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ADULTERY

AERIANS m adoption is never given till the new creature | affection is inflicted a wound the most painful be formed "As many as are led by the Spirit and incurable that human nature knows. The of God, they are the sons of God.” Rom. viii. 14. infidelity of the woman is aggravated by cruelty Yet these are to be distinguished. Regeneration, to her children, who are generally involved in as a physical act, gives us a likeness to God in their parent's shame, and always made unhappy our nature; adoption, as a legal act, gives us a by their quarrel. The marriage vow is witnessed right to an inheritance. Regeneration makes us before God, and accompanied with circumstances formally his sons, by conveying a principle, 1 of solemnity and religion which approach to the Pet. i. 23; adoption makes us relatively his sons, nature of an oath. The married offender, thereby conveying a power, John i. 12. By the one fore, incurs a crime little short of perjury, and the we are instated in the divine affection; by the seduction of a married woman is little less than other we are partakers of the divine nature." subornation of perjury. But the strongest apo

See Ridgley's and Gill's Body of Div. art. logy for adultery is, the prior transgression of the Adoption; Charnock's Works, vol. ii. p. 32—72; other party; and so far, indeed, as the bad effects Flarel's Works, vol. ii. p. 601; Brown's System of adultery are anticipated by the conduct of the of Nal. and Rer. Religion, p. 442; Witsii husband or wife who offends first, the guilt of the Econ. Fæd. p. 165.

second offender is extenuated. But this can never ADORATION, the act of rendering divine amount to a justification, unless it could be shown honours, including in it reverence, esteem, and that the obligation of the marriage vow depends Jove: this is called supreme, or absolute. The upon the condition of reciprocal fidelity: a conword is compounded of ad, "to," and os, oris, struction which appears founded neither in expe"mouth” and literally signifies to apply the diency, nor in the terms of the vow, nor in the hand to the mouth, "to kiss the hand;" this be- design of the legislature, which prescribed the ing, in the eastern countries, one of the great marriage rite. To consider the offence upon the marks of respect and submission. See Job xxxi. footing of provocation, therefore, can by no means 8, 27. The attitude of adoration, however, we vindicate retaliation.'" Thou shalt not commit find has not been confined to this mode; standing, adultery," it must ever be remembered, was an kneeling, uncovering the head, prostration, bow- interdict delivered by God himself. This crime ing, lifting up the eyes to heaven, or sometimes has been punished in almost all ages and nations. fixing them upon the earth with the body bend- By the Jewish law it was punished with death in ing forward ; sitting with the under parts of the both parties, where either the woman was marthighs resting on the heels, have all been used, as ried, or both. Among the Egyptians, adultery expressive of veneration and esteem. Whatever in the man was punished by a thousand lashes be the form, however, it must be remembered, with rods, and in the woman by the loss of her that adoration, as an act of worship, is due to God nose. The Greeks put out the eyes of the adulalonc, Matt. iv. 10. Acts x. 25, 26. Rev. xix. 10. terers. Among the Romans, it was punished by There is, 2. what may be called adoration human, banishment, cutting off the ears, noses, and by or paying homage or respect to persons of great sewing the adulterers in sacles, and throwing rank and dignity. This has been performed by them into the sea ; scourging, burning, &c. In howing, bending the knee, falling on the face. Spain and Poland they were almost as severe. The practice of adoration may be said to be still The Saxons formerly burnt the adulteress, and subsisting in England, in the ceremony of kiss-over her ashes erected a gibbet, whereon the ing the king's or queen's hand, and in serving adulterer was hanged. King Edmund, in this them at table, both being performed kneeling on kingdom, ordered adultery to be punished in the one knee. There is also, 3. adoration relative, save manner as homicide. Canute ordered the which consists in worship paid to an object as be- man to be banished, and the women to have her longing to or representative of another. In this nose and ears cut off. Modern punishments in sense the Romanists profess to adore the cross, different nations, do not seem to be so severe. In not simply or immediately, but in respect of Jesus Britain it is reckoned a spiritual offence, and is Christ, whom they suppose to be on it. This is cognizable by the spiritual courts

, where it is pun. generally, however, considered by Protestants as ished by fine and penance. See Paley's Mora. coming little short of idolatry. See IDOLATRY. and Political Philosophy, p. 309. vol. i. 12th

ADULTERY, an unlawful commerce be- edition. tween one married person and another, or between AERIANS, the name of a sect which arose in a married and unmarried person.—2. It is also the fourth century, under the reign of Constanused in Scripture for idolatry, or departing from the tine, so called from Aerius, a presbyter of Sebas. true God, Jer. iii. 9.-3. Also for any species of tia in Pontus, their founder. The errors laid to inipurity or crime against the virtue of chastity, the charge of Aerius by Epiphanius are, 1. That Matt. v. 28.-4. It is also used in ecclesiastical a presbyicr or elder differs not in order and degroe writers for a person's invading or intruding into from a bishop, but he who is a presbyter is called a bishoprie during the former bishop's lite.-5. a bishop. 2. That there is properly speaking no The word is also used in ancient customs for the passover remaining to be observed or celebrated panishment or fine imposed for that offence, or among Christians. 3. That fasts ought not to be the privilege of prosecuting for it. Although fixed to certain and stated annual days and soulutery is prohibited by the law of God, yet some lemnities. 4. That prayers ought not to be offered have endeavoured to explain away the moral tur- for the dead. It must be accountelstange, that pitude of it; but it is evident, observes Paley, that, these doctrines should, with orthodox Christians, on the part of the man who solicits the chastity ever be adduced as evidence of heresy. And, of a married woman, it certainly includes the accordingly, the reader will find in the works of crime of seduction, and is attended with mischief Mr. John Glas, vol. iv, an able attempt to vindistill more extensive and complicated : it creatos a cate the character of Aerius from the opprobrium new sufferer, the injorod husband, upon whose usually cast upon it by ecclesiastical writers.-B.

AFFECTION

AFFLICTION AETIANS, those who maintained that the very zealous in externals; to be always conversing Son and Holy Ghost were in all things dissimi- about ourselves, &c. These things are often lar to the Father. They received their name from found in those who are only mere professors of Aetius, one of the most zealous defenders of religion, Matt. vii. 21, 22. Arianism, who was born in Syria, and flourished Now, in order to ascertain whether our affecabout the year 336. Besides the opinions which tions are excited in a spiritual manner, we must the Aetians held in common with the Arians, inquire whether that which moves our affections they maintained that faith without works was be truly spiritual; whether our consciences be sufficient to salvation; and that no sin, how- alarmed, and our hearts impressed; whether the ever grievous, would be imputed to the faithful. judgment be enlightened, and we have a percepAetius, moreover, affirmed, that what God had tion of the moral excellency of divine things; and, concealed from the apostles, he had revealed to lastly, whether our affections have a holy tenhim.

dency, and produce the happy effects of obedience AFFECTION, in a philosophical sense, re- to God, humility in ourselves, and justice to our fers to the manner in which we are affected by fellow-creatures. As this is a subject worthy of any thing for a continuance, whether painful or close attention, the reader may consult Lord pleasant; but in the most common sense, it may Kaimes's Elements of Criticism, vol. ii. p. 517; be defined to be a settled bent of mind towards a Edwards on the Affections; Pike and Hayward's particular being or thing. It holds a middle place Cases of Conscience ; Watts's Use and Abuse of between disposition on the one hand, and passion the Passions ; M'Laurin's Essays, sect. 5 and 6, on the other. It is distinguishable from disposi- where this subject is handled in a masterly mantion, which, being a branch of one's nature ori- ner. ginally, must exist before there can be any op AFFLICTION, that which causes a sensaportunity to exert it upon any particular object ; tion of pain. Calamity or distress of any kind. whereas affection can never be original, because, The afflictions of the saints are represented, in having a special relation to a particular object, it the Scripture, as appointed, 1 Thess. jü. 3. Job cannot exist till the object have once, at least, v. 6, 7; numerous, Ps, xxxiv. 19; transient, 2 been presented. It is also distinguishable from Cor. iv. 17. Heb. x. 37; and, when sanctified, passion, which, depending on the real or ideal beneficial, 1 Pet. i. 6. Ps. cxix. 67, 71. They presence of its object, vanishes with its object; wean from the world ; work submission; produce whereas affection is a lasting connexion, and, humility; excite to diligence; stir up to prayer; like other connexions, subsists even when we do and conform us to the divine image. To bear not think of the object. (See Disposition and them with patience, we should consider our own Passion.) The affections, as they respect reli- unworthiness; the design of God in sending gion, deserve in this place a little attention. They them; the promises of support under them; and may be defined to be the "vigorous and sensible the real good they are productive of. The afflicexercises of the inclination and will of the soul tions of a good man, says an elegant writer, never towards religious objects.” Whatever extremes befal without a cause, nor are sent but upon a prostoics or enthusiasts have run into, it is evident per errand. These storms are never allowed to rise that the exercise of the affections is essential to but in order to dispel some noxious vapours, and the existence of true religion. It is true, indeed, restore salubrity to the moral atmosphere. Who *that all aflectionate devotion is not wise and that for the first time beheld the earth in the midst rational; but it is no less true, that all wise and of winter, bound up with frost, or drenched in tioods rational devotion must be affectionate." The of rain, or covered with snow, would have imaaffections are the springs of action: they belong gined that nature, in this dreary and torpid state, to our nature, so that with the highest percep- was working towards its own renovation in the tions of truth and religion, we should be inactive spring? Yet we by experience know that those without them. They have considerable influence vicissitudes of winter are necessary for fertilising on men, in the common concerns of life; how the earth ; and that under wintry rains and snows much more, then, should they operate in those lie concealed the seeds of those roses that are to important objects that relate to the Divine Being, blossoin in the spring; of those fruits that are to the immortality of the soul, and the happiness or ripen in the summer; and of the corn and wine misery of a future state! The religion of the which are, in harvest, to make glad the heart of most eminent saints has always consisted in the man. It would be more agreeable to us to be exercise of holy affections. Jesus Christ himself always entertained with a fair and clear atmo affords us an example of the most lively and sphere, with cloudless skies, and perpetual sunvigorous affections; and we have every reason to shine ; yet in such climates as we have most believe that the employment of heaven consists in knowledge of the earth, were it always to remain the exercise of them. In addition to all which, in such a state, would refuse to gick its fruits; the Scriptures of truth teach us, that religion is and, in the midst of our imagined scenes of beauty, nothing, if it occupy not the affections, Deut. vi. the starved inhabitants would perish for want of 4 and 5. Deut. xxx. 6. Rom. xii. 11. 1 Cor. xiii. food. Let us, therefore, quietly submit to Provi13. Ps. xxvii. 14.

dence. Let us conceive this life to be the winter A distinction, however, inust be made between of our existence. Now the rains must fall, and what may be merely natural, and what is truly the winds must roar around us; but, sheltering spiritual. The affections may ve excited in a ourselves under Him who is the “covert from the natural way under ordinances by a natural im- tempest,” let us wait with patience till the storms pression, Ezek. xxxiii. 32; by a natural syınpa- of life shall terminate in an everlasting calin. Uy, or by the natural temperament of our con-Blair's Ser. vol. v. ser. 5; Vincent, Case, and stitution. It is no sign that our affections are Addington, on Affliction; Willison's Aficted spiritual because they are raised very bigh ; pro Man's Companion. duce great effects on the body; excite us to be AGAPÂ, or Love-Feasts, (from ayusi,

AGNOETE

ALBIGENSES "love") feasts of charity among the ancient | nature, or by virtue of his unction, as any part Christians, when liberal contributions were made of the mysteries he was to reveal; for, considering by the rich to the poor. St. Chrysostom gives him as God, he could not be ignorant of any thing. the following account of this feast, which he de AGNUS DEI, in the church of Rome, a cake rives from the apostolic practice. He says,- of wax, stamped with the figure of a lainb sup" The first Christians had all things in common, porting the banner of the cross.

The name liteas we read in the Acts of the Apostles; but when rally signifies "Lamb of God." These cakes that equality of possessions ceasell, as it did even being consecrated by the pope with great soin the apostles' time, the Agape or love-feast was lemnity, and distributed among the people, are substituted in the room of it. Upon certain days, supposed to have great virtues. They cover them after partaking of the Lord's Supper, they met at with a piece of stuff cut in the form of a heart, a common feast; the rich bringing provisions, and and carry them very devoutly in their krocessions, the poor, who had nothing, being invited.” It The Romish priests and religious derive considewas always attended with receiving the holy sa- rable pecuniary advantage from selling them to crament; but there is some difference between some, and presenting them to others. the ancient and modern interpreters as to the AGONISTICI, a name given by Donatus to circumstance of time; viz. whether this feast was such of his disciples as he sent to fairs, markets, held before or after the communion. St. Chry. and other public places, to propagate his doctrine. sostom is of the latter opinion; the learned Dr. They were called Agonistici from the Greek sywv, Cave of the former. These love-feasts, during "combat,” because they were sent, as it were, tó the first three centuries, were held in the church fight and subdue the people to their opinions. See without scandal or offence; but in after-times DONATIST. the heathens began to tax them with impurity. AGONYCLITÆ, a sect of Christians in the This gave occasion to a reformation of these seventh century, who prayed always standing, as Agapæ. The kiss of charity, with which the thinking it unlawful to kneel. ceremony used to end]was no longer given be AGYNIANI, a sect which appeared about tween different sexes; and it was expressly for-694. They condemned all use of flesh and marbilden to have any beds or couches for the conve- riage as not instituted by God, but introduced at niency of those who should be disposed to eat the instigation of the devil. more at their ease. Notwithstanding these pre ALASCANI, a sect of Anti-lutherans in the cautions, the abuses comunitted in them became sixteenth century, whose distinguishing tenet, so notorious, that the holding them (in churches besides their denying baptism, is said to have at least) was solemnly condemned at the council been this, that the words, “This is my body,” in of Carthage in the year 397. Attempts have been the institution of the eucharist, are not to be un. made, of late years, to revive these feasts : but in derstood of the bread, but of the whole action or a diferent manner from the primitive custom, and, celebration of the supper. perhaps, with little elitication. They are, how ALBANENSES, a denomination which comever, not very general.

menced about the year 796. They held, with the AGAPETE, a name given to certain virgins Gnostics and Manicheans, two principles, the one and widows, who in the ancient church associated of good, and the other of evil. They denied the thernelves with and attended on ecclesiasties, out divinity and even the humanity of Jesus Christ; of a motive of piety and charity. See Deacon- asserting that he was not truly man, did not sutter Esses.

on the cross, die, rise again, nor really ascend into AGENDA, among divines and philosophers, heaven. They rejected the doctrine of the resursignify the duties which a man lies under an rection, affirmed that the general judgment was obligation to perform: thus we meet with the past, and that hell torments were no other than agenda of a Christian, or the duties he ought to the evils we feel and suffer in this life. They perform, in opposition to the credenda, or things denied free-will, did not admit original sin, and he is to believe. It is also applied to the ser never administered baptism to infants. They vice or office of the church, and to church books held that a man can give the Holy Spirit of himcompiled by public authority, prescribing the or- selt, and that it is unlawful for a Christian to take der to be observed; and amounts to the same as

an oath. ritual, formulary, directory, missal, &c.

This denomination derived their name from AGENT, that which acts; opposed to patient, the place where their spiritual ruler resided. See or that which is acted upon.

MANICHEANS and CATHERIST. AGENTS, moral. See Moral ACENT. ALBANOIS, a denomination which sprung

AGNOET Æ, (from zgroow, “to be ignorant up in the eighth century, and renewed the greatof) a sect which appeared about 370. They est part of the Manichean principles. They also called in question the omniscience of God; alleg- maintained that the world was from eternity. See ing that he knew things past only by memory, MANICUJEANS, and things future only by an uncertain prescience. ALBIGENSES, a party of reformers about There arose another sect of the same name in the Tondouse and the Albigeois, in Languedoc, who sixth century, who followed Themistius, deacon sprung up in the twelith century, and distinguish. of Alexanıtria. They maintained that Christel themselves by their opposition to the church of was ignorant of certain things, and particularly Rome. They were charged with many errors by of the time of the day of judginent. It is supposed the monks of those days; but from these charge's they built their hypothesis on that passage in they are generally acquitted by the Protestants, Mark xui. 39.—"Of that day and that hour who consider them only as the inventions of the knoweth no man; no, not the angels which are Romish church to blacken their character. The in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father.” The Albiyenses grew so formidable, that the Catholics meaning of which, most probably, is that this was agreed upon a holy league or crusade against not known to the Messiah himself in his human them. Pope Innocent Ill. desirous to put a

ALMARICIANS

AMAURITES stop to their progress, stirred up the great men of century the age of the Holy Spirit commenced, the kingdom to make war upon them. After in which the sacraments, and all external wors suffering from their persecutors, they dwindled ships were to be abolished ; and that every one by little and little, till the time of the Reformation; was to be saved by the internal operation of the when such of them as were left, fell in with the Holy Spirit alonc, without any external act of reVaudois, and conformed to the doctrine of Zuin- ligion. glius, and the disciples of Geneva. The Albi ALMONER, a person employed by another, genses have been frequently confounded with the in the distribution of charity. In its primitive Waldenses; from whom it is said they differ in sense it denoted an officer in religious houses, to many respects, both as being prior to them in whom belonged the management and distribution point of time, as having their origin in a different of the alms of the house. country, and as being charged with divers here ALMS, what is given gratuitously for the resies, particularly Manicheism, from which the lief of the poor, and in repairing the churches. Waldenses were exempt. See WALDENSES. That alms-giving is a duty is every way evident

ALEXANDRIAN MANUSCRIPT, a fa- from the variety of passages which enjoin it in mous copy of the Scriptures, in four volumes the sacred Scriptures. It is observable, however, quarto. It contains the whole Bible in Greek, what a number of excuses are made by those who including the Old and New Testament, with the are not found in the exercise of the duty; 1. Apocrypha and some smaller pieces, but not quite That they have nothing to spare; 2. That chacomplete. It is preserved in the British Museum: rity begins at home; 3. That charity does not it was sent as a present to king Charles I, from consist in giving money, but in benevolence, Cyrillus Lucaris, patriarch of Constantinople, by love to all mankind, &c.; 4. That giving to the Sir Thomas Rowe, ambassador from England to poor is not mentioned in St. Paul's description of the Grand Seignior, about the year 1628. Cyril. charity, 1 Cor. xiii ; 5. That they pay the poor lus brought it with him from Alexandria, where rates; 6. That they employ many poor persons, probably it was written. In a schedule annexed 7. That the poor do not suffer so much as we to it, he gives this account:—That it was written, imagine; 8. That these people, give them what as tradition informed them, by Thecla, a noble you will, will never be thankful;

9. That we are Egyptian lady, about 1300 years ago, not long liable to be imposed upon; 10. That they should after the council of Nice. But this high anti- apply to their parishes; 11. That giving money quity, and the authority of the tradition to which encourages idleness; 12. That we have to the patriarch refers, have been disputed; nor are many objects of charity at home. O the love of the most accurate biblical writers agreed about its money, how fruitful is it in apologies for a con age. Grabe thinks that it might have been writ- tracted mercenary spirit! In giving of alms, bour ten before the end of the fourth century , others ever, the following rules should be observed : are of opinion that it was not written till near the first, They should be given with justice; only outs end the fifth century, or somewhat later. See own, to which we have a just right, should be Dr, Woide's edition of it.

given. 2. With cheerfulness, Deut. xv. 10. 2. ALEXANDRIAN VERSION, another Cor. ix. 7. 3. With simplicity and sincerity, name for the Septuagint, a Greek translation of Rom. xii. Matt. vi. 3. 4. With compassion and the Old Testament, so called from its having been affection, Is. lviii. 10. 1 John iii. 17. 5. Season made at the command of Ptolemy Philadelphus, ably, Gal. vi. 10. Prov. iv. 27. 6. Bountifully king of Egypt, for the use of the great library at Deut. xviii. 11. 1 Tim. si. 18. 7. Prudently, Alexandria. See SEPTUAGINT.-B.

according to every one's need, I Tim. v. 8. Acts ALKORAN. See KORAN.

iv. 35. See Dr. Barror's admirable Sermon on ALL-SUFFICIENCY OF GOD, is that Bounty to the Poor, which took him up three power or attribute of his nature whereby he is able hours and a half in preaching ; Saurin's Ser to communicate as much blessedness to his crea- vol. iv. Eng. Trans, ser. 9; Paley's Mor, Phi.. tures as he is pleased to make them capable of rech. 5. vol. i. ceiving. As his self-sufficiency is that whereby ALOGIANS, a sect of ancient heretics who he has enough in himself to denominate him denied that Jesus Christ was the Logos, and concompletely blessed, as a God of infinite perfection; sequently rejected the Gospel of St. John. This so his all-sufficiency is that by which he hath word is compounded of the privative and again enough in himself to satisfy the most enlarged 9. d. without logos, or word. They made theiz.ap desires of his creatures, and to make them com-pearance toward the close of the second century. pletely blessed. We practically deny this perfec ALTAR, a kind of table or raised structure tion, when we are discontented with our present whereon the ancient sacrifices were offered. 2. condition, and desire more than God has allotted The table, in Christian churches, where the for us, Gen. iii. 5. Prov. xix. 3. Ridgley's Body Lord's Supper is administerer. Altars are, doubtof Div. ques. 17; Saurin's Ser. ser. 5. vol. i. : less, of great antiquity; some suppose they were Barrow's Works, vol. ii. ser. 11.

as early as Adam; but there is no mention made ALMARICIANS, a denomination that arose of them till after the flood, when Noah built one, in the thirteenth century. They derived their and offered burnt-offerings on it. The Jews had origin from Almaric, professor of logic and the two altars in and about their temple; 1. the altar ology at Paris. His adversaries charged him with of burnt offerings; 2. the altar of incense: some having taught that every Christian was obliged also call the table for shew-bread an altar, but to believe himself a member of Jesus Christ, and improperly, Exod. xx. 24, 25. 1 Kings xviii. 30. that without this belief none could be saved.' His Exod. xxv. xxvii. and xxx. Heb. ix. followers asserted that the power of the Father had AMAURITES, the followers of Amauri, a continued only during the Mosaic dispensation, clergy man of Bonne, in the thirteenth century. that of the Son twelve hundred years after his en- He acknowledged the divine Three, to whom he trance upon earth ; and that in the thirteenth attributed the empire of the world. But, ac

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AMYRALDISM

ANABAPTISTS cording to him, religion had three epochas, which / Amyrault and others his followers, among the bore a similitude to the reign of the three persons reformed in France, towards the middle of the in the Trinity. The reign of God had existed as seventeenth century. This doctrine principally long as the law of Moses. The reign of the Son consisted of the following particulars, viz. that would not always last. A time would come God desires the happiness of all men, and none when the sacraments should cease, and then the are excluded by a divine decree; that none can religion of the Holy Ghost would begin, when obtain salvation without faith in Christ ; that men would render a spiritual worship to the Su- God refuses to none the power of believing, preine Being. This reign Amauri thought would though he does not grant to all his assistance succeed to the Christian religion, as the Christian that they may improve this power to saving purhad srceeled to that of Moses.

poses; and that they may perish through their AMAZEMENT, a term sometimes employ- own fault. Those who embraced this doctrine ed to express our wonder; but it is rather to be were called Universalists, though it is evident considered as a medium between wonder and they rendered grace universal in words, but par astonishment. It is manifestly borrowed from the tial in reality. See CAMERONITES. extensive and complicated intricacies of a laby ANABAPTISTS, those who maintain that rioth, in which there are endless mazes, without baptism ought always to be performed by immerthe discovery of a clue. Hence an idea is con- sion. The word is compounded of

"anew, veyed of more than simple wonder; the mind is and BRITISTS, "a Baptist;" signifying that those lost in wonder. See WONDER.

who have been baptized in their infancy ought to AUBITION, a desire of excelling, or at least be baptized anew. It is a word which has been of being thought to excel, our neighbours in any indiscriminately applied to Christians of very dif Viny. It is generally used in a bail sense for an ferent principles and practices. The English and immoderate or illegal pursuit of power or honour. Dutch Baptists do not consider the word as at all See PRAISE.

applicable to their sect; because those persons AMEDIANS, a congregation of religious in whom they baptize they consider as never having Italv; so called from their professing themselves been baptized before, although they have underamantes Deum, "lovers of God;" or rather gone what they term the ceremony of sprinkling amati Deo, “beloved of God.” They wore a in their infancy. grey habit and wooden shoes, had no breeches, and The Anabaptists of Germany, besides their girt themselves with a cord. They had twenty- notions concerning baptism, depended much upon esght wnvents, and were united by pope Pius V. certain ideas which they entertained concerning a partly with the Cistercian order, and partly with perfect church establishment, pure in its members, that of the Soccolanti, or wooden shoe wearers. and free from the institutions of human policy.

AMEN, a Hebrew word, which, when pre- The most prudent part of them considered it pos fired to an assertion, signifies assuredly, cer. sible, by human industry and vigilance, to purify Lainly, or emphatically so it is ; but when it con- the church; and seeing the attempts of Luther dules a prayer, so be it, or so let it be, is its ma- to be successful, they hoped that the period was nisest import. In the former case it is assertive, arrived in which the church was to be restored to

issures of a truth or a fact; and is an asse- this purity. Others, not satisfied with Luther's veration and is properly translated, verily, John plan of reformation, undertook a more perfect nii. 3. In the latter case it is petitionary, and, as plan, or, more properly, a visionary enterprise, to it were, epitoinises all the requests with which it found a new church, entirely spiritual and divine. stands connected. Nunb. v. 25. Rev. xxi. 20. This sect was soon joined by great numbers, This emphatical term was not used among the whose characters and capacities were very dis Hebrews by detached individuals only, but, on ferent. Their progress was rapid : for, in a very certain occasions, by an assembly at large. Deut. short space of time, their discourses, visions, and Ixi. 14. 20. It was adopted, also, in the public predictions, excited great commotions in a great worship of the primitive churches, as appears by part of Europe. The most pernicious faction of that pissage, 1 Cor. xiv. 16, and was continued all those which composed this motley multitude, anong the Christians in following times; yea, was that which pretended that the founders of this such was the extreme into which many ran, that new and perfect church were under a divine im Jerome informs us, that, in his time, at the con- pulse, and were armed against all opposition by dusion of every public prayer, the united amen the power of working miracles. It was this faa

the people sounded like the fall of water, or tion, that, in the year 1521, began their fanatical the noise of thunder. Nor is the practice of some work under the guidance of Munzer, Stubner, professors in our own time to be commended, Storick, &c. These men taught, that, among who, with a low, though audible voice, adu their Christians, who had the precepts of the Gospel to amen to almost every sentence as it proceeds direct, and the Spirit of God to guide them, the from the lips of him who is praying. As this office of magistracy was not only unnecessary, but has a tendency to interrupt the devotion of those an unlawful encroachment on their spiritual li that are near them, and may disconcert the berty; that the distinctions occasioned by birth, thoughts of him who leals the worship, it would rank, or wealth should be abolished; that all be better omitted, and a mental amen is sufficient. Christians, throwing their possessions into one The term, as used at the end of our prayers, sug- stock, should live together in that state of equality gests that we should pray with understanding, which becomes members of the same family'; Lith, fervvur and expectation. See Mr. Booth's that, as neither the laws of nature, nor the preAmen to Serial Prayer.

cepts of the New Testament, had prohibited AMMONIANS. See New Platonics. polygamy, they should use the same liberty as the

A VYRALDISM, a name given by some patriarchs did in this respect. writers to the doctrine of universal grace, as ex They employed, at first, the various arts of plained and asserted by Amyraldus, or Moses persuasion, in order to propagate their doctrines

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