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ABYSS lic countries, the chief distinctions are those of re- | are forgiven through the merits of Jesus Christ; gular and commendatory. The former take the and that those who remain in unbelief are in a vow and wear the habit of their order; whereas state of condemnation. Any idea of authority the latter are seculars, though they are obliged given to fallible, uninspired men, to absolve sinby their bulls to take orders when of proper age. ners, different from this, is unscriptural; nor can
ABELIANS, or ABELONIANS, a sect which I see much utility in the terms ministerinl or dearose in the diocese of Hippo in Africa, and is claratire absolution, as adopted by some divines, supposed to have begun in the reign of Arcadius, since absolution is wholly the prerogative of God; and ended in that of Theodosius. Indeed, it was and the terms abovementioned may, to say the not calculated for being of any long continuance. least, have no good influence on the minds of the They regulated marriage after the example of ignorant and superstitious. Abel, who, they pretended, was married, but ABSTEMII, a name given to such persons as lived in a state of continence : they therefore al- could not partake of the cup of the eucharist, on lowed each man to marry one woman, but en account of their natural aversion to wine. joined them to live in the same state.
ABSTINENCE, in a general sense, is the up the sect, when a man and woman entered into act of refraining from something which we have this society, they adopted a boy and a girl, who a propension to or find pleasure in. It is more were to inherit their goods, and to marry upon particularly used for fasting or forbearing from the same terms of not having children, but of necessary food. Among the Jews, various kinds adopting two of different sexes.
of abstinence were ordained by their law. Among ABESTA, the name of one of the sacred the primitive Christians, some denied themselves books of the Persian Magi, which they ascribe to the use of such meats as were prohibited by that their great founıler, Zoroaster. The Abesta is a w; others looked upon this abstinence with commentary on two others of their religious books contempt; as to which Paul gives his opinion, called Zend and Pazend; the three together in- Romans xiv. 1, 3. The council of Jerusalem, cluding the whole system of the Ignicolæ, or wor- which was held by the apostles, enjoined the shippers of fire.
Christian converts to abstain from meats strangled, ABILITY. See INABILITY.
from blood, from fornication, and from idolatry. ABLUTION, a ceremony in use among the Acts xv. Upon this passage Dr. Doddridge ob ancients, and still practised in several parts of the serves, “that though neither things sacrificed to world. It consisted in washing the body, which idols, nor the flesh of strangled animals, nor was always done before sacrificing, or even en- blood, have or can have any moral evil in them, tering their houses. Ablutions appear to be as which should make the eating of them absolutely old as any ceremonies, and external worship and universally unlawful; yet they were forbid. itself. Moses enjoined them, the heathens adopt- den to the Gentile converts, because the Jews had ed them, and Mahomet and his followers have such an aversion to them, that they could not continued them. The Egyptians, the Greeks, converse freely with any who used them. This the Romans, the Jews, all had them. The is plainly the reason which James assigns in the ancient Christians had their ablutions before very next words, the 21st verse, and it is abundcommunion, which the Romish church still retain antly sufficient. This reason is now ceased, and before their mass, and sometimes after. The the obligation to abstain from eating these things Syrians, Copts, &c. have their solemn washings ceases with it. But were we in like circumstanon Good Friday: the Turks also have their ablu- ces again, Christian charity would surely require tions, their Ghast, their Wodou, Aman, &c. us to lay ourselves under the same restraint."
