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ANGER

ANNIHILATION son's Works, vol. iii. p. 538. 568; Shepherd of An- | always cost us. But the reflection calculated, gels; Gilpin on Temptation; Casmanni Angelo above all others, to allay that haughtiness of temgraphia; Gill and Ridgeley's Bodies of Divinity. per which is ever finding out provocations, and

ANGELITES, a sect in the reign of the Em- which renders anger so impetuous, is, that which peror Anastasius, about the year 494 ; so called the Gospel proposes ; namely, that we ourselves from Angelium, a place in the city of Alexandria, are, or shortly shall be, supplicants for mercy and where they held their first meetings. They were pardon at the judgment-seat of God. Imagine called likewise Severites, from Severus, who was our secret sins all disclosed and brought to light; the head of their sect; as also Theodosians, frorn imagine us thus humbled and exposed ; trembling one Theodosius, whom they made Pope at Alex- under the hand of God; casting ourselves on his andria. They held that the persons of the Tri-compassion: crying out for mercy ; imagine such nity are not the same; that none of them exists a creature to talk of satisfaction and revenge; reof himself, and of his own nature ; but that there fusing to be entreated, disdaining to forgive, ex. is a common God or Deity existing in them all, and treme to mark and to resent what is done amiss; that each is God by a participation of this Deity. imagine, I say, this, and you can hardly feign to

ANGER, a violent passion of the kind, arising yourself an instance of more impious and unnatuupon the receipt, or supposed receipt, of any in- ral arrogance." Paley's Moral Phil. ch. 7. jury, with a present purpose of revenge, All vol. i. ; Faucett's excellent Treatise on Anger ; anger is by no means sinful; it was designed Seed's Posth. Serm. ser. 11. the Author of our nature for self-defence: not is ANGER of GOD. See WRATH. it altogether a selfish passion, since it is excited ANGLO-CALVINISTS, a name given by by injuries offered to others as well as ourselves, ome writers to the members of the church of and sometimes prompts us to reclaim offenders England, as agreeing with the other Calvinists in from sin and danger, Eph. iv. 26, but it becomes most points, excepting church government. sinful when conceived upon trivial occasions or ANNATES, an ecclesiastical term, signifying inadequate provocations; when it breaks forthr a year's income of a spiritual living. These were, into outrageous actions; vents itself in reviling in ancient times, given to the Pope throughout language, or is concealed in our thoughts to the all Christendom, upon the decease of any bishop, degree of hatred. To suppress this passion, the abbot, or parish clerk, and were paid by his sucfollowing reflections of Archdeacon Paley may cessor. At the Reformation they were taken from not be unsuitable:-“We should consider the the Pope and vested in the king ; and înally possibility of mistaking the motives from whic! queen Anne restored them to the church, by apthe conduct that offends us proceeded; how often propriating them to the augmentation of poor our offences have been the effect of inadvertency, livings—B. when they were construed into indications of ma ANNIHILATION, the act of reducing any lice; the inducement which prompted our adver- created substance, whether spirit or matter, into sary to act as he did, and how powerfully the same nothing. On this, as well as every other subject, inducement has, at one time or other, operated on which revelation is not express, endless diverupon ourselves; that he is suffering, perhaps, sities of opinion have prevailed in the world. Dr. under a contrition, which he is ashamed, or wants Thomas Bennett, in his Archæologia, underopportunity, to confess; and how ungenerous it takes to show that the first notions of the prois to triumph, by coldness or insult, over a spirit duction of a thing from, or the reduction of it to, already humbled in secret ; that the returns of nothing, arose from the Christian theology; the kindness are sweet, and that there is neither words creation and annihilation, in the sense honour, nor virtue, no use, in resisting them; for now given to them, having been equally unknown some persons think themselves bound to cherish to the Hebrews, the Greeks, and the Latins. The and keep alive their indignation, when they find ancient philosophers, he says, denying all annihiit dying away of itself. We may remember that lation as well as creation, resolved all changes in others have their passions, their prejudices, their the world into new modifications, without supfavourite aims, their fears, their cautions, their posing the production of any thing new, or the Interests, their sudden impulses, their varieties of destruction of the old. In respect to annihilation, apprehension, as well as we: we may recollect Christianity adds nothing to the light of reason what has sometimes passed in our own minds and philosophy. That the power which created when we have got on the wrong side of a quarrel, is able to destroy, cannot be doubted; but whether, and imagine the same to be passing in our adver- asa matter of fact, omnipotence will ever reduce the sary's mind now: when we became sensible of smallest particle of matter to a state of nonentity, our misbehaviour, what palliations we perceived we are not informed; and throughout the whole in it, and expected others to perceive; how we extent of nature we meet with no changes or ope were affected by the kindness, and felt the supe- rations calculated to solve the question. The riority of a generous reception, and ready forgive- cternal existence of human and angelic spirits at ness; how persecution revived our spirits with least appears to be secured by the plain declaraour enmity, and seemed to justify the conduct in tions of holy writ, though some have asserted the ourselves, which we before blamed. Add to this contrary. See DESTRUCTIONISTS. the indecency of extravagant anger; how i: ren As to the idea that existence is a state of vio ders us whilst it lasts the scorn and sport of all lence; that all things are continually endeavourabout us, of which it leaves us, when it ceases, ing to return to their primitive nothing; that no sensible and ashamed; the inconveniences, and positive power is required to effect it, but that the irretrievable misconduct into which our irascibi- mere withdrawal of the Creator's upholding enerlity has sometimes betrayed us; the friendships it gy is sufficient, we conceive that these are subhas lost us ; the distresses and embarrassments in jects beyond the grasp of human intellect, and which we have been involved by it; and the re- that speculations upon them are entirely profit pantance which, on one account or other, it ) less.-B.

ANTICHRIST

ANTICHRIST ANNUNCIATION, the tidings brought by tion. 1 John ii. 18–22. “As ye have heard the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary of the in- that Antichrist shall come, even now are there carnation of Christ. It is also used to denote a many Antichrists. Who is a liar but he that festival kept by the church on the 25th of March, denieth that Jesus is the Christ? He is Anti in commemoration of those tidings.

christ that denieth the Father and the Son." ANOMOEANS, the name by which the pure We may say then that wherever, under the proArians were called in the fourth century, in con- fession of Christianity, the true doctrines and in tra-distinction to the Semi-arians. The word is stitutions of the Gospel are contravened, there is formed from the Greek ayomonos, different. See the working of Antichrist; and we are not to ARIANs and SEMI-ARIANS.

look upon the name as the designation of an inANTEDILUVIANS, a gencral name for all dividual person, or some single formidable adverminkind who lived before the flood, including the sary, who was to arise and be a scourge to the whole human race from the creation to the de- church in the latter day, as was anciently behevluge. For the history of the Antediluvians, see ed, but rather as the denomination of a power, Book of Genesis, Whiston's Josephus, Cookburn's a corrupt and baneful influence, existing in a Treatise on the Deluge, and article Deluge. wicked mystical body, directly opposed to the

ANTHEM, a church song performed in ca- spiritual boily of Christ. Such is Antichrist of thedral service by choristers who sung alternately. the Scriptures, which frequently employs a sinIt was used to denote both psalms and hymns, gular title to point out a collective body united in when performed in this manner; but, at present, a kind of corporate capacity, or assimilated by a anthem is used in a more confined sense, being common character, and actuated by the same spiapplied to certain passages taken out of the rit.. Thus the expression, the neid man, is used Scriptures, and adapted to a particular solemnity: to signify the whole mass of real believers. Satan Anthems were first introduced in the reformed is also a term of collective import; and what is service of the English church, in the beginning still more to the point, man of sin, and son of perof the reign of Queen Elizabeth.

dition, are both employed as appellations of a ANTHROPOMORPHITES, a sect of an- community of wicked men, setting themselves cient heretics, who, taking every thing spoken of against God and his kingdom, whatever might be God in the Scripture in a literal sense, particu- their pretences. Antichrist, therefore, is a word larly that passage of Genesis in which it is said, of great latitude of meaning, and not confined in "God made man after his own image,” main the Scriptures exclusively to any particular societained that God had a human shape.

ty, church, or communion, but as descriptive of ANTHROPOPATHY, a figure, expression, all, in every place, and every age, who under the or discourse, whereby soune passion is attributed form of Christianity renounce its spirit, corrupt w Gow which properly belongs only to man. its doctrines, pervert its institutions, and assume Anthropopathy is frequently used promiscuously the prerogatives of its Head. Still it may supwith anthropology; yet in strictness they ought posed, and can doubtless be shown, that this epito be distinguished, as the genus from the species. thet is emphatically applied wherever this impious Anthropology may be understood of any thing power is more especially concentrated and drawn human attributed to God, as eyes, hands, &c. but to a head, where it manifests itself in the most anthropopathy only of human affections and pas- unblushing manner, and does, as it were, fix its sions, as jos, griet. We have frequent instances throne and dominion. Accordingly, Protestant of the use of these figures in holy Scripture. writers, with scarce a dissenting voice, agree in

ANTIBURGHERS, a numerous and re-applying it pre-eminently to the church of Rome, spectable body of dissenters from the church of which, as we learn from history, answers to all Scotland, who differ from the established church the characters of Antichrist. Grotius, Hamchiedy in matters of church government; and mond, Bossuet, and others, supposed Rome pagan who difer, also, fron the Burgher seceders, with to le designed; but Rome Christian seems more whoun they were originally united, chietly, if not evident, for John "saw the beast rise up out of solely, respecting the lawfulness of taking the the sea,” Rov. xii. 1.—Now, as heathen Kome Burgess outh. For an account of their origin had risen and been established long before his and principles, see SECEDERS.

time, this could not refer to the Roman empire ANTICHRIST, Tromvri, against, and then subsisting, but to a form of goverument afXq18t+s, Christ. The exact import of the name terwards to arise. As, therefore, none did arise, is inportant to a right determination of the cha- after Rome was broken to pieces by the barbariThe Greek avt!

signifies pro, rice, loco, ans, but that of the papal power, it must be conLe in the place of, instead of, as well as contra sidered as applying to that. The descriptions, edcersus, i.e. against, in opposition to. Thus, also, of the beast, as the great apostacy, the man *Têxin.oz is pro-rer, or vice-king; svto0105, like of sin, the mystery of iniquity, and the son of e god, equal to a god; aytibwr, like a lion. Al- perdition, will apply only to Christian Rome. though, therefore, Antichrist is usually defined an See Daniel vii. 2 T'hess. ii. and Rev. xii. Beadversury of Jesus Christ, the word includes the sides, the time allowed for the continuance of the twofola úlea of rioul and adversary, or one who beast will not apply to heathen Rome; for power becomes an adversary by claiming to be a rival. was given to the beast for 1260 years, whereas la order, then, to appropriate this title where it heathen Roine did not last 400 years after this properly belongs, we must have recourze to the prophecy was delivered. ácks of hiswry, and find if possible a power which Authors have difered as to the time when Anti. combines the above attributes in itself. To be christ arose. Some suppose that his reign Jiul How it where it is not Jue is to bear false-witness not commence till he became a temporal prince, gainst our neighbour, and to become an accuser in the year 756, when Pepin wrested the ex. of the brethren. The words of an apostle furnish archate of Ravenna from the Lombards, and * with a luminous clue towards a right applica-l made it over to the pope and his successor,

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ANTICHRIST

ANTINOMIANS Others think that it was in 727, when Rome and Jowi will. See Bp. Veroton on the Prophecies the Roman dukedom came from the Greeks to Simpsons's Key to ditto; Moseley's Ser. on Fal. the Roman pontiff

. Mede dates his rise in the of Babylon; Mard's Three Discourses on Provear 456; but others, and I think with the great-phecy, and books under that articie. est reason, place it in the year 606. Now, it is ANTICHRISTIANISM, a state or quality generally agreed that the reign of Antichrist is in persons or principles, which denominates them 1260 years; consequently, if his rise is not to be antichristian or opposite to the kingdom of Christ. reckoned till he was possessed of secular autho M. Jurieu takes the idea of the risible unity of rity, then his fall must be when this power is the church to have been the source of Antitaken away. According to the first opinion, he christianism. Had not mankind heen infatuated must have possessed his temporal power till the with this, they would never have stood in such year 2016; according to the second, he must have awe of the anathemas of Rome. It was on this possessed it till the year 1987. If his rise began, the popes erected their monarchical power. according to Mede, in 456, then he must have ANTIDORON, a name given by the Greeks fallen in 1716. Now that these rates were to the consecrated bread; out of which the midwrong, circumstances have proved; the first and dle part, marked with the cross, wherein the consecond being too late, and the third too early. secration resides, being taken away by the priest, As these hypotheses, therefore, must fall to the the remainder is distributed after mass to the poor. ground, it remains for us to consider why the ANTINOMIANS, those who maintain that last-mentioned is the more probable. It was the law is of no use or obligation under the Gos about the year 606 that pope Boniface III., by pel dispensation, or who hold doctrines that clearly Aattering Phocas, the emperor of Constantinople, supersede the necessity of good works. The An. one of the worst of tyrants, procured for himself tinomians took their origin from John Agricola, the title of Universal Bishop. The bishops of about the year 1538, who taught that the law is Rome and Constantinople had long been strug- no way necessary under the Gospel ; that good gling for this honour; at last, it was decided in works do not promote our salvation, nor ill ones favour of the bishop of Rome; and from this time hinder it ; that repentance is not to be preached he was raised above all others, and his supremacy from the decalogue, but only from the Gospel. established by imperial authority: it was now, This sect sprung up in England during the pro also, that the most profound ignorance, debauch- tectorate of Cromwell, and extended their system ery, and superstition reigned. From this time of libertinism much farther than Agricola did. the popes exerted all their power in promoting Some of them, it is said, maintained, ihat if they the idolatrous worship of images, saints

, reliques, should commit any kind of sin, it would do them and angels. The church was truly deplorable; no hurt, nor in the least affect their eternal state ; all the clergy were given up to the most fagrant and that it is one of the distinguishing characters and abominable acts of licentiousness. Places of of the elect, that they cannot do any thing disworship resembled the temples of heathens more pleasing to God. It is necessary, however, to than the churches of Christians; in fine, nothing observe here, and candour obliges us to confess could exceed the avarice, pride, and vanity of all that there have been others, who have been styled the bishops, presbyters, deacons, and even the Antinomians, who cannot, strictly speaking, be cloistered monks ! All this fully answered the ranked with these men; nevertheless, the undescription St. Paul gave of Antichrist, 2 Thess. guarded expressions they have advanced, the i. It is necessary also to observe, that this epoch bold positions they have laid dowr.. and the douagrees best with the time when, according to ble construction which might so easily be put prophecy, he was to be revealed.' The rise of upon many of their sentences, have led some to Antichrist was to be preceded by the dissolution charge them with Antinomian principles. For of the Roman empire, the establishment of a dif- instance; when they have asserted justification ferent form of government in Italy, and the divi- to be eternal, without distinguishing between the sion of the empire into ten kingdoms; all these secret deteroination of God in eternity and the events taking place, make it very probable that execution of it in time; when they have spoken the year 606 was the time of his rise. Nor have lightly of good works, or asserted that believers the events of the last century made it less proba- have nothing to do with the law of God, without ble. The power of the pope was never so much fully explaining what they mean; when they asshaken as within a few years: “his dominion is, sert that God is not angry with his people for in a great measure, taken from him;" and every their sins, nor in any sense panishes them for thing seems to be going on gradually to terminate them, without distinguishing between fatherly his authority; so that, by the time this 1260 years correction and vindictive punisbment; these shall be concluded, we may suppose that Anti-things, whatever be the private sentiments of christ shall be finally destroyed.

those who advance them, have a tendency to inAs to the cruelties of Antichrist, the persecu- jure the minds of many. It has been alleged, tions that have been carried on, and the miseriesihat the principal thing they have had in view, to which manki.id have been subject, by the was to counteract those legal doctrines which power of the beast, the reader may consult the have so much abounded among the self-righteous : articles INQUISITION and PERSECUTION. In this but granting this to be true, there is no occasion we have to rejoice, that, however various the to run from one extreme to another. Had many opinions of the learned may be as to the time of those writers proceeded with more caution, when Autichrist rose, it is evident to all that he been less dogmatical, mcre explicit in the expla16 fast declining, and will certainly tall, Rev. xviii. nation of their sentiments, and possessed more 1, 5. What ineans the Almighty may further candour towards those who aiffered from them, use, the educl time when, and the manner how, they would have been more serviceable to the all shall be accomplished, we inust leave to Him cause of truth and religion. Some of the chief whu ordereth all things after the counsel of his of those who have been charged as favouring the

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αντίτυπον

ANTITYPE

APOCRYPHA abore s'ntiments are, Crisp, Richardson, Salt The word antitype occurs twice in the New marsh, Hussey, Ealon, Town, for. These Testament, viz. in the Epistle to the Hebrews, have been answered hy Gataker, Sedgwick, Wit-chap. ix. v. 24. and in the 1st Epistle of St. Peter, sius, Bull, Williams, Ridgley, Beart, De Fleu- chap. iii. v. 21. where its genuine import has

See also Bellamy's Letters and Dia- been much controverted. The former says, that logues betueen Theron, Paulinus, and Aspasio; Christ is not entered into the holy places made with his Essay on the Vature and Glory of the with hands, which are avtoturs, the figures or an. Gospel: Edwarıls's Crispianism unmasked. titypes of the true—now to appear in the preANTIPATHY, hatred, aversion, repugnan- sence of God. Now tutos signifies the pattern

Hatred is entertained against persons, aver- by which another thing is made; and as Moses sion and antipathy against persons or things, was obliged to make the tabernacle, and all things and repugnuncy against actions alone. Harred in it, according to the pattern shown him in the is more voluntary than arersion, antipathy, or Mount, the tabernacle so formed was the antirepugnanry: these last have greater affinity with type of what was shown to Moses; any thing, the animal constitution. The causes of antipathy therefore, formed according to a model or pattern, are less known than those of aversion. Repug- is an antitype. In the latter passage, the Aposnancy is less permanent than cither the one or tle, speaking of Noah's flood, and the deliverance the other. We hate a vicious character; we of only eight persons in the ark from it, says, feel an aversion to its exertions. We are affected xx

νυν σωζει βαπτισμα : Bapwith antipathy for certain persons at first sight; tism being an antitype to that, nou saves us ; there are some affairs which we transact with re- not the putting away of the filth of the ficsh, but pugnarry. Hatred calumniates, aversion keeps the answer of a good conscience touard God, doc, us at a distance from certain persons. Antipathy Tho meaning is, that righteousness, or the anmakes us detest them; repugnancy hinders us swer of a good conscience towards God, now from imitating them.

saves us, by means of the resurrection of Christ, ANTIPEDOBAPTISTS (from wetu as formerly righteousness saved these eight peragainst, anıl 5215, faifos, child, and Battisw, sons by means of the ark during the flood. The baptize) is a distinguishing denomination given word antitype, therefore, here signifies a general to those who objext to the baptism of infants. See similitude of circumstances; and the particle w, Baotists, BAPTISM.

whereunto, refers not to the immediate antecedeni ANTIQUITIES, a terin implying all testi-u8 #705, water, but to all that precedes. monies or authentic accounts that have come ANTOSIANDRIANS, a sect of rigid Ludown to us of ancient nations. As the study of therans, who opposed the doctrine of Osiander antiquity may be useful both to the inquiring relating to justification. These are otherwise deChristian, as well as to those who are employed nominated" Osiandromastiges.-The Antosian in, or are canılidates for the Gospel ministry, we drians deny that man is made just, with that shall here subjoin a list of those which are es justice wherewith God himself is just; that is, teemed the most valuable.–Fabricii Bibliogra- they assert that he is not made essentially, but phia Antiquaria ; Spencer de Legibus Heb. Ri- only imputatively just; or that he is not really tualibus ; Godryn's Moses and Aaron ; Bing- marle just, but only pronounced so. ham's Antiquities of the Christian Church ; APATHY, among the ancient philosophers, Jenningz's Jewish Antiquities; Potter's and implied an utter privation of passion, and an inHarwood's Greek, and Kennett's and Adams's sensibility of pain. The word is compounded of Roman Antiquities ; Preface to the Prussian priv. and -250s, affection. The Stoics affected an Testament, published by L'Enfant and Beau- entire apathy; they considered it as the highest sobre; Pridcaur and Shuckford's Connections ; wisdom to enjoy a perfect calmness or tranquillity Jones's Asiatic Rescarches ; and Maurice's In- of mind, incapable of being ruffled by either plea dian Anliquities ; Brown's Jewish Antiquitics ; sure or pain. In the first ages of the church, the Lavis's Origines Hebrae; Fleury's Manners Christians adopted the term apathy to express a of the Ancient Israclites.

contempt of all earthly concerns; a state of morANTISABBATARIANS, a modern reli- tification such as the Gospel prescribes. Clemens gious sect, who deny the necessity of observing Alexandrinus, in particular, brought it exceed. the Sabbath Day: Their chief arguments are, ingly in vogue, thinking hereby to draw such 1. That the Jewish Sabbath was only of cere- philosophers tó Christianity who aspired after monial, not of moral obligation; and conse- such a sublime pitch of virtue. quently, is abolished by the coming of Christ. APELLEANS, so called from Apelles, in the 3. That no other Sabbath was appointed to be second century. They affirmed, that Christ, observed by Christ or his apostles. 3. That when he came down from heaven, received a there is not a word of Sabbath-breaking in all the body not from the substance of his mother, but New Testament.-4. That no command was from the four elements, which at his death he giron to Adam or Noah to keep any Sabbath. - rendered back to the world, and so ascended into And, 5. I'hat, therefore, although Christians are heaven without a body. commanded “not to forsake the assembling of APOCALYPSE, or Revelation, from the themselves together," they ought not to hold one Greek *TOKRAUTT, to unveil, discover, reveal; day more holy than another. Sce article Sab- the name of the last of the sacred books of the BATH

New Testament, and so called from its containANTITRINITARIANS, those who deny ing important revelations concerning the future the Trinity, and teach that there are not three destinies of the church. See REVELATION.—B. persons in the Godhead. See TRINITY.

APOCRYPHA, books not admitted into the ANTITYPE, a Greek word, properly signi- canon of Scripture, being either spurious, or at fying a type or figure corresponding to some least not acknowledged as divine. The word other type.

is Greek, and is derived from aro, from, and

APOSTACY

APOSTOLIC spurtw, to hide or conceal. They seem most | fourthly, of those who voluntarily relaj-sex! into of them to have been composed by Jews. None paganism. A postacy may he farther consulered of the writers of the New Testament mention as 1. Original, in which we have all participated, hem; neither Philo nor Josephus speak of them. Rom. iii. 23 ;-2. National, when a kingdoin re The Christian church was for some ages a stran- linquishes the profession of Christianity ;-3. ger to them. Origen, Athanasius, Hilary, Cyril Personal

, when an individual backslides from of Jerusalem, and all the orthodox writers who God, Heb. x. 38;-4. Final, when men are given have given catalogues of the canonical books of up to judicial hardness of heart, as Judas. See Scripture, unanimously concur in rejecting these BACKSLIDING. out of the canon. The Protestants acknowledge APOSTLE, properly signifies a messenger or such books of Scripture only to be canonical as person sent by another upon some business. It were esteemed to be so in the first ages of the is particularly applied to them whom our Saviour church; such as are cited by the earliest writers deputed to preach.—2. Apostle, in the Greek among the Christians, as of divine authority, and liturgy, is used for a book containing the epistles after the most diligent inquiry, were received and of St. Paul, printed in the order wherein they are judged to be so by the council of Laodicea. They to be read in churches through the course of the were written after the days of Malachi, in whom, year.-3. The appellation was also given to the according to the universal testimony of the Jews ordinary travelling ministers of the cliurch, Rom. the spirit of prophecy ceased, Mal. iv. 4–6. xvi. 7. Phil

. ii. 25., though in our translation Not one of the writers in direct terms advances a the last is rendered messenger.-4. It is likewise claim to inspiration. They contain fables, lies, given to those persons who first planted the and contradictions. 1 Maccabees, vi. 4, 16. 2 Christian faith in any place. Thus Dionysius of Maccabees, i. 13, 16. ix. 28. The apocryphal Corinth is called the Apostle of France, Xavier books are in general believed to be canonical by the Apostle of the Indies, &c. the church of Rome; and, even by the sixth ar APOSTLES' CREED. See CREED. ticle of the church of England, they are ordered POSTOLATE, in a general sense, is used to be read for example of life and instruction of four mission ; but it more properly denotes the manners, though it doth not apply them to esta- dig ty or office of an apostle of Christ. It is also blish any doctrine. Other reformed churches do used in ancient writers for the office of a bishop. not so much as make even this use of them. See But as the title apostolicus has been appropriated Prideaur's Connection, vol. i. p. 36–42; Lee's to the pope, so that of apostolate became at length Dis. on Esdras ; Dick on Inspiration, p. 344; restrained to the sole dignity of the popedom. Alexander on the Canon ; Horne's Introduction, APOSTOLIC, apostolical; something that vol. iv. p. 239.

relates to the apostles, or descends from them. APOLLINARIANS were ancient heretics, Thus we say, the apostolical age, apostolical docwho deniel the proper humanity of Christ, and trine, apostolical character, constitutions, tradimaintained that the body he assumed was en tions, &c. dowed with a sensitive and not a rational soul; APOSTOLIC, in the primitive church, was but that the divine nature supplied the place of an appellation given to all such churches as were the intellectual principle in man. This sect de- founded by the apostles; and even to the bishops rived its name from Apollinaris, bishop of Lao of those churches, as being the reputed successors dicea. Their doctrine was first condemned by a of the apostles. These were confined to four, council at Alexandria in 362, and afterwards in a viz. Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. more formal manner by a council at Rome in In after-times, the other churches assumed the 375, and by another council in 378, which de- same quality, on account, principally, of the conposed A pollinaris from his bishopric. This, with formity of their doctrine with that of the churches other laws enacted against them, reduced them to which were apostolical by foundation, and be a very small number; so that at last they dwin- cause all bishops held themselves successors of dled away.

the apostles, or acted in their dioceses with the APOLOGY, a Greek term, literally import-authority of apostles. ing an excuse or defence of some person, cause, The first time the term apostolical is attributed or action. Both in ancient and modern times to bishops, as such, is in a letter of Clovis to the the word has been applied to works written for council of Orleans, held in 511, though that king the professed design of defending or vindicating does not there expressly denominate them apos Christianity from the attacks of its enemies, and tolical, but (apostolica sede dignissimi) highly also to those written in defence of certain reli- worthy of the apostolical see. În 581, Guntram gious sects by their advocates. Thus, among the calls the bishops, met at the council of Macon, ancients, we meet with the Apology of Justin apostolical pontiffs, apostolici pontifices. Martyr, the Apologetic of Tertullian, &c. And In progress of time, the bishop of Rome grow among the moderns, with Watson's Apology, ing in power above the rest, and the three paBarclay's Apology, and others.-B.

triarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusa. APOSTACY, a forsaking or renouncing our lem falling into the hands of the Seracens, the religion, either by an open declaration in words, title apostolical was restrained to the pope and or a virtual declaration of it by our actions. The his church alone; though some of the popes, and primitive Christian church dístinguished several St. Gregory the Great, not contented to hold the kinds of apostacy: the first, of those who went title by ihis tenure, began at length to insist that entirely from Christianity to Judaism : the se-it belonged to them by another and peculiar right cond, of those who complied so far with the Jews, as being the successors of St. Peter. The counas to communicate with them in many of their cil of Rheims, in 1049, declared that the pope unlawful practices, without making a formal pro was the sole apostolical primate of the universal fession of their religion; thirdly, of those who church. And hence a great nunber of apostoli

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