfect church establishment, pure in its members, that of the Soccolanti, or wooden shoe wearers. and free from the institutions of human policy.
AVEN, a Hebrew word, which, when pre- The most prudent part of them considered it pos fire to an assertion, signifies asruredly, cer- sible, by human industry and vigilance, to purify hinly, or emphatically so it is ; but when it con- the church; and seeing the attempts of Luther dules a prayer, so be it, or so let it be, is its ma- to be successful, they hoped that the period was nisest import. In the former case it is assertive, arrived in which the church was to be restored to a assures of a truth or a fact; and is an asse- this purity. Others, not satisfied with Luther's veration and is properly translated, verily, John plan of reformation, undertook a more perfect rii. 3. In the latter case it is petitionary, and, as plan, or, more properly, a visionary enterprise, to it were, epitomises all the requests with which it found a new church, entirely spiritual and divine. stands connected. Nunb. v. 25. Rev. xxi. 20. This sect was soon joined by great numbers, This emphatical term was not used among the whose characters and capacities were very dif Hebrews by detached individuals only, but, on ferent. Their progress was rapid : for, in a very certain occasions, by an assembly at large. Deut. short space of time, their discourses, visions, and Ixii
. 14. 2). It was adopted, also, in the public predictions, excited great commotions in a great worship of the primitive churches, as appears by part of Europe. The most pernicious faction of that passage, 1 Cor. xiv. 16, and was continued all those which composed this motley multitude, among the Christians in following times; yea, was that which pretended that the founders of this soch was the extreme into which many ran, that new and perfect church were under a divine im Jerome informs us, that, in his time, at the con- pulse, and were armed against all opposition by dusion of every public prayer, the united amen the power of working miracles. It was this faa
the people sounded like the fall of water, or tion, that, in the year 1521, began their fanatical the noise of thunder. Nor is the practice of some work under the guidance of Munzer, Stubner, professays in our own time to be commended, Storick, &c. These men taught, that, ainong who, with a low, though audible voice, adu their Christians, who had the precepts of the Gospel to amen to almost every sentence as it proceeds direct, and the Spirit of God to guide them, the from the lips of him who is praying. As this office of magistracy was not only unnecessary, but has a tendency to interrupt the devotion of those an unlawful encroachment on their spiritual li that are near them, and may disconcert the berly; that the distinctions occasioned by birth, thazhts of him who leads the worship, it would rank, or wealth should be abolished; that all be better omitted, and a mental amen is sufficient. Christians, throwing their possessions into one The term, as used at the end of our prayers, sug- stock, should live together in that state of equality gosis that we should pray with understanding, which becomes members of the same family'; Laith, fervour and expectation. See Mr. Booth's that, as neither the laws of nature, nor the preAmen to Sxial Prayer.
cepts of the New Testament, had prohibited AMMONIANS. See New PlaTONICS. polygamy, they should use the same liberty as the
A VYRALDISM, a name given by some patriarchs did in this respect. writers to the doctrine of universal grace, as ex They employed, at first, the various arts of plained and asserted by Amyraldus, or Moses persuasion, in order to propagate their doctrines
ANATHEMA and related a number of visions and revelations, the mind, not only to the knowledge of divine with which they pretended to have been favoured things, but of divine things in the next life. The from above: but, when they found that this word is seldom used, but with regard to the difwould not avail
, and that the ministry of Luther ferent senses of the Scripture. The anagogical and other reformers was detrimental to their sense is when the sacred text is explained with cause, they then madly attempted to propagate regard to eternal life, the point which Christians their sentiments by force of arms. Munzer and should have in view; for example, the rest of the his associates, in the year 1525, put themselves at sabbath, in the anagogical sense, signifies the rethe head of a numerous army, and declared war pose of everlasting happiness. against all laws, governments, and magistrates of ANALOGY OF FAITH, is the proportion every kind, under the chimerical pretext, that that the doctrines of the Gospel bear to each other, Christ himself was now to take the reins of all or the close connection between the truths of regovernment into his hands : but this seditious vealed religion, Rom. xii. 6. This is considered as crowd was routed and dispersed by the elector of a grand rule for understandizg the true sense of Saxony and other princes, and Munzer, their Scripture. It is evident that the Almighty doth leader, put to death.
not act without a design in the system of ChrisMany of his followers, however, survived, and tianity, any more than he does in the works of propagated their opinions through Germany, nature. Now this design must be uniform; for Switzerland, and Holland. In 1533, a party of as in the system of the universe every part is prothem settled at Munster, under two leaders of the portioned to the whole, and made subservient to names of Matthias and Bockholdt. Having it
, so in the system of the Gospel all the various made themselves masters of the city, they deposed truths, doctrines, declarations, precepts, and prothe magistrates, confiscated the estates of such as mises, must correspond with and tend to the end had escaped, and deposited the wealth in a public designed. For instance, supposing the glory of treasury for common use. They made prepara- God in the salvation of man by free grace be the tions for the defence of the city; invited the grand design; then, whatever doctrine, assertion, Anabaptists in the Low Countries to assemble at or hypothesis, agree not with this, is to he conMunster, which they called Mount Sion, that sidered as false.--Great care, however, must be from thence they might reduce all the nations of taken, in making use of this method, that the inthe earth under their dominion. Matthias was quirer previously understand the whole scheme, soon cut off by the bishop of Munster's army, and and that he harbour not a predilection only for a was succeeded by Bockholdt, who was proclaimed part ; without attention to this, we shall be liable ly a special designation of heaven, as the pretended to error. If we come to the Scriptures with any king of Sion, and invested with legislative powers preconceived opinions, and are more desirous to like those of Moses. The city of Munster, how- put that sense upon the text which quadrates ever, was taken, after a long siege, and Bockholdt with our sentiments, rather than the truth, it be punished with death.
comes then the analogy of our faith, rather than It must be acknowledged that the true rise of that of the whole system. This was the source the insurrections of this period ought not to be of the error of the Jews, in our Saviour's time. attributed to religious opinions. The first insur- They searched the Scriptures; but, such were gents groaned under severe oppressions, and took their favourite opinions, that they could not, or up arms in defence of their civil liberties; and of would not, discover that the sacred volume testithese commotions the Anabaptists seem rather to fied of Christ. And the reason was cvident ; for have availed themselves, than to have been the their great rule of interpretation was, what they prime movers. That a great part were Anabap might call the analogy of faith, i. e. the system tists seems indisputable; at the same time, it ap- of the Pharisean seribes, the doctrine thenin vogue, pears from history, that a great part also were and in the profound veneration of which they Roman Catholics, and a still greater part of those had been educated. Perhaps there is hardly any who had scarcely any religious principles at all. sect but what has inore or less been guilty in this Indeed, when we read of the vast numbers that respect. It may, however, be of use to the serious were concerned in these insurrections, of whom it and candid inquirer; for, as some texts may seem is reported that 100,000 fell by the sword, it ap- to contradict each other, and difficulties present pears reasonable to conclude that they were not themselves, by keeping the analogy of faith in all Anabaptists.
view, he will the more easily resolve those difficulIt is but justice to observe also, that the Bap-ties, and collect the true sense of the sacred oratists in England and Holland are to be considered cles. What “the aphorisms of Hippocrates are in a different light from those above mentioned: to a physician, the axioms in geometry to a mathey profess an equal aversion to all principles of thematician, the adjudged cases in law to a counrebellion on the one hand, and to enthusiasm on sellor, or the maxims of war to a general, such is the other. See Robertson's Hist. of Charles V.; the analogy of faith to a Christian.” Of the Enc. Bril. vol. i. p. 644; and articles Baptists analogy of religion to the constitution and course and MENNONITES.
of nature, we must refer our readers to Bishop ANACHORETS, or ANCHORITES, a sort of Butler's excellent treatise on that subject. monks in the primitive church, who retired from ANATHEMA, imports whatever is set apart, the society of mankind into some desert, with a separated, or divided; but is most usually meant view to avoid the temptations of the world, and to to express the cutting off of a person from the be more at leisure for prayer, meditation, &c. communion of the faithful. It was practised in Such were Paul, Anthony, and Hilarion, the the primitive church against notorious offenders, first founders of monastic life in Egypt and Pa Several councils also have pronounced anathelestine.
mas against such as they thought corrupted the ANAGOGICAL, signifies mysterious, trans purity of the faith. Anathema Naranatha, menporting: and is used to express whatever elevatestioned by Paul, (1 Cor. xiv. 22,) imports that he
ANGELS who lyver not the Lord Jesus will he accursed at tion, and we dare not indulge a spirit of conjechis coming. Anathema signifies a thing devoted ture. It is our happiness to know that they to destruction, and Yaranatha is a Syriac word, are all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister signifying the Lord comes. It is probable in this to them who are heirs of salvation. fassage there is an allusion to the form of the As to the nature of these beings, we are told that Jews, whe, when unable to inflict so great a they are spirits; but whether pure spirits, divested of punishment as the crime deserved, devoted the all matter, or united to some thin bodies, or corpoculprit to the immediate vindictive retribution of real vehicles, has been a controversy of long standtlisine vengeance, both in this life and in a future ing; the more general opinion is, that they are sub
stances entirely spiritual, though they can at any ANDRONA, a term used for that part in time assume bodies, and appear in human shape, churches which was destined for the men. An. Gen. xviii. xix, and xxxü. Matt. xxviii. Luke i. ciently, it was the custom for the men and women &c. The Scriptures represent them asendued with to have separate apartments in places of Worship, extraordinary wisdom and power, 2 Sam. xiv. 20. where they performed their devotions asunder, Ps. ciii. 20; holy and regular in their inclinations; which method is still religiously observed in the zealous in their employ, and completely happy in Greek church.
their minds, Job xxxviii, 7. Heb. i. 7. Matt. ANGEL, a spiritual intelligent substance, the xviii
. 10. Their number seems to be great, Ps. first in rank and dignity among created beings. lxvii. 17. Heb. xii. 22; and perhaps have disThe word angel (ayyos) is Greek, and signifies tinct orders, Col. i. 16, 17. 1 Pet. iii. 22. 1 Thes. a messenger, The Hebrew word 7x55 signi-jiv. 16. Dan. x. 13. They are delighted with the fies the same. Angels, therefore, in 'the proper grand scheme of redemption, and the conversion signification of the word, do not import the na- of sinners to God, Luke ii. 12. 1 Pet. i. 12. Luke lure of any being, but only the office to which xv. 10. "They not only worship God, and exethey are appointed, especia!ly by way of message cute his commands at large, but are attendant on or intercourse between God and his creatures. the saints of God while here below, Ps. xci. 11, Hence the word is used differently in various 12. Heb. i. 13. Luke xvi. 22. Some conjecture parts of the Scripture, and significs. 1. Human that every good man has his particular guardian messengers, or agents for others. 2 Sam. ii. 5. ange!, Matt. xviii. 10. Acts xii. 15; but this is " David sert messengers (Heb. angels) to Jabesh easier to be supposed than to be proved; nor is Gilead." Prov. xi. 17. Mark 1. 2.' James ii. it a matter of consequence to know.
"What 35.-2. Officers of the churches, whether pro- need we dispute," says Henry, "whether every phets or ordinary ministers, Hag. i. 13. Rev. i. particular saint bas a guardian angel, when we 91.-3. Jesus Christ, Mal. iii. 1. Is. Ixiii. 9.- are sure he has a guard of angels about him?" 4. Some ald the dispensations of God's provi- They will gather the elect in the last day, attend dence, either beneficial or calamitous, Gen. xxiv. the final judgment, Matt. xxv. 31. Rev. xiv. 18. 7. Ps. xxxiv. 7. Acts xi. 23. 1 Sam. xiv. 14; but Matt. xiü. 39; and live for ever in the world of I must confess, that, though I do not at all see the glory, Luke xx. 36. impropriety of considering the providences of Although the angels were originally created God as his angels or messengers for good or for perfect, yet they were mutable: some of them evil
, yet the passages generally adduced under sinned, and kept not their first estate; and so, this head do not prove to me that the providences of the most blessed and glorious, became the most of God are meant in distinction from created an- vile and miserable of all God's creatures. They gels-5. Created intelligences, both good and were expelled the regions of light, and with heahad. Heb. i. 14. Jude vi. ; the subject of the pre- ven lost their heavenly disposition, and fell into sent article.-As to the time when the angels a settled rancour against God, and malice against were created, much has been said by the learned. men. What their offence was is difficult to deSome wonder that Moses, in his account of the termine, the Scripture being silent about it. Some crration, should pass over this in silence. Others think envy, others unbeliel; but most suppose it suppose that he did this because of the proneness was pride. As to the time of their fall, we are of the Gentile world, and even the Jews, to idola- certain it could not be before the sixth day of the try: but a better reason has been assigned by creation, because on that day it is said, "God saw others, viz. that this first history was purposely every thing that he had made, and behold it was and principally written for information concerning very good," but that it was not long after, is very the visible world; the invisible, of which we prolable, as it must have preceded the fall of our know but in part, heing reserved for a better life. first parents. The number of the fallen angels Some think that the idea of God's not creating seems to be great, and, like the holy angels, per. them before this world was made, is very con- haps, have various orders among them, Matt.. tracted. To suppose, say they, that no creatures xii. 24. Eph. ii. 2. vi. 12. Col. ll. 15. Rev. xii. whatever, neither angels nor other worlds, had 7. Their constant employ is not only doing evil been created previous to the creation of our themselves, but endeavouring by all arts to secluce workel, is to suppose that a Being of infinite and pervert mankind, 1 Pei. v. 8. Job. i. 6. It power, wisdom, and goodness, had remained is supposed they will be restrained during the tally inactive from all eternity, and had per- millennium, Rev. xx.2; but afterwards again, for mitteal the intinity of space to continue a perfect a short time, deceive the nations, Rev. xx. 8; and varuun till within th se 600) years; that such then be finally punished, Matt. xxv. 41. The an vlea only tends to discredit revelation, instead authors who have written on this subject have of serving it. On the other hand it is alleged, been very numerous; we shall only refer to a luat they must have been created within the six few: Reynolds's Inquiryinto the Stuie and Ecodxyz; because it is said, that within this space nomy of the Angelical World; Cudworth's In Gud made heaven and earth, and all things that tellectual System ; Doddridge's Lech p. 10. leot. are therein. It is, however, a needlese sperula-1210 to 214; Milton's Paradise Losts Bp. Nera