ABSOLUTION signifies acquittal. It is The spiritual monarchy of the western world taken also for that act whereby the priest declares introduced another sort of abstinence, which the sins of such as are penitent remitted. The may be called ritual, and consists in abstaining Romanists hold absolution part of the sacra- from particular meats at certain times and scament of penance; and the council of Trent and sons, the rules of which are called rogations. If that of Florence declare the form or essence of 1 mistake not, the impropriety of this kind of abthe sacrament to lie in the words of absolution, stinence is clearly pointed out in 1 Tim. iv. 3."I absolve thee of thy sins.” According to this, In England, abstinence from flesh has been enno one can receive absolution without the privity, joined by statute, even since the Reformation; consent, and declaration of the priest; except, particularly on Fridays and Saturdays, on vigils, therefore, the priest be willing, God himself can- and on all days commonly called fish days. The not pardon any man. This is a doctrine as blas- like injunctions were renewed under queen Elizaphenous as it is ridiculous. The chief passage beth; but at the same time it was declared, that on which they ground their power of absolution this was done not out of motives of religion, as is that in John xx. 23 : “Whosesoever sins ye re- | if there were any difference in meats, but in famit, they are remitted unto them, and whosesoever vour of the consumption of fish, and to multiply sins ye retain, they are retained.” But this is the number of fishermen and mariners, as well as not to the purpose; since this was a special com- to spare the stock of sheep. See FASTING. mission to the apostles themselves, and the first ABYSS, from the Greek a Euroos, composed preachers of the Gospel, and most probably re- of <priv. and Euroos, Ion. for subos, signifies piro ferred to the power he gave them of discerning perly without a bottom. In the English version spirits. By virtue of this power, Peter struck of the Scriptures it is rendered by the deep, the Ananias and Sapphira dead, and Paul struck great deep, and the bottomless pit. Though Elymas blind. But, supposing the passage in primarily used in reference to a vast and untaquestion to apply to the successors of the apostles, thomed mass of waters, it is also applied to pro and to ministers in general, it can only import found depths, cavities, and recesses in general, that their office is to preach pardon to the peni- whether in ihe earth or in the sea. As the tont, assuring those who believe that their sins I tombs and cemeteries in the East consisted of
ACCOMMODATION spacious subterranean vaults or gloomy caverns, | feared, however, that there is little beside the round the sides of which were cells to receive the name of Christianity among them. Should the dead bodies, the term was employed to denote the reader be desirous to know more of this sect, le grave, or the common receptacle of the dead, may consult Father Lobo's Voyage to Abyssinia ; Rom. x. 7. In the symbolical language of the Bruce's Trarels ; Ludolph's History of Ethio book of Revelation, its import is somewhat dif- pia ; and Dict. of Arts and Sciences, vol. i. p. 15. ferent. In ch. ix. 1-3, at the sounding of the ACADEMICS, a denomination given to the fifth trumpet, a star fell from heaven unto the cultivators of a species of philosophy originally earth; and to him was given the key of the bot-derived from Socrates, and afterwards illustomless pit, (literally, of the well of the abyss,) trated and enforced by Plato. The contradictory and he opened the bottomless pit; and there systems which had been successively urged upon arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a the world, were become so nunerous, that, from great furnace, -and there came out of the smoke a view of the variety and uncertainty of human Turusts upon the earth.” On this passage an opinions, many were led to believe that truth lay eininent expositor of prophecy observes, The beyond the reach of our comprehension. The poetic machinery of this vision is taken from the consequence of this conclusion was absolute scep sacred oracular caves of the ancient Pagans, ticism : hence the existence of God, the immorwhich were often thought to communicate with tality of the soul, the preferableness of virtue in the sea or the great abyss, and which were es- vice, were all held as uncertain. This sect, with pecially valued when (like that at Delphi) they that of the Epicureans, were the two chief that emitted an intoxicating
vapour; it is used, there were in vogue at the time of Christ's appearance, fore, with singular propriety in foretelling the rise and were embraced and supported by persons of of a religious imposture.” This symbol, accord-high rank and wealth. A consideration of the ingly is interpreted by the best expositors, of the principles of these two sects (see EpicureANS) rise of the Mahometan delusion in the com- will lead us to form an idea of the deplorable state mencement of the 7th century, and as having a of the world at the time of Christ's birth; and the special allusion to Mahomet's retiring to the cave necessity there was of some divine teacher to conof Hera for the purpose of fabricating his im- vey to the mind true and certain principles of reposture. Although the phrase bottomless pit is ligion and wisdom. Jesus Christ, therefore, is in popular usage employed as of the same import with great propriety called the Day Spring from with hell, yet there is no place in the Scriptures on high, the Sun of Righteousness, that arose up where it can be clearly shown to be synonymous on a benighted world to dispel the clouds of ignowith the places of future torment of the wicked. rance and error, and discover to lost man the Faber's Sacred Calendar of Prophecy; Daubuz on path of happiness and heaven. But, as we do The Rerelation; Schleusner's Gr. Lericon.-B. not mean to enlarge much upon these and some
APYSSINIAN CHURCH, that which is other sects, which belong rather to philosoestablished in the empire of Abyssinia. They phy than theology, we shall refer the reader to are a branch of the Copts, with whom they agree Budæus's Introduction to the History of Philoso in almiiting only one nature in Jesus Christ, and phy; Stanley's Lires; Prucker's History of rejecting the council of Chalcedon; whence they | Philosophy; or (which is more modern) Er are also called Monophysites and Eutychians, | field's Abridgment. which se. The Abyssinian church is governed by ACCLAMATIONS, ecclesiastical, a bishop, stylel Abuna. They have canons also, shouts of joy which the people expressed by way and mouks. The emperor has a kind of supre- of approbation of their preachers. It hardly mey in ecclesiastical matters. The Abyssinians scems credible to us that practices of this kind huve at divers times expressed an inclination to should ever have found their way into the church be reconciled to the see of Rome; but rather where all ought to be reverence and solemnity. frin interested views than any other motive. Yet so it was in the fourth century. The people They practice circumcision on females as well as were not only permitted, but sometimes even exmales. They eat no meats prohibited by the law horted, by the preacher himself, to approve liis taof Moses. They observe both Saturday and lents by clapping of hands, and loud acclamations Sundy sabbaths. Women are obliged to the. of praise. The usual words they made use of legal purifications. Brothers marry their brother's were, “Orthodox," "Thiru apostle,” &c. These wives &c. On the other hand, they celebrate acclamations being carried to excess, and often the Epiphany with peculiar festivity; have four misplaced, were frequently prohibiied by the an. Lents; pray for the dead; and invoke angels. cient doctors, and at length 'abrogated. Even as Images in painting they venerate ; but abhor all late, however, as the seventeenth and eighteenth shone in relievo, except the cross. They admit centuries, we find practices that were not very the apocryphal books and the canons of the apos- decorous; such as loud humming, frequent groan tles, as well as the apostolical constitutions, for ing, strange gestures of the body, &c. See argenuine. They allow of divorec, which is easily ticles DANCERS, Shakers. granted among them, and by the civil judge; nor ACCOMMODATION of SCRIPTURE, do their civil laws prohibit polygamy. — They is the application of it not to its literal meaning, have, at least, as many miracles and legends of but to something analogous to it. Thus a prosints as the Romish church. They hold that phecy is said to be fullilled properly when a thing the soul of man is not created ; because, say they, foretold comes to pass; and by way of accommo God finished all his works on the sixth day. dation, wben an event happens to any place or Thus we sce that the doctrines and ritual of this people similar to what fell out some time before sect form a strange compound of Judaism and to another. Thus the worils of Isaiah, spoken to Christianity, ignorance and superstition. Some, those of his own time, are said to be fulfilled in indeed, have been at a loss to know whether those who lived in our Saviour's, “ Ye hypo. they are most Christians or Jews : it is to be crites, well did Esaias prophesy,” &c. which sinne
ACT OF FAITH words St. Paul afterwards accommodates to the ance; but their functions were different from Jews of his time. Isa, xxix. 14. Matt. xv. 8. those of their first institution. Their business Acts xii. 41. Great care, however, should be was to fight the tapers, carry the candlesticks and taken by preachers who are fond of accommo- the incense pot, and prepare the wine and water. dating texts, that they first clearly state the literal At Rome there were three kinds: 1. those who sense of the passage.
waited on the pope • 2. those who served in the ACCOMMODATION SYSTEM, a name churches ; 3. and others, who together with the given to a peculiar mode of scriptural interpreta- deacons, officiated in other parts of the city. tion, adopted during the last century by Semler ACT OF FAITH (Auto da Fé,) in the Roand' other German divines, which teaches, that mish church, is a solemn day held by the Inquisimany things, uttered by our Saviour and his tion for the punishment of heretics, and the abso Apostles, in the course of their instructions, are lution of the innocent accused. They usually not to be understood as expressing the actual contrive the Auto to fall on some great festival, reality and ocrity of things, or conveying true that the execution may pass with the more awe; doctrines, but as merely adopted in accommoda- and it is always on a Sunday. The Auto da Fé tion to the popular belief
, and the deep-rooted may be called the last act of the inquisitorial traprejudice of the Jews. For instance, when our gedy: it is a kind of gaol delivery, appointed as Saviour speaks of persons being possessed with often as a competent number of prisoners in evil spirits, we are not according to this theory, the Inquisition are convicted of heresy, either by to imagine there was really any such things as their own voluntary or extorted confession, or on demoniacal possession, or that Christ intended the evidence of certain witnesses. The process to teach that doctrine; but as the notion had been is this :- In the morning they are brought into a long prevalent among the Jews that men under the great hall, where they have certain habits put on, influence of certain bulily diseases were possessed which they are to wear in the procession, and by by the devil, he accommodated himself in his which they know their doom. The procession language to their weakness and simplicity, "that is led up by Dominican friars, after which come the he might win the more." And so ihe Apostles. penitents, being all in black coats without sleeves, See this dangerous doctrine ably canvassed and and barefooted, with a wax candle in their hands. refuted in Storr's Essay on the Historical Sense, These are followed by the penitents who have translated by Gibbs, or the original treatise in his narrowly escaped being burnt, who over their Opuscula.-B.
black coats have flames painted, with their points ACCURSED, something that lics under a turned downwarıls. Next come the negative and curse or sentence of exconmunication. In the relapsed, who are to be burnt, having flames on Jewish idiom, accursed and crucified were their habits pointing upwards. After these come synonymous: among them, every one was ac- such as profess doctrines contrary to the faith of counted accursed who died on a tree. This Rome, who besides fames pointing upwards, serves perhaps to explain the difficult passage in have their picture painted on their breasts, with Rom. ix. 2 where the apostle wishes hinselt ac- dogs, serpents, and devils, all open-mouthed, cursed after the manner of Christ; i. e. crucified, about it. Each prisoner is attended by a famiif happily he might by such a death suve his liar of the Inquisition; and those to be burnt
The preposition are here made have also a Jesuit on each hand, who are continuuse of, is used in the same sense, 2 Tim. i. 3, ally preaching to them to abjure. After the when it obviously signifies after the manner of. prisoners, comes a troop of familiars on horseback;
ACEPHALÍ, i. e. headless; from the priva- and after them the Inquisitors, and other officers tive a, and 2003an hecd; such bishops were ex- of the court, on mules: last of all the inquisitorempt from the discipline and jurisdiction of their general on a white horse, led by two men with ordinary bishop or patriarch. It was also the black hats and green hátbands. A scaffold is denomination of certain sects; 1. of those who, erected big enough for two or three thousand in the affair of the council of Ephesus, refused to people; at one end of which are the prisoners, at follow either St. Cyril or John of Antioch; 2. of the other the Inquisitors. After a sermun made certain heretics in the fifth century, who, at first, up of encomiums on the Inquisition, and invecfollowed Peter Mongus, but afterwards abandoned tives against heretics, a priest ascends a desk near him upon his subscribing to the council of Chalce- the scailold, and having taken the abjuration of don, they themselves adhering to the Eutychian the penitents, recites the final sentence of those heresy: and, 3. of the followers of Severus of An- who are to be put to death, and delivers then tioch, and of all, in general, who held out against to the secular arm, earnestiy beseeching at the the council of Chalcedon.
same time the secular power not to touch their ACOEMETÆ, or ACOEMETI, an order of blood, or put their lires in danger!!! The monks at Constantinople in the fifth century, prisoners, being thus in the hands of the civil whom the writers of that and the following ages magistrate, are presently loaded with chains, and called Axovutta, that is, Watchers, because they carried first to the secular gao!, and from thence, performed divine service day and night without in an hour or two, brought refore the civil judge; intermission. They divided themselves into who, after asking in what religion they iniend io three classes, who alternately succeeded one an: Jie, pronounces sentence, on such as declare they other, so that they kept up a perpetual course of die in the communion of the church of Ronie, worship. This practice they founded upon that that they shall be first strangled, and then burnt passage-"Pray without ceasing," I 'Thess. v. 17. to ashes: or such as die in any other faith, that
ACOLYTHI, or Acoluthi, from axonoubos, a they be burnt alive. Both are immediately carfollower, young people who, in the primitive ried to the Ribera, the place of execution, where times, aspired to the ininistry, and for tha: pur- there are as many stakes set up as there are pose continually attended the bishop. In the prisoners to be burnt, with a quantity of dry furze komish church, Acolythi were of longer continu-l about them. The stakes of the prolessco, that is
ACTS OF THE APOSTLES
ADAMITES such as persist in the heresy, are about four | sion of Paul, the admission of the Gentiles into yards high, having a small board towards the top the church, the council of Jerusalem, and the for the prisoner to be seated on. The negative planting of Christian Churches in the principal and relapsed being first strangled and burnt, the provinces of the Roman empire. The history is professed mount their stakes by a ladder, and the written with a tolerably strict attention to chroJesuits, after several repeated exhortations to be inological order, though the author has not affixed reconciled to the church, part with them; telling a date to any one of the facts recorded by him. them that they leave them to the devil, who is But as political events, the dates of which are standing at their elbow, to receive their souls
, and known, are frequently introduced or alluded to carry them with him to the flames of hell. On this in connexion with the ecclesiastical narrative, a great shout is raised; and the cry is, “Let the the chronology of the whole book is for the most dogs beards be made!” which is done by thrusting part capable of being pretty definitely settled. Naming furzes fastened to long poles against their The style of the Acts, which was written in faces, till their faces are burnt to a coal, which is Greek, is perspicuous and noble. Though tincaccornpanied with the loudest acclamations of joy. tured with Hebraisms, it is in general much purer At last, fire is set to the furze at the bottom of the than that of most other books of the New Testastake, over which the professed are chained so ment, particularly in the speeches delivered by high, that the top of the Name seldom reaches Paul. "The book forms one of the most importhigher than the seat they sit on; so that they ra- ant parts of sacred luistory; for without it neither ther seem roasted than burnt. There cannot be a the Gospels nor Epistles could have been so more lamentable spectacle: the sufferers continu- clearly understood; and by the correspondence of ally cry out while they are able, “Pity for the incidental circumstances mentioned in this history love of God!" Yet it is beheld by all sexes and and in the Epistles, of such a nature as to show ages with transports of joy and satisfaction.— that neither the one nor the other could have been O inerciful God! is this the benign, humane re-forged, an irrefragable evidence of the truth of ligion thou hast given to men ? Surely not. If | Christianity is afforded. Among the most imauch were the genius of Christianity, then it portant works expository or illustrative of the would be no honour to be a Christian. Let us, Acts of the Apostles are Cradock's Apostolical however, rejoice that the time is coming when History; Benson's First Planting of Christianthe demon of Persecution shall be banished out ity; Paley's Horæ Paulinæ ; Heinrich's Acta this our world, and the true spirit of bertevolence Apostolorum; Buddeus' Ecclesia Apostolica.-B. and candour pervade the universe; when none There have been several acts of the apostles, shall hurt or destroy, but the earth be filled with such as the acts of Abdias, of Peter, of Paul, St. the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover John the Evangelist, St. Andrew, St. Thomas, the sca! So INQUISITION.
St. Philip, and St. Matthias; but they have been ACTION FOR THE PULPIT. See De- all proved to be spurious. CLAMATION.
ACTS OF PILATE, a relation sent by Pi. ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, the fifth and late to the Emperor Tiberius, concerning Jesus last of the historical books of the New Testament, Christ, his death, resurrection, ascension, and containing a great part of the lives and transactions the crimes of which he was convicted before him. of Peter and Paul, and of the history of the infant It was a custom among the Romans, that the church for the space of lwenty-nine or thirty proconsuls and governors of provinces should years from the ascension of our Lord to the time draw up acts or memoirs of what happened in of Paul's arrival at Rome after his appeal to Cæ- the course of their government, and send them to sur, A. D. 65. That Luke was the author of the the emperor and senate. The genuine acts of Acts of the Apostles is evident both from the in- Pilate were sent by him to Tiberius, who retroduction, and from the unanimous testimonies ported them to the senate ; but they were rejected of the early Christians. This book, as well as by that assembly, because not immediately ad. the Gospel bearing his name, is inscribed to dressed to them;
as is testified by Tertullian, in Theophilus, and in the very first verse of the his Apol. cap. 5, and 20, 21. The heretics Acts there is a reference made to his Gospel, forged acts in imitation of them; but both the which he calls the former treatise. From the genuine and the spurious are now lost. frequent use of the first person plural it is clear ADAMITES, a sect that sprang up in the that he was present at most of the transactions second century. Epiphanius tells us that they be relates. The design of the author does not were called Adamites from their pretending to appear to have been to give a complete ecclesias- be re-established in the state of innocence, such tical history of the Christian church during the as Adam was at the moment of his creation, penod embraced in the work; for he has almost whence they ought to imitate him in going naked. whsully omitted what passed among the Jews af- They detested marriage; maintaining that the Ler the conversion of Paul, and is totally silent conjugal union would never have taken place concerning the spread of Christianity in the East upon earth, had sin been unknown. This oband in Egypt, as well as the foundation of the scure and ridiculous sect did not last long. It church of Christ at Rome, as also concerning the was, however, revived with additional absurdities Favours and sufferings of inost of the other Apos in the twelfth century. About the beginning of ti s besides Peter and Paul; but to relate the the fifteenth century, these errors spread in Ger. most prominent events connected with the esta- many and Bohemia: it found alsn some partisans bilstnent of Christianity, and such as may be in Poland, Holland, and England. They asconsidered to have bad the most important bear- sembled in the night; and, it is sud, one of the is uron its subsequent prosperity; among fundamental maxims of their society was conwich may be reckoned the effusion of the Holy tained in the following verse: Sprint on the day of Perlecost, the persecutions
Jura, perjura, scretum prodere noll. su dispersions of the early disciples, the conver Swear, forswear, and reveal not the secret.
ADOPTION ADIAPHORISTS, a name given in the six- | adoption is an act of God's free grace, whereby teenth century to the moderate Lutherans who we are received into the number, and have a adhered to the sentiments of Melancthon; and right to all the privileges of the sons of God. 3. afterwards to those who subscribed the Interim Glorious, is that in which the saints, being raised of Charles V. (See INTERIM.) The word is of from the dead, are at the last day solemnly owned Greek origin (ados popos,) and signifies indiffer- to be the children of God, and enter into the full ence or lukewarmness.
possession of that inheritance provided for them. ADMIRATION is that passion of the mind kom. vii. 19, 23. Adoption is a word taken which is excited by the discovery of any great from the civil law, and was much in use among excellence in an object. It has by some writers the Romans in the Apostles' time; when it was a been used as synonymous with surprise and custom for persons who had no children of their wonder; but it is evident they are not the same. own, and were possessed of an estate, to prevent Surprise refers to something unexpected; wonder, its being divided or descending to strangers, to to something great or strange; but admiration in- make choice of such as were agreeable to them, cludes the idea of high esteem or respect. Thus, and beloved by them, whom they took into this we say we admire a man's excellencies; but we political relation of children ; obliging them to do not say that we are surprised at them. We take their name upon them, and to pay respect wonder at an extraordinary object or event, but to them as though they were their natural pawe do not always admire it.
rents, and engaging to deal with them as though ADMONITION denotes a hint or advice they had been so; and accordingly to give them a given to another, whereby we reprove him for his right to their estates, as an inheritance. This fault, or remind him of his duty. Admonition new relation, founded in a mutual consent, is a was a part of the discipline much used in the an- bond of affection; and the privilege arising from cient church; it was the first act or step towards thence is, that he, who is in this sense a father, the punishment or expulsion of delinquents. In takes care of and provides for the person whom case of private offences, it was performed accord- he adopts, as though he were his son by nature; ing to evangelical rule, privately; in case of pub- and therefore civilians call it an act of legitimadic offence, openly before the church. If either tion, imitating nature, or supplying the place of it. of these sufficed for the recovery of the fallen It is easy, then, to conceive the propriety of the person, all further proceedings, in a way of cen- term as used by the apostle, in reference to this sure, ceased ; if they did not recourse was had to act, though it must be confessed there is some excoinmunication. Tit. ii. 10. 1 Thess. v. 14. difference between civil and spiritual adoption. Eph. vi. 4.
Civil adoption was allowed of and provided for 'ADONAI, Hebrew '317%, a title of the Su- the relief and comfort of those who had no chilpreme Being in the Scriptures, rendered in En- dren; but in spiritual adoption this season does glish by the word Lord. The original comes not appear. The Almighty was under no oblifrom Aden, a base, pillar, or supporter; and it is gation to do this; for he had innumerable spirits not a little remarkable that the etymology of our whom he had created, besides his own Son, who vernacular Lord is precisely similar, it being a had all the perfections of the divine nature, who contraction of the old Saxon laford, or hlafford, was the object of his delight, and who is styled from laef, to support or sustain, the same root the heir of all things, Heb. i. 3. When men from which also comes the English word loaf. adopt, it is on account of some excellency in the The Hebrew JEHovau is likewise translated persons who are adopted : thus Pharaoh's daughLord in our Bibles, and this is known by its ter adopted Moses because he was exceeding fair, being printed in capital letters, whereas in the Acts vii. 20, 21; and Mordecai adopted Esther other case the common small character is employ- because she was his uncle's daughter, and exed. The Jews, from excessive reverence, never ceeding fair
, Est. ii. 7; but man has nothing in pronounce the name JEHOVAH when they meet him that merits this divine act, Ezek. xvi. 5. In with it in reading the Hebrew Scriptures, but civil adoption, though the name of a son be given, invariably substitute Adonai, which has the same the nature of a son may not: this relation may vowel points. But there is no law forbidding the not necessarily be attended with any change of enunciation of the name JEHOVAH; nor does it disposition or temper. But in the spiritual adopappear to have been scrupled by the ancient tion we are made partakers of the divine nature, Jews.-B.
and a temper or disposition given us becoming ADONISTS, a party among divines and the relationship we bear. Jer. q. 19. critics, who maintain that the Hebrow points or Much has been said as to the time of adoption. dinarily annexed to the consonants of the word Some place it before regeneration, because it is Jehovah are not the natural points belonging to supposed we must be in the family before we can that word, nor express the true pronounciation be partakers of the blessings of it. But it is ditfiof it; but are the vowel points belonging to the cult to conceive of one before the other; for alwords Adonai and Elohim, applied to the con- though adoption may seem to precede regenerasonants of the ineffable name Jehovah, to warn tion in order of nature, yet not of time; they may the readers, that instead of the word Jehovah, be distinguished, but cannot be separated. which the Jews were forbid to pronounce, and many as received him, to them gave he power to the true pronunciation of which had been long become the sons of God, even to them that beunknown to them, they are always to read Ado | lieve on his name." John i. 12.
There is no nai. They are opposed to Jehovists, of whom adoption, says the great Charnock, without rethe principal are Drusius, Capellus, Buxtorf, generation. " Adoption," says the same author, Alting, and Reland.
is not a mere relation: the privilege and the ADOPTION, an act whereby any person re- image of the sons of God go together. A state ceives another into his family, owns him for his of adoption is never without a separation from son, and appoints him his beir. 2. Spiritual | defilement.” 2 Cor. vi. 17. 18. The new